19. New Caledonia – outer Melanesian Arc (Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji/Samoa/Tonga) Notes on the main text
As indicated in sections 13 and 14, many groups range widely through the outer Melanesian arc, including Vanuatu and Fiji, but avoid New Caledonia, while other Melanesian groups do occur in New Caledonia. Morat et al. (1984) cited 42 genera of New Caledonian rainforest plants that are not endemic there but do not occur in Australia, and most of these are Malesian groups. For example, Dolichandrone spathacea (Bignon.) is a back-mangrove tree dispersed in seawater that ranges almost continuously from India through Malesia to the Admiralty Is. (pers. obs.), the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Is. and New Caledonia (van Steenis, 1963, 1977). Van Steenis regarded it as ‘most peculiar’ and ‘most remarkable’ that the species has never been found in Australia. Two other species in a different subgenus do occur there and this pattern, with vicariants in Australia and Melanesia, is common.
Kroenke’s (1996) model could also explain groups such as the ‘very primitive’ oligochaete Acanthodrilus, comprising 19 species endemic to New Caledonia and one endemic to the Kermadec Is. (Jamieson, 1981). The cone shells Conus bruuni and C. plinthis have the same New Caledonia – Kermadec Is. range (Röckel et al., 1995) and the gastropod Cerithium abditum is in New Caledonia, the Kermadec Is. and disjunct in western Malesia (Houbrick, 1992).
Polyscias sect. Tieghemopanax is sister to the Australian P. elegans. Eibl et al. (2001) concluded ‘it seems likely that the common ancestor of Tieghemopanax arrived in New Caledonia [from Australia] through a single long-distance dispersal event after the island’s separation from Australia. However, because we have no reliable estimate for the age of these lineages we cannot rule out a more ancient vicariance event’. In fact the evidence for trans-oceanic dispersal can be interpreted in different ways and dispersal may only be required within Queensland, and then only if there is overlap there between Tieghemopanax and P. elegans). Polyscias cissodendron of sect. Tieghemopanax occurs on Lord Howe, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Is. Eibl et al. (2001) suggested that the ‘relatively young’ age of these islands (apart from New Caledonia) coupled with the species’ being sister to, or nested in, the New Caledonian P. dioica, ‘suggests a relatively recent series of dispersal’. But the data cited do not provide evidence for this. The age of the current islands is less relevant than the age of the relevant subduction zones and the phylogenetic position of the species is not in itself unequivocal evidence for trans-oceanic dispersal, only for range expansion and overlap within New Caledonia. Eibl et al. (2001) also suggested that the sister relationship between other New Caledonian species of Polyscias and Fijian species ‘can be explained only by dispersal’, but again there is no unambiguous evidence supporting dispersal and vicariance seems more probable for this standard pattern (cf. section 17 above, Springer, 1999, 2002, on reef fishes, and Zug, 1991, on lizards). Finally, the close relationship between Polyscias species endemic to New Caledonia and Vanuatu (cf. section 15 above) is cited as evidence suggesting a third independent dispersal from New Caledonia (Plunkett et al., 2001), but again, this sister relationship and a young age of the current Vanuatu islands are just as consistent with ancient vicariance.
In the sylvioid birds (Fig. 8), Mayr (1933) described the new genus Cichlornis and compared it with the New Caledonian Megalurulus (where it is currently included). On the basis of several characters Mayr distinguished the pair from Ortygocichla of New Britain and Trichocichla of Fiji. On the other hand, he concluded that the last two were synonymous, although ‘The distribution of such a genus (New Britain and Viti Levu) is certainly very paradoxical’. Mayr, 1933: 4). Subsequent authors have lumped all four genera, but the New Britain – Fiji affinity suggested by Mayr may be real and this track is shown in Fig. 8, ‘jammed’ between the ranges of Megalurulus and Cettia.
