Swan Coastal Plain Marri Corymbia calophylla Mallee heath



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Swan Coastal Plain  Marri

Corymbia calophylla 



Mallee heath Tamma Sheoak

 

Allocasuarina campestris

  

 

Mallee woodland  Emu Tree 



Hakea franisiana 

 

Southern Jarrah Forest 

Creeping Banksia 

Banksia 

repens


 

 

 



 

 

 

  

August 2009  



Broadway 

Arboretum 

Self Guided Tour 

 

 



Esperance Sandplains  

Eucalyptus 



crucis

  Silver Mallee 



Welcome to the Self Guided Tour of Broadway Arboretum, which highlights one plant 

from each plant region in South Western Australia. 

 

It is recommended that you print out the map page, which is the last page in this 



guide, separate to this document to help guide you around the Broadway Arboretum.  

A slightly smaller map appears below for your information.   

 

The tour follows the orange line, and information is provided for each of the species 



shown on the map.  Don’t be put off by the scientific names – common names are 

provided where they exist.  The tour starts with 

Melaleuca elliptica 

or Granite 

Bottlebrush

.

 



 

 

 



All referencing on this document can be accessed from the Species Information 

Pages on the website 

www.broadwayarboretum.info

.   


 

You should be aware that removing plant material from Broadway Arboretum is 

prohibited under the Town of Bassendean’s Local Laws. 

 

Enjoy the Tour! 



 

1


Wheatbelt scrub and heath - 

Melaleuca elliptica

 

Granite Bottlebrush 

 

 



 

 

 



Location in Arboretum:  Wheatbelt scrub and 

heath 


 

Map downloaded from 

Florabase

 

 



 

In the natural environment only found on granite rocks. 



 

elliptica



 refers to the leaf shape. 

 



Fantastic for birds. 

 



Some pharmacological actions of ethanol extracts of 

Melaleuca elliptica

 were 

experimentally investigated. It had analgesic, molluscicidal and antimicrobial 



activities, but lacked both antipyretic and antiinflammatory effects (

1

). 



 

 

2



Northern Jarrah Forest - 

Allocasuarina fraseriana

 

Sheoak 

 

 



Location in Arboretum:  Northern Jarrah Forest 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

Map downloaded from 



Florabase

 



 

Timber used for shingles and (staves for wine casks (Bennett 1988)) by early 

European settlers (Powell 1990).  Sheoak splits well (Seddon 1972, p. 142).  

 



Has a beautiful coloured wood.  

 



Associated insects well camouflaged; A sap sucking bug lives in the twigs, 

invisible except for a protruding tube that exudes a honey dew, which falls to 

the ground and is eaten by ants; A weevil species that eats the foliage is 

shaped and coloured to match the needles. (Powell 1990). 

 

Sheoaks have branchlets that function as leaves (Seddon 1972, p. 142). 



 

Female plants release winged seeds, especially after fire (Seddon 1972, p. 142) 



 

 

3



Wind pollination 

 



Approximately one third of plants are wind pollinated (Tinker 2007). 

 



Casuarinas and Allocasuarinas are wind pollinated and can be pollinated from 

plants thousands of kilometres away. Sounds ludicrous but it works.  Wind 

pollinated viewed as primitive.  Plants need to produce billions of pollen grains. 

   


 

Wind pollinated plants need to be able to sort pollen grain. When the right 



pollen land there is a chemical reaction (like with Mistletoe seed) (Tinker 2007). 

 



Genetic studies shown few wind pollinated plants have same male parent, and 

this affects the level of genetic diversity (Tinker 2007). 

 

Male plants of some wind pollinated species are more slender than more solid 



female plants of the same species so the branches are more easily moved by 

wind to disperse pollen (Tinker 2007). 

 

4


Southern Jarrah Forest – 

Banksia repens

 

Creeping Banksia

 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

Location in Arboretum:  Southern Jarrah Forest 

Map downloaded from 

Florabase

 

 

 

In bushland Creeping Banksias are not often as big as seen at Broadway 



Arboretum because they are normally reduced in size by fire. 

 



Creeping Banksia have underground stems which pop up laterally and flower, 

so the flowers are on the outside of the bush at ground level. This can be seen 

on the south western side of the plant identified as SJF01, and can be seen on 

the 


photo in Florabase



 

Favoured by Honey Possums. 

 

Is susceptible to dieback (



1

). 


 

5


Swan Coastal Plain Wetland - 

Centella asiatica

 

 

 



Location in Arboretum:  Swan Coastal Plain 

Wetland 


 

 

Map downloaded from 



Florabase

 

 



 

Centella asiatica



 is the plant with the roundish leaves in the photo above. 

