Sustainable production of wood and non-wood forest products



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United States
Department of 
Agriculture
Forest Service
Pacific Northwest
Research Station
General Technical
Report
PNW-GTR-604
February 2004
SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION
OF WOOD AND NON-WOOD
FOREST PRODUCTS
Proceedings of the IUFRO Division 5
Research Groups 5.11 and 5.12,
Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11
–15, 2003

Technical Coordinators: 
Ellen M. Donoghue is a USDA Forest Service Research Social Scientist, and Gary L. Benson is a USDA Forest Service
Staff Ecologist, Pacific Northwest Research Station, P.O. Box 3890, Portland, OR 97208.
James L. Chamberlain is a USDA Forest Service Non-Timber Forest Products Technologist, Southern Research Station,
1650 Ramble Road, Blacksburg, VA 24060
Design and Layout: 
Cover design/graphic layout of proceedings: Jenny Beranek, Beaverton, Oregon, USA
Cover graphic: Frank Vanni and Gary Benson, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.
Cover photo credit: Robert Szaro, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station; Arvind Boaz, Forest
Department, Devendra Nagar, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India; Olga Boaz, University of Central India, Raipur, India.
On the cover: Central photo taken in area of Rotorua, New Zealand, site of the 2003 IUFRO Conference. Surrounding 
photos depict global examples of wood and non-wood forest products and activities related to these products. Products and
activities (clockwise from upper left corner) include: Alaskan log products, birch-bark peeling; wood milling, preparation
and transport, rubber tree tapping; and Tendu leaf transport and picking.  
Papers were provided in camera-ready form for printing by the authors, who are therefore responsible for the content and accuracy. Opinions expressed
may not necessarily reflect the position of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
The use of trade or firm names is for information only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture of any product or service. 

SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF WOOD 
AND NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS
Proceedings of the IUFRO Division 5 
Research Groups 5.11 and 5.12, 
Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11
–12, 2003
Ellen M. Donoghue, Gary L. Benson, and James L. Chamberlain, 
Technical Coordinators
Published by:
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Forest Service
Pacific Northwest Research Station
Portland, Oregon
General Technical Report
PNW-GTR-604
February 2004
In Cooperation with:
International Union of Forest
Research Organizations (IUFRO)

When you know:
Multiply by:
To find:
Centimeters (cm)
0.394
Inches (in)
Cubic feet (cf)
5
Board feet (bf)
Cubic meters (m
3
)
35.3
Cubic feet (ft
3

Grams (g)
0.0352
Ounces
Grams (g)
0.0022
Pounds
Hectares (ha)
2.47
Acres (ac)
Kilograms (kg)
2.205
Pounds (lbs)
Kilometers (km)
0.62
Miles (mi)
Meters (m)
3.28
Feet (ft)
Milliliters (ml)
0.03378
Ounces (fluid)
Square kilometers (km
2
)
0.386
Square miles (mi
2
)
Trees per hectare (t/ha)
0.405
Trees per acre (t/ac)
When you know:
Multiply by:
To find:
Acres (ac)
0.405
Hectares (ha)
Inches (in)
2.54
Centimeters 
ABSTRACT
Donoghue, E.M.; Benson, G.L.; Chamberlain, J.L., tech. coords. 2004. Sustainable production of wood and 
non-wood forest products: Proceedings of IUFRO Division 5 Research Groups 5.11 and 5.12, Rotorua, New
Zealand, March 11–15, 2003. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-604. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 120 p.
This proceedings is a collection of 18 papers and extended abstracts based on talks presented at the International
Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) All Division 5 Conference, held in Rotorua, New Zealand,
March 11–15, 2003. This conference emphasized the many ways that forest products research can contribute to
sustainable choices in forest management. The two IUFRO Research Groups represented in this proceedings are
the Sustainable Production of Forest Products Research Group (5.12) and the Non-wood Forest Products Research
Group (5.11). The papers address many aspects of wood and non-wood forest products including: forest manage-
ment; product development; economic development implications; local, national, and international protocols;
assessments; and research strategies. 
KEY WORDS: Forest products, non-timber forest products, non-wood products, sustainable forest management, 
wood products. 
ENGLISH/METRIC EQUIVALENTS