In lichens, Pseudocyphellaria desfontainii is in Africa, Sri Lanka, Malesia, and via the outer arc and New Caledonia to French Polynesia. P. prolificans is in Sri Lanka and Malesia to the Solomon Is., New Caledonia and Polynesia, plus the Kermadec Is. (Galloway, 1994). Examples from mosses (Tixier, 1979) include Camptochaete porotrichoides: New Caledonia, Vanuatu, and New Guinea, Spiridens reinwardtii: New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Samoa, Solomon Is., D’Entrecasteaux Archipelago, New Guinea, and Malesia, and Macromitrium salakanum: New Caledonia, southern Vanuatu (Aneityum), New Guinea, the Philippines, and Java.
In liverworts, Radula amentulosa and R. formosa both range: New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji and east to the Society Is., and to the north-west in New Guinea, Malesia, and Sri Lanka (Schuster, 1984). Examples in ferns include Sphaerostephanos doodioides (Thelypterid): New Caledonia, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Is. (Holttum, 1977), and Cyathea lunulata: New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Samoa, the Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago, and Caroline Is. (Holttum, 1964).
Widespread outer arc taxa not on New Caledonia were cited above. In seed plants, Thorne (1969) recorded 15 genera endemic to the outer arc and New Caledonia, and New Caledonian groups with affinities in the Solomon Is., Vanuatu, and Fiji/Samoa/Tonga (sometimes including New Zealand) were cited by Lowry (1998). Examples of taxa on the Melanesian arc including New Caledonia, but not in Australia or New Zealand, include the following.
In conifers, Florin (1963) illustrated two ‘migration routes’ running between New Zealand and New Guinea, namely an inner arc: South Island – New Caledonia – Milne Bay/New Guinea mainland (section 13); and an outer arc: North Island – Vanuatu – Solomon Is. – Morobe. The third track in the region is: eastern Australia – southern New Guinea. The second, outer arc track is occupied by extant members of Dacrycarpus and Dacrydium (Podocarp.). Dacrycarpus (nine species) ranges in New Zealand, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Bismarck Archipelago, and through Malesia to Burma. Fossils are also known in India, Australia and South America (de Laubenfels, 1984; Hill & Brodribb, 1999). Dacrydium (21 species) is in New Zealand, New Caledonia, Fiji, Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago, and through Malesia. Outside this area fossils are known from southern Australia (Hill & Brodribb, 1999). The total absence of these abundant, diverse groups in modern Australia, India and South America may reflect an initial low diversity (or at least propensity for evolution) in Gondwana and a mainly Pacific history (cf. the analysis of living and fossil distribution of Nothofagus in Heads, 2006).
The distribution of the pan-Melanesian groups in New Guinea is complex, reflecting the geology there; the island comprises some 32 accreted terranes. Disjunctions among New Guinea taxa on the accreted terranes are frequent and conform to standard patterns (Heads, 2001, 2003). The disjunctions and isolated records in New Guinea are often involved with broader Melanesian disjunctions. The following widespread Melanesian plants are all restricted in the New Guinea region to particular areas composed of accreted terranes (listed in italics):
Bikkia pancheri (Rub.): New Britain, the Solomon Is., Vanuatu, and New Caledonia (I. des Pins) (Motley et al., 2005).
Alphandia (Euphorb.): northern New Guinea (near Jayapura), New Caledonia and Vanuatu (Webster & Airy Shaw, 1971; Radcliffe-Smith, 2001).
Delarbrea paradoxa (Aral.) ranges: northern PNG (Madang) (and disjunct at Timor – Aru Is.), New Britain, Solomon Is., Vanuatu, and New Caledonia (van Balgooy & Lowry, 1993).
Ryssopterys timoriensis var. discolor (Malpigh.): PNG (Huon and Papuan Peninsulas), Solomon Is., Vanuatu, and New Caledonia (van Balgooy, 1966c).
Cypholophus decipiens (Urtic.): northern and eastern New Guinea, New Britain, eastern Caroline Is., the Solomon Is., northern Vanuatu, and northern New Caledonia (Wilmot-Dear & Friis, 1998).
Geniostoma rupestre var. rupestre Group A: New Guinea (Vogelkop Peninsula and Biak I.), Solomon Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa, and Rarotonga. It also occurs further north and west in the Mariana Is., Sulawesi, the Philippines and Taiwan, but it is not in Australia (Conn, 1980).