 



Please see the 

disclaimer

 regarding the information below. 

 



Centella asiatica

 is used as a leafy green in Sri Lankan cuisine, where it is called 

Gotu Kola. It is most often prepared as mallung; a traditional accompaniment to 

rice and curry. In addition to finely chopped gotu kola, mallung almost always 

contains grated coconut and may also contain finely chopped green chilis, chili 

powder, turmeric powder and lime or lemon juice.  In Indonesia, the leaves are 

used for sambai oi peuga-ga, an 

Aceh


 type of salad, and it is also used in 

Malaysia for salads (

1

). 


 

The activity of asiaticoside, isolated from 



Centella asiatica

, has been studied in 

normal as well as delayed-type wound healing. These results indicate that 

asiaticoside exhibits significant wound healing activity and is the main active 

constituent of 

Centella asiatica 

(

2

). 



 

Titrated Extract from 



Centella asiatica

 (TECA) is a drug which has been used for 

many years in Europe for the treatment of wound healing defects (

4

). 



 

Centella asiatica



 extract is used effectively in the treatment of keloids, leg 

ulcers, phlebitis, slow-healing wounds, leprosy, surgical lesions, striae distensae 

and cellulitis. Athough applied frequently to damaged skin, the risk of acquiring 

contact sensitivity to this plant or its constituents is low (

5

). 


 

Centella asiatica



 is commonly used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat 

various diseases (for centuries as a nerve tonic). Oral administration of the 

extracts (CE and AF) retarded the development of solid and ascites tumours 

and increased the life span of these tumour bearing mice (

2

). 


 

6


Wheatbelt (Mallee) 

Eucalyptus spathulata 

Swamp Mallet

 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

Location in Arboretum:  Wheatbelt (Mallee) 

 

Map downloaded from 



Florabase

 

 



 

Does not resprout after damage or fire. 



 

Suitable for very extreme saline sites (ECe 800-1600 mS/m) (



1

)  


 

Used as a street tree in Lord St, Bassendean (



2



 

Appears not to be a problem with sewerage lines (

3

). 


 

Twenty-one compounds were identified in the oil of 



Eucalyptus spathulata

 with 


1,8-cineole (72.5%) and α-pinene (12.7%) as main components. Although the 

1,8-cineole is a main component of the essential oils of all Eucalyptus species 

tested, its relative content was higher in the oil of 

Eucalyptus spathulata

 and

 

Eucalyptus torquata



 (

4

). 



 

1,8-cineole is also known as Eucalyptol (not to be confused with Eucalyptus 



oil).  Eucalyptol has a fresh camphor-like smell and a spicy, cooling taste. 

Because of its pleasant spicy aroma and taste, eucalyptol is used in flavourings, 

fragrances, and cosmetics. It is also an ingredient in many brands of 

mouthwash and cough suppressant. Eucalyptol has been demonstrated to be 

capable of reducing inflammation and pain. It has also been found to be able to 

kill leukaemic cells (

5

). 


 

See our 



disclaimer

 that essentially says use of this species for food preparation 

should not be done based on the information provided here.  One reason is that 

 

7



anecdotal information suggests that throwing gum leaves into tea to add 

flavour is often acceptable but at certain times of the year the leaves are high 

in cyanide so can make the tea toxic! 

 

Esperance sandplains - 



Eucalyptus crucis

 

Silver Mallee

 

 

 



 

Location in Arboretum:  Esperance 

sandplains 

 

Map downloaded from 



Florabase

 

 



 

There are three subspecies or 



Eucalyptus crucis

, two of which are 

Declared 

Rare Flora (Extant).

 



 



The Silver Mallee has a unique bark trait called "minni-ritchie" which is a rich, 

coppery red bark on the lower trunk (with green - see photo above) (

1

). 


 

8


Mallee Heath – 

Allocasuarina campestris

 

Tamma

 

 

 



9

 

 

 



 

Location in Arboretum:  Mallee heath 

 

Map downloaded from 



Florabase

 

 



 

Stark difference between male and female plants. See 



wind pollination

 on 


page 4 for information as to why they are different. 

 



Rainfall utilization by vegetation is a complex function of the timing and 

magnitude of rain events, soil properties, evaporative demand and 

aboveground and belowground plant functioning. Understanding these 

interactions is highly relevant to a number of ecological problems, including 

salinization of cleared agricultural land in southern Australia. Revegetation 

efforts to fix problems such as salinization require information on plant water-

use strategies. Sap-flow recordings were used to screen a range of species and 

identify four types of response to a large summer rainfall event: (a) no 

response, (b) delayed response, (c) small, rapid response and (d) large, rapid 

response. Proteaceous shrub species (e.g. 