Proceedings from IUFRO Division 5, Research Groups 5.11 and 5.12
CONTENTS
Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Ellen M. Donoghue, Gary L. Benson, and James L. Chamberlain, Technical Coordinators
A. WOOD PRODUCTS
ASIA
1.
The Future of Plantation Forests and Forest-Based Industry in Indonesia  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Aulia L.P. Aruan
2.  Reduced Impact Logging: the Tropical Forest Foundation Experience in Indonesia  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
A.W. Klassen 
3.  Succession of Fallows after Shifting Cultivation in Sungai Sarawak Basin, Kuching, Sarawak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
I.B. Ipor and C.S. Tawan
NORTH AMERICA
4.  Sustainable Wood Production in the Pacific Northwest   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Robert Deal, and R. James Barbour
5.  Integrating Social Science with Forest Products Research: The Benefits of Addressing All
Dimensions of Sustainability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Ellen M. Donoghue
MULTINATIONAL
6.  Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Floor Coverings  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
B. Nebel, B. Zimmer, and G. Wegener
B. NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS
ASIA
7.  Conservation and Management of Himalayan Medicinal Plants in Nepal  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Nirmal K. Bhattarai and Madhav B. Karki
8.  Community Based Sustainable Management of Tendu Leaves (Diospyros Melanoxylon Roxb.)
A Case Study of Harda District of Madhya Pradesh, India  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Arvind Boaz and Olga Boaz
9.  The Economic Aspects of Agave Americana: A Case Study of its Sustainable Management 
by a Tribal Co-Operative Society in Jagdalpur District of Chhattisgarh, India   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Olga Boaz and Arvind Boaz
10. Gum Tapping in Sterculia Urens Roxb. (Sterculiaceae) using Ethephon  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
M.N.B. Nair
11.  The Endangered Bark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Bikash Rath

AFRICA
12.  Developing Inventory Methodologies for Non-Wood Forest Products: Lessons Learned 
from an Analysis of Case Studies in African Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Wulf Killmann, Francois Ndeckere, Paul Vantomme, and Sven Walter
NORTH AMERICA
13.  The U.S. Nontimber Forest Products Assessment: Overview and Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Susan J. Alexander
14.  A Strategy for Nontimber Forest Products Research and Technology Transfer 
for Southern United States  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
James L. Chamberlain
15.  Many Voices, Many Values: Community Economic Diversification through Nontimber 
Forest Products in Coastal British Columbia, Canada  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Darcy Mitchell 
16.  Co-Management for Nontimber Forest Products in Coastal British Columbia, Canada  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Brian D. Titus, Wendy Cocksedge, Charlotte E. Bell, Darcy A. Mitchell, and William T. Dushenko
MULTINATIONAL
17.  Developing Methodologies for the Elaboration of National Level Statistics on Non-Wood 
Forest Products: Lessons Learned from Case Studies and from a Global Assessment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Wulf Killmann, Francois Ndeckere, Paul Vantomme, and Sven Walter
18.  Benefit Sharing Arrangements in the Field of Non-Wood Forest Products: Status 
and Links to Certification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Sven Walter, Paul Vantomme, Wulf Killmann, and François Ndeckere