Amyema artensis (Loranth.) has an interesting distribution which illustrates the break-down of the Melanesian distribution pattern into parallel arcs (cf. Figs. 6 and 7). It is in New Guinea, the Milne Bay islands, New Caledonia (the last two localities sharing a distinct form), and southernmost Vanuatu. It also occurs along an outer, disjunct arc north-east of here, on the Caroline Islands, northernmost Vanuatu, and Samoa. The conspicuous gap between the two metapopulations is filled by A. novaebrittaniae (Barlow, 1992).
Other New Caledonia – Melanesian taxa absent from Australia include the following.
The Cycas rumphii group (Cycad.): Malesia, throughout Melanesia (New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia) and Fiji/Samoa/Tonga; also extending west of Malesia to Madagascar and adjacent east Africa (Hill, 1994). Its absence from Australia despite a wide Indo-Pacific distribution is remarkable.
Hugonia sect. Durandea (Lin.): New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Is., northern Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and Fiji (van Balgooy, 1993b).
Neuburgia (Logania.): Malesia, New Guinea, Solomon Is., New Caledonia, southern Vanuatu, and Fiji (Leenhouts, 1966).
Amylothecaacuminatifolia (Loranth.): alpine western New Guinea (Wissel Lakes and Lake Habbema in the Snow Mts.), keyed with species of New Caledonia (A. pyramidata) and Vanuatu (A. banksiana) (Barlow, 1974).
Heliconiaindica (Helicon.): Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and Fiji/Samoa (plants from Fiji and Samoa are sometimes treated separately as H. paka, e.g. by Smith, 1979-1996).
Joinvillea (Flagellar.): Solomon Is., southern Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and Fiji/Samoa. The genus is also disjunct in western Malesia (not New Guinea), the Caroline Is., and Hawaii (van Balgooy, 1966b).
Barringtonia Group IV (Lecythid.): Malesia, New Guinea, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and Fiji (Payens, 1967).
Agatea (Viol.): New Guinea, Bougainville I. (northern Solomon Is.), New Caledonia, and Fiji/Tonga (Fig. 13; Jacobs & Moore, 1971).
Geniostoma rupestre var. glaberrimum (Logan.): Mariana Is., Caroline Is., Solomon Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji and east to Rapa I. and the Marquesas (Conn, 1980).
Sarcolobus retusus (Asclep.): Sulawesi, New Guinea, Solomon Is., Caroline Is., and New Caledonia (Rintz, 1980). Rintz wrote ‘probably in N. Australia’, and ‘possibly in NE Australia’ but no evidence was given (cf. Council of the Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2009) and absence from here would be a standard pattern.
Corals on the outer arc include Polyphyllia novaehiberniae of New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji/Samoa/Tonga, the Solomon Is., the Bismarck Archipelago and northern New Guinea (Hoeksema, 1989). Gastropods on the outer arc and New Caledonia but not in Australia include Cerithium lifuense (Houbrick, 1992), the coneshells Conus lienardi, C. cinereus, C. ochroleucus, and C. corallinus (Röckel et al., 1995), and the cowry Erronea succincta (Lorenz & Hubert, 1993).
In Hemiptera the mirid genus Rubrocuneocoris is in New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji/Samoa/Tonga, the Bismarck Archipelago, possibly the Solomon Is. and New Guinea, and also extends to Indo-China (Schuh, 1984).
In Diptera, the diverse Chrysosoma noumeanum Group (Dolichopodidae) is endemic to New Caledonia and is closely related to the C. arrogans Group of the Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago, and northern New Guinea (Bickel, 1994). Other diptera endemic to the arc include Dixina (Dixidae): New Caledonia and the Solomon Is., Cyclopodia oxycephala (Nycteribiidae):New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Solomon Is., and Bactrocera umbrosa (Tephritidae): New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago, and PNG, extending to the eastern Oriental Region. Tipulidae on the arc include Limonia novocaledonica: New Caledonia and the Bismarck Archipelago. Typical Limonia notata is in New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Palau, Sumatra, and the Oriental Region, while the other subspecies, L. n. ssp. Solomonis, is in New Caledonia (not Vanuatu), Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago, and Palau. In Tabanidae, Chasmia ranges: New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Solomon Is., eastern and western New Guinea, and Dasybasis rubricallosa of New Caledonia is related to D. mellicallosa of Santa Cruz Is., Solomon Is., and Manus I. (Mackerras, 1970). In mosquitoes, Belkin (1962) recorded an unnamed species of Culex (Lophoceraomyia) known only from I. Art in northern New Caledonia (Is. Bélep), which is ‘of considerable interest’ as it is related to species of Vanuatu and the Solomon Is.