Isopogon gardneri

) rapidly increased 

transpiration up to five-fold. Shrubs such as 

Allocausarina campestris

 only 

increased transpiration two-fold due to partial summer dormancy. Deep-rooted 



Eucalyptus species (Myrtaceae, e.g. Wandoo 

E. wandoo

) were sufficiently 

reliant on soil water that they did not respond to summer rainfall. One hemi-

parasite species, the Christmass Tree 

Nuytsia floribunda

 required over 2 weeks 

to fully respond to rainfall (

1

). 


 

The Western Australian termite,



 Drepanotermes tamminensis

 harvests various 

plant materials according to biomass availability. In shrubland dominated 

by

Allocasuarina campestris



, shoots of this species are taken. Harvesting mainly 

occurs during the autumn (April–May) and spring (September–October) 

seasons. (

2

)  



 

10


Mallee woodland 

Hakea francisiana

 

Emu Tree

 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



Location in Arboretum:  Mallee Woodland 

Map downloaded from 

Florabase

 

 



 

Also known as Red Spike Hakea based on its flowers.   



 

Has broad-linear leaves about 25 centimetres long with five to seven distinct 



longitudinal (parallel) veins (

1

) (see photo).  



 

Is an "obligate seeder". Obligate seeders are plants with large, fire-activated 



seed banks that germinate, grow, and mature rapidly following a fire in order to 

reproduce and renew the seed bank before the next fire (

2

). Requires 5-6 years 



between fire.  

 



If more than 50% of seed collected, then a fire, then the population can be 

jeopardised.  

 

The species name



 francisiana

 is named after George Francis, a Director of the 

Adelaide Botanic Gardens 

(3)


.  

 



Has been in cultivation for many years and is easily grown from seed (

4

). 



 

 

11



Karri Forest -

 Olearia axillaris

 

Coastal Daisybush 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

Location in Arboretum:  Karri Forest 

Map downloaded from 

Florabase

 

 



 

Two early visitors to the coast and islands of Western Australia, 

Willem de 

Vlamingh


 and 

William Dampier

, ventured to eat this plant - its aromatic quality 

inspiring its use as a herb. Vlamingh's crew made use of leaves collected, when 

anchored at 

Rottnest Island

, adding it to their meagre onboard diet (

1

). 



 

Is widely used in landscaping. 



 

It is listed as a species hard to burn (i.e. it is fire retardant) (



2

). 


 

Appears to be widely distributed around Australia (mostly coastal). 



 

12


Northern sandplain – Banksia elegans 

Elegant Banksia 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

Location in Arboretum:  Northern Sandplains 

 

Map downloaded from 



Florabase

 

 



 

Banksia elegans



 is a Priority 4 plant, which means it is a species that is 

considered to have been adequately surveyed and which, whilst being rare (in 

Australia), is not currently threatened by any identifiable factors. These species 

require monitoring every 5–10 years. 

 

Banksia elegans



 occurs only over a 65 square kilometre area north and west of 

Eneabba (

1

).  


 

A study undertaken at a site near Lake Indoon found that 



Banksia elegans

 

produces few 



fruits

, and these only release their seeds in response to fire, 

depending on the temperatures reached by the follicles and subsequent number 

of wet-dry cycles. While 50% of intact seeds germinate in the laboratory, no 

seedlings were observed in the field. Despite the death of some old plants after 

a fire in a 15-year-old stand, population size increased by more than 300% over 

the following three years, entirely due to suckering from the parent lateral 

roots. Flowering of parent plants recommenced three years after the fire, with 

most of the new suckers remaining juvenile longer (

2

). 



 

13


 

A study that aimed to quantify all possible constraints on seed and fruit 



availability in Banksia elegans found: 

(a)  over 90% of post-fire resprouts and root suckers in the study population 

did not produce any seeds during the ensuing sixteen years. 

(b) All 


ramets

 (i.e. new plants produced by suckering which are genetically 

the same as the parent plant) flowered profusely in their sixteenth year. 

Damage to reproductive parts by insects' larvae and granivorous birds 

was negligible.  

(c) 


Banksia elegans

 appears to be essentially outbreeding (i.e. mating 

primarily between unrelated or distantly related individuals of a 

species).The efficiency of pollinators, mainly nectarivorous birds, was 

hampered by lack of anther dehiscence (i.e. the anthers did not explode 

and spray their pollen on the bird as occurs with most species) in the 

sterile plants.  

(d)  Most flowers received no germinable pollen and almost all fertilized ovules 

did not develop further.  