1
Research Social Scientist, 
2
Staff Ecologist, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, P.O. Box 3890,
Portland, OR 97208.
3
Non-Timber Forest Products Technologist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 1650 Ramble Road, Blacksburg,
VA 24060.
Proceedings from IUFRO Division 5, Research Groups 5.11 and 5.12
INTRODUCTION
Ellen M. Donoghue
1
Gary L. Benson
2
, and James L. Chamberlain
3
, Technical Coordinators
The International Union of Forest Research Organizations
(IUFRO) All Division 5 Conference in Rotorua, New
Zealand, March 11–15, 2003, focused on issues surround-
ing sustainable forest management and forest products
research. As the conference title “Forest Products Research:
Providing for Sustainable Choices” suggests, the purpose
of the conference was to consider scientific progress
towards meeting the rapidly increasing demands for forest
products in the context of social, economic, and environ-
mental considerations associated with sustainable forest
management. Conference attendees addressed challenges
and opportunities of sustainable forest management through
exchanges of knowledge and experience from presentations,
field trips, and formal and informal discussions about forest
products research at national and international levels.
This publication is the 3
rd
proceedings of the IUFRO
Division 5 Sustainable Production of Forest Products
Research Group 5.12. Two prior proceedings were from the
1997 All Division 5 conference in Pullman, Washington,
USA (Barbour and Skog 1997) and the 2000 IUFRO World
Congress in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Barbour and Wong
2001). New to this proceedings, however, is the inclusion
of papers from the Non-Wood Forest Products Research
Group 5.11. Many similarities emerge when both wood and
non-wood research is set in the context of social, economic,
and ecological dimensions of sustainable forest management.
This suggested a natural combining of the papers from the
two Research Groups for this publication. Both Research
Groups focus on the development, evaluation, and applica-
tion of forest products. Both address complex issues of
ecological integrity and economic development. Also, both
grapple with the ways that research is providing for sus-
tainable choices for forest-based societies around the world.
1
Although all research groups of Division 5 participated in
the conference, this proceedings includes only those papers
from the 5.11 and 5.12 Research Groups.
The Sustainable Production of Forest Products Research
Group 5.12 focuses on global issues regarding sustainably
produced forest products. It provides a forum for researchers
who study the production of wood and other forest products
in a sustainable manner. Among other things, the group
members examine questions regarding green certification,
life cycle analysis, wood products from sustainable man-
aged forestry, and the economic contribution of wood 
products to sustainable forestry.
The Non-Wood Forest Products Research Group 5.11
focuses on the discovery, development, and wise use of
non-wood products found in forests around the world. This
Group conducts research on medicinal and aromatic plants,
edible plant products and forest fungi, resins and gums, and
many other non-wood products that have long been impor-
tant for rural and native people for cultural, subsistence,
and economic reasons. The research focuses on a variety of
topics including harvesting techniques and effects on eco-
logical integrity, techniques for extracting and synthesizing
compounds, traditional and non-traditional uses of non-
wood products, and commercial development opportunities.
The papers on sustainable wood forest products discuss
the history of forest disturbance and wood removal in tem-
perate and tropical regions, especially Indonesia, and the
cultural and silvicultural practices needed to sustain forest
wood production and stable forest ecosystems. Effects of
timber harvesting on a non-sustainable basis are discussed,
as well as the effects of government and forest management
policies striving to achieve sustainable wood production.

Regional assessments and future projections (based on
modeling) are discussed as potential aids to achieve sus-
tainable wood production. The identification of barriers to
achieving sustainability is also discussed. The role of social
science is linked with the ecological, economic and social
aspects of forest management to indicate its importance to
sustainability. The relationships between integrated research
and sustainable forest management and production are also
discussed.
The papers on non-wood forest products address research,
management, and economic development challenges, as
well as opportunities, associated with increased demand for
non-wood products and increased pressure on forest ecosys-
tems. Specific non-wood products discussed in the papers
include medicinal plants in Nepal, and barks, leaves, and
resins in India. Harvesting methods intended to increase
ecological integrity and sustainable economic development
opportunities are discussed. The design of inventory proto-
cols and the development of production and trade statistics
are discussed as ways to contribute to resource management,
national and international policymaking, and economic
development strategies. The role of non-wood products in
employment and income generation for rural people is
addressed in a number of papers. Research strategies for
non-market and market non-wood products and the role of
research institutions in the economic development of forest-
based communities are discussed. Several papers talk about
the ways that assessments of non-wood products contribute
to sustainable development and resource management at
national and international levels. The terms non-wood forest
products and non-timber forest products are used in a num-
ber of papers and can be considered synonymous, unless
otherwise stated. 
Full papers or extended abstracts are included for 
the majority of conference sessions of the 5.11 and 5.12
Research Groups. Papers were provided for printing by the
authors, who are therefore responsible for the content and
accuracy. Opinions expressed may not necessarily reflect
the position of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The use
of trade names is for information only, and does not imply
endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture of any
produce or service.
ACKNOWLEDMENTS
We thank Jenny Beranek, Judy Mikowski, Seth White,
and Jamie Barbour for their assistance in the production of
this proceedings.
LITERATURE CITED
Barbour, R.J.; Skog, K.E., eds. 1997. Role of wood 
production in ecosystem management: proceedings of
the Sustainable Forestry Working Group at the IUFRO
All Division 5 Conference, Pullman, Washington, July
1997. General Technical Report FPL-GTR-100.
Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 98 p.
Barbour, R.J.; Wong, H.H., tech. coords. 2001. Sustainable 
production of forest products 2000: proceedings of
IUFRO Division 5 Research Group 5.12, Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia, August 2000. General Technical
Report PNW-GTR-520. Portland, OR: U.S. Department
of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest
Research Station. 72 p.
2

SECTION A
WOOD
PRODUCTS

This page is intentionally left blank.