Examples in butterflies include Euploea boisduvali (Danaidae): New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, and the Solomon Is., E. treitschkei: New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago, Milne Bay islands and New Guinea, E. nemertes: New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago and New Guinea, Hypolimnas octocula (Nymphalidae): New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Solomon Is., Palau and the Caroline Is., Cyrestis telamon (Nymphalidae): New Caledonia, Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea and Sulawesi, Psychonotis schaeffera (Lycaenidae): New Caledonia, Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea and Malesia, and Luthrodes cleotas (Lycaenidae): New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea and Timor (all from Holloway & Peters, 1976). Parantica is in New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea and west to India (Ackery & Vane-Wright, 1984).
Examples in moths (from Holloway, 1979) include Plecoptera violacea (Noctuidae), following the same track as far as the Moluccas, Utetheisa salomonis (Arctiidae): New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Solomon Is. and the Bismarck Archipelago, Cleora phryganeoides (Geometridae): New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, New Guinea and the Moluccas, Harita nodyana (Noctuidae): New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago, and New Guinea, Chrysodeixis illuminata (Noctuidae): New Caledonia, Fiji/Tonga, Cook Is., Solomon Is., Bismarck Archipelago, and New Guinea, and Nigramma polionota (Noctuidae): New Caledonia, Fiji/Samoa, northern Vanuatu (Santo), Solomon Is., Milne Bay islands (Woodlark) and Manus I.
The wasp Pseudofoenus ritae of New Caledonia/Vanuatu is sister to P. karimuiensis of PNG (Jennings & Austin, 2002). The termite Nasutitermes novarumhebridarum is in New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Solomon Is. and New Guinea (Roisin & Pasteels, 1996).
The New Caledonia/outer arc fauna includes the freshwater fish family Rhyacichthyidae, comprising Protogobius: New Caledonia, and Rhyacichthys: New Caledonia, Solomon Is., Malesia and Taiwan. (Terateleotris from Laos may also belong here). The group is basal to a large, world-wide clade, the Gobioidei (Thacker & Hardman, 2005). In reef fishes, the tripterygiid Enneapterygius williamsii is in the Solomon Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and Tonga (Fricke, 2002). The snappers Etelis radiosus, Lutjanus semicinctus, and Paracaeso kusakarii are along the same arc, including New Caledonia, but are not in Australia (Allen, 1985).
In birds, Columba vitiensis (Columbidae) is in New Guinea/Philippines, Solomon Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Lord Howe, and Fiji/Samoa. The New Caledonian pigeon Ducula goliath is a member of the brenchleyi species group also in the Solomon Is., Vanuatu and Fiji (Barré et al., 2003). Coracina caledonica (Campephagidae) is in the Solomon Is., Vanuatu, and New Caledonia (mapped in Mayr & Diamond, 2001).
Charmosyna (Loriidae) is in New Guinea/Moluccas, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia (presumed extinct) and Fiji. Porphyrio porphyrio samoensis (Rallidae) is distributed throughout the Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and Fiji/Samoa (Ripley, 1977).
Accipiter haplochrous of New Caledonia is related to A. rufitorques of Fiji, A. albogularis of the Solomon Is. (including the Santa Cruz Is.), and A. melanochlamys throughout montane New Guinea (Mayr & Diamond, 2001). (The group is absent from Vanuatu, again possibly implying a New Caledonia – Fiji – Santa Cruz dog-leg involving overlap of two tracks in Fiji). Until Mayr discerned this affinity, A. rufitorques was treated as conspecific with A. fasciatus of Australia, New Guinea, New Caledonia etc. Wattel (1973) continued to stress the relationship because ‘The Melanesian islands were undoubtedly colonized from Australia’ but this may not be correct.