(e)  Shortage of mineral nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, 

appeared to account for the variations in follicle production and high level 

of seed abortion.  

(f)  Viability of intact seed was very low. Only 0.0002% of ovules in the 

current crop contributed to the viable seed bank one year after 

fertilisation. Root suckering appears to function as a nutrient-conserving 

alternative to sexual reproduction in this species (

3





 

Low seed-set in 

Banksia elegans

 has been shown to be due to internal plant 

factors, suggesting that it's sterility is adaptive (Lamont & Barrett, 1988)  

 



Banksia elegans

 possesses a malformed stigma which may prevent the normal 

reproductive process from taking place. Most populations of 

Banksia elegans

 

are sterile (



4

). 


 

 

14



Swan Coastal Plain 

Corymbia calophylla 

Marri 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

Location in Arboretum:  Swan Coastal Plain 

 

Map downloaded from 



Florabase

 

 

 

The species name



 callophylla

 is Latin and made up of two components; callo 

which means beautiful, and phyla which means leaf (i.e beautiful leaf) (Sharr 

1996) (Seddon 1972). Leaves are a different colour on each side. 

 

Leaves have parallel veins at right angles and leaves are held upper-side up, 



not edge up as in most eucalypts (Powell 1990).  Casts a heavier shade than 

most eucalypts (Powell 1990). 

 

Fruits take a year to mature, and seeds shed 12-18 months thereafter 



 

15


 

16



 

Very valuable for birds. Australian Ringneck and Red-capped Parrots chew the 

fruit when it is soft, the seeds are a major source pf food for Baudin’s and 

Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo, and the flowers and nectar attract range of birds.  

 

The distribution of Red-capped Parrots matches that of Marri, and its beak 



specifically adapted for extracting seeds from the fruit. Red-capped Parrots 

leave a circle of beak marks just below neck of the fruit (Powell 1990). 

 

There are short billed and long-billed forms of the White-tailed Black-Cockatoo. 



The long-billed (

C. baudinii

) arose from a western isolate and developed 

specialized adaptations for feeding on the fruits of Marri.  For food 

C. baudinii

 

depends on the seeds of the Marri. In contrast the short-billed form (



C. 

latirostris

) depends on seeds from the small hard fruits of species of 

Hakea


 and 

Dryandra


 



At Perup in South Western Australia 

Peppermint trees

 were absent and the diet 

of Western Ringtail Possum consisted predominantly of leaves of the two 

common eucalypts Marri and Jarrah. 

 



Levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were measured in the foliage of 

two eucalypts in Western Australia, Marri and Jarrah. Marri leaves had greater 

levels of all three nutrients than Jarrah leaves.  The observed differences in leaf 

nutrient levels are consistent with observed trends in the abundance and 

diversity of leaf 

arthropods

 and the use of the trees as foraging substrates (i.e. 

places to look for insects to eat) by birds. 

 

In regard to the next three dot points please note our 



disclaimer

. Anecdotal 

information suggests for example that throwing gum leaves into tea to add 

flavour is often acceptable but at certain times of the year the leaves are high 

in cyanide so can make the tea toxic! 

 



Aborigines soaked Marri blossoms to make a sweet drink, ate the sugary 

substance exuded from the bark, and ate seeds and gum as cures for diarrhoea 

(Powell 1990). 

 



The kino or gum that can be exuded from the bark or wounds is not water 

soluble and contains tannins.  The kino presumably has an antiseptic and 

protective function (Seddon 1972, p. 113). 

 



Bees fed diets of Marripollen had the lowest mortality of 22 diets tested for 6 

weeks and had life spans (50%) greater than 42 days. Marri pollen lipid is 

dominated by two antibacterial fatty acids: myristic (0.25 mg/g pollen) and 

linolenic (1.06 mg/g pollen). This story almost sounds like Roald Dahl's Royal 

Jelly story! 

 



Marri is significant plant for the honey industry (Powell 1990). 

 



A seed larger than any other eucalypt and it produces robust seedlings. 

 



Marri is not susceptible to the dieback pathogen. When the roots of Marri were 

inoculated with 

dieback

 

Phytophthora cinnamomi,



 lesions were restricted within 

3-4 days and ceased extending whereas the lesions in roots of Jarrah continued 

to extend.  After inoculation, the amount of lignin in roots of Marri was 

increased above control levels by as much as 53%. Lignin concentrations in 

inoculated roots of Jarrah were unchanged.  In Marri, the 

lignotuber

 appears to 

be very susceptible to invasion by dieback in contrast to the roots which appear 

resistant. The invasion of the pathogen into the lignotuber and collar regions of 

both species was consistently associated with ponding of water around the 

plants.  


 

 

17 



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