Proceedings from IUFRO Division 5, Research Groups 5.11 and 5.12, number 1
THE FUTURE OF PLANTATION 
FORESTS AND FOREST-BASED
INDUSTRY IN INDONESIA
Aulia L.P. Aruan
1
ABSTRACT
The development of forest-based sawmilling and ply milling industries (1980s-1990s) and pulp and paper industries 
(mid 1990s) plays an important role in forest resource management. Wood supply from plantation forests will have to pro-
vide an increasingly larger share of the supply in the near future, particularly of pulp logs. Technology and marketing prob-
lems are emerging in processing logs from those plantations. The development of industrial forest plantations is focused 
on meeting the need of pulp and paper industries’ raw material, and therefore tree species are dominated by fast growing
species such as Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus spp.
Government policy established more forest-based industries to promote forest based and timber processing industries in
the country. Indonesia’s forest-based industry comprises a mix of non-panel forest-based industry of 81 pulp and paper mills
(12 integrated pulp and paper mills; 66 paper mills; 3 pulp mills), and panel-based industry of 4,400 sawmills, 120 plywood
mills, 39 block board mills, 13 chip mills, 2 Medium Density Fibre mills. The rapidly expanded Indonesian forest-based
industries were not well supported by the long-term sustainable supply of raw materials. The forest-base has been supplied
by an abundance of quality raw material with relatively low production costs. There were minor efforts to increase efficiency
and competitiveness. There is an imbalance between log supply and demand. The technological aspects of the forest-based
industry are also neglected. Observations are that most of industries were built in the 1980s and the technology is now inef-
ficient and thus competitiveness in the global market is low. Machinery is out of date and can process higher grades and
larger log sizes, but not wood wastage and smaller diameter logs.
The sustainability of Indonesian pulp and non-pulp plantation forests and processing industries should be clearly planned
and implemented. This paper provides a national review of Indonesian plantation forests, their processing industries’
restructuring and potential markets.
KEY WORDS: Plantation, industry, conservation, restructuring.
5
Since early 1970s, Indonesia’s growth-oriented develop-
ment over the last three decades has led to unsustainable
forest management. Pressures on natural forests for timber
production have been expanding steadily. The development
of forest-based industry especially sawmillling and
plymilling industries (1980s–1990s) and pulp and paper
industry (since mid 1990s) plays an important role in forest
resource management. In addition, further pressures such
as forest fires, forest conversion to non-forestland uses, 
and illegal logging activities have been involved. 
INTRODUCTION
Indonesia is a diverse tropical country of approximately
220 million people. Forest areas are about 60 per cent of
the land area. The forestry sector is important, and it pro-
vides a significant contribution to the Indonesian economies.
Its contribution to the GNP is approximately 6 per cent. It
is estimated that the forestry sector provides employment
for approximately 3.7 million employees. The forest is
home to some 40 million people. 
1
Aulia L.P. Aruan is with the Ministry of Forestry – Republic of Indonesia. He is now seconded as a forest policy advisor, Deutsche Gesselschaft f_r
Technische Z_sammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH – Strengthening the Management in the Ministry of Forestry Republic of Indonesia (GTZ – SMCP) - Gedung
Manggala Wanabakti Blok VII – 6
th
floor Jalan Gatot Subroto - Jakarta 10270 INDONESIA.

Indonesian forestry is changing. In 1999, the Government
announced a new forestry law reflecting the forest reform.
The focus is to empower communities. Environmental 
concerns, social and industrial demand pressures and the
diminishing forest resource still constrain the sustainable
wood supply from natural forest.
The Ministry of Forestry has launched five priority 
programmes for forestry development during the period of
2001–2004, namely (a) combating illegal logging, (b) 
controlling forest fire, (c) restructuring the forestry sector,
(d) rehabilitation and reforestation, and (e) the decentralisa-
tion of forestry issues.
To avoid repeating growth before considering environ-
mental aspects, the Government of Indonesia is adopting
policies for sustainable forest management by striking a bet-
ter balance between economic, social and environmental
aspects. The economic aspect (e.g., economic growth) has
previously been the priority. Recently, greater emphasis has
been focused on the social aspect (e.g., social forestry) and
environmental aspect (e.g. rehabilitation of degraded forest
areas and combating illegal logging activities). The eco-
nomic aspect (e.g., economic growth) has been a major
role. More recently, the environmental aspect of forestry
is also important for soil and water conservation.
The purpose of this paper is to briefly assess the role 
of policies followed by the government on the development
of Indonesian plantation forests. The paper will also review
the future of Indonesian plantation forests.


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