Two birds are distributed widely through Melanesia and on Norfolk I. (Turdus also has an extinct subspecies on Lord Howe), but are not in Australia: Lalage leucopyga (Campephagidae) of south-eastern Solomon Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia (including the Loyalty Is.) and Norfolk I., and Turdus poliocephalus (Turdidae) of Malesia, New Guinea, Solomon Is., Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Norfolk, and Fiji/Samoa.
In bats, Miniopterus macrocneme is in the Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Is., Vanuatu, and New Caledonia.
20. New Caledonia – Melanesia – Micronesia Lower plants
Examples in mosses include Hyophila beruensis: Micronesia (Caroline Is., Mariana Is., Kiribati), New Caledonia, and Polynesia (Fiji/Tonga, and Tahiti), Macromitrium papillosum: Micronesia (Caroline Is., Mariana Is., Marshall Is.) and New Caledonia, and Spiridens balfourianus: Caroline Is. (Ponape, Kusaie), New Caledonia, Fiji, Rapa and the Society Is. In liverworts, Lophocolea defectistipula is in New Caledonia and the Caroline Is. (Kusaie), Lejeunea vesicata is in New Caledonia, the Marshall Is. and Borneo.
Geniostoma rupestre var. crassifolium (Logan.), endemic to New Caledonia, is closest to G. rupestre var. tongense of Fiji, Tonga, Niue and the Mariana Is. (Conn, 1980).
Examples in cone shells include Conus luteus: New Caledonia, Tuamotu Is., Marshall Is., and the Philippines, C. polongimarumai: New Caledonia and the Marshall Is., and C. cervus: New Caledonia, the Marshall Is., and Sulawesi (Röckel et al., 1995).
In spiders, Cryptothele marchei (Cryptothelidae) is in New Caledonia and the Mariana Is.
In Diptera, the New Caledonian species Bactrocera caledoniensis and B. psidii form a clade with B. ochrosia of the northern Mariana Is. (Michaux & White, 1999). Rutylapa (Keroplatidae) is in New Caledonia, Micronesia, and west to Africa. Limonia pectinunguis (Tipulidae) is in New Caledonia (Loyalty Is.), Palau, and the Mariana Is., and Limonia trukensis is in New Caledonia and Micronesia, as is Drosophila pallidifrons. Drosophila sulfurigaster ssp. bilimbata is in New Caledonia, Fiji/Samoa, disjunct to Micronesia (Guam, northern Mariana Is., Wake I.), and the Hawaiian Is.
In marine water striders (Hemiptera), the mariannarum subgroup of the Halobates princeps group has one species in each of New Caledonia and Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa, and one disjunct in the Caroline Is./southern Mariana Is. (Andersen, 1991).
Examples from reef fishes include Microlabrichthys pascalus (Serranidae): New Caledonia east to south-eastern Polynesia and disjunct in the north-west at Micronesia, the Ryukyu Is. and southern Japan (Springer, 1982), the grouper Epinephelus retouti: New Caledonia – south-eastern Polynesia, disjunct at Palau/Japan, Sumbawa and the south-west Indian Ocean (Randall & Heemstra, 1991), and Awaous guamensis (Gobiidae): Mariana Is. and Hawaii in the north Pacific, and New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji in the south.
The honeyeater Myzomela cardinalis occurs on the Loyalty Is. (not Grande Terre), Vanuatu, Rotuma I., Samoa, southern Solomon Is., and in Micronesia (Palau, Mariana Is., and Caroline Is. including Truk). The Micronesian populations were ‘tentatively’ separated as M. rubatra by Dickinson (2003).
21. New Caledonia – Philippines/western Malesia Lower plants
Examples include the mosses Dicnemoloma piliferum: New Caledonia, Java, Warburgiella cupressinoides: New Caledonia, Philippines (Luzon, Mindanao) (Tixier, 1979), Symphysodon subneckeroides: New Caledonia, Philippines, Trematodon papuanum: New Caledonia, Philippines, Java, and Wilsoniella decipiens: New Caledonia, Philippines, Java, Sri Lanka, and India. The same disjunction is seen in the following liverworts known from New Caledonia and the specified localities in western Malesia: Bazzania subtilis: Philippines, Frullania philippensis: Luzon, Harpalejeunea parisii: Luzon, Panay, Caudalejeunea circinata: Philippines to China, Cololejeunea gynopthalma: from the Philippines to Thailand and Sri Lanka, C. haskarliana: from the Philippines to the Mascarene Is., C. inflata: to China, Japan and Sri Lanka, C. minuta: also Sri Lanka, Japan, Dendroceros formosana: also Vietnam and China, Lopholejeunea muensis: Taiwan, and L. zollingeri: New Caledonia, Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi. An extreme variant of this track is seen in Paraschistochila gaudichaudii: New Caledonia and Penang (Peninsular Malaysia). The fern Paesia rugosula is in New Caledonia, Tahiti and the Philippines (Luzon).
In gorgonians, Rumphella aggregata is in New Caledonia and the Moluccas, while Pterostenella comprisesone species of New Caledonia and one in the Philippines and Réunion I. (Grasshoff & Bargibant, 2001). The gastropod Microvoluta joloensis: New Caledonia/Tonga – Philippines – Madagascar, was cited above. The spider Rogmocrypta (Salticidae) ranges: New Caledonia, Philippines, and Singapore.
Examples in Diptera include Omapanta quadrimaculata (Phoridae): New Caledonia, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Episyrphus viridaureus (Syrphidae): New Caledonia, Java, and the Malay Peninsula, and Drosophila atriplex (Drosophilidae): New Caledonia, Philippines, and the Oriental Region. In spiders, Telemofila (Telemidae) is known from New Caledonia and Sumatra, and Gasteracantha lunata (Araneidae) is in New Caledonia, Moluccas, and Timor. G. rubrospinis has a similar range: New Caledonia, the Moluccas, Guam, Lombok, and Sulawesi.
Similar disjunction between New Caledonia and Philippines (often including Taiwan etc.) is seen in 12 cone shells: Conus sanzaka, C. capitanellus, C. ione, C. profundorum, C. darkini, C. dusaveli, C. kuroharai, C. chiangi, C. dayriti, C. kimioi, C. aphrodite, and C. pagodus (the last is also in the Red Sea) (Röckel et al., 1995). In other gastropods, Cerithium abditum occurs around New Caledonia/ Kermadec Is., and disjunct at the Philippines/Sulawesi/Borneo, C. ophioderma is at New Caledonia/ Kermadec Is. and disjunct at the Philippines/southern Japan (Houbrick, 1992) and the cowry Nesiocypraea teramachii is at New Caledonia and the Philippines/southern Japan (Lorenz & Hubert, 1993). The lobster Nephropsis acanthura is found off New Caledonia, north-eastern Queensland, the Philippines and Madagascar (Holthuis, 1991). The spider Dictyna (Dictynidae) is in Africa, the Palearctic, India, China, Burma, Philippines, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Hawaii/North America, South America (not New Guinea, Australia or Polynesia).
The coral Cantharellus noumeae is in New Caledonia (Hoeksema, 1989), north-eastern Queensland and Madang, PNG (GBIF), and (fossil) in Borneo (Hoeksema, 1989). The only other member of the genus is recorded from the Red Sea (Hoeksema, 1989).
This pattern is seen in reef fishes such as Myripristis melanostictus: New Caledonia, Philippines/Moluccas, and the serranid Microlabrichthys lori: New Caledonia east to the French Polynesia, also Philippines/Palau (Springer, 1982). In Tripterygiidae, Fricke (2002) cited species with south-west Pacific (New Caledonia/Vanuatu) – north-west Pacific (Ryukyu Is., Taiwan/Philippines) disjunctions; examples include Enneapterygius rubicauda: Loyalty Is., Vanuatu, Taiwan, Philippines, Ryukyu Is. Likewise, the emperor fish Lethrinus ‘sp. 2’ is known only from the Loyalty Is. and the Philippines (Carpenter & Allen, 1989).