Mallee woodland Emu Tree
from each plant region in South Western Australia.
It is recommended that you print out the map page, which is the last page in this
A slightly smaller map appears below for your information.
The tour follows the orange line, and information is provided for each of the species
provided where they exist. The tour starts with
Pages on the website
You should be aware that removing plant material from Broadway Arboretum is
prohibited under the Town of Bassendean’s Local Laws.
Enjoy the Tour!
Map downloaded from
In the natural environment only found on granite rocks.
experimentally investigated. It had analgesic, molluscicidal and antimicrobial
Timber used for shingles and (staves for wine casks (Bennett 1988)) by early
European settlers (Powell 1990). Sheoak splits well (Seddon 1972, p. 142).
invisible except for a protruding tube that exudes a honey dew, which falls to
the ground and is eaten by ants; A weevil species that eats the foliage is
shaped and coloured to match the needles. (Powell 1990).
Sheoaks have branchlets that function as leaves (Seddon 1972, p. 142).
Female plants release winged seeds, especially after fire (Seddon 1972, p. 142)
plants thousands of kilometres away. Sounds ludicrous but it works. Wind
pollinated viewed as primitive. Plants need to produce billions of pollen grains.
Wind pollinated plants need to be able to sort pollen grain. When the right
this affects the level of genetic diversity (Tinker 2007).
Male plants of some wind pollinated species are more slender than more solid
wind to disperse pollen (Tinker 2007).
In bushland Creeping Banksias are not often as big as seen at Broadway
so the flowers are on the outside of the bush at ground level. This can be seen
on the south western side of the plant identified as SJF01, and can be seen on
Favoured by Honey Possums.
Is susceptible to dieback (
regarding the information below.
is used as a leafy green in Sri Lankan cuisine, where it is called
Gotu Kola. It is most often prepared as mallung; a traditional accompaniment to
rice and curry. In addition to finely chopped gotu kola, mallung almost always
contains grated coconut and may also contain finely chopped green chilis, chili
powder, turmeric powder and lime or lemon juice. In Indonesia, the leaves are
used for sambai oi peuga-ga, an
Malaysia for salads (
The activity of asiaticoside, isolated from
, has been studied in
normal as well as delayed-type wound healing. These results indicate that
asiaticoside exhibits significant wound healing activity and is the main active
Titrated Extract from
(TECA) is a drug which has been used for
many years in Europe for the treatment of wound healing defects (
ulcers, phlebitis, slow-healing wounds, leprosy, surgical lesions, striae distensae
and cellulitis. Athough applied frequently to damaged skin, the risk of acquiring
contact sensitivity to this plant or its constituents is low (
various diseases (for centuries as a nerve tonic). Oral administration of the
extracts (CE and AF) retarded the development of solid and ascites tumours
and increased the life span of these tumour bearing mice (
Location in Arboretum: Wheatbelt (Mallee)
Does not resprout after damage or fire.
Suitable for very extreme saline sites (ECe 800-1600 mS/m) (
Used as a street tree in Lord St, Bassendean (
Appears not to be a problem with sewerage lines (
Twenty-one compounds were identified in the oil of
1,8-cineole is a main component of the essential oils of all Eucalyptus species
tested, its relative content was higher in the oil of
1,8-cineole is also known as Eucalyptol (not to be confused with Eucalyptus
Because of its pleasant spicy aroma and taste, eucalyptol is used in flavourings,
fragrances, and cosmetics. It is also an ingredient in many brands of
mouthwash and cough suppressant. Eucalyptol has been demonstrated to be
capable of reducing inflammation and pain. It has also been found to be able to
kill leukaemic cells (
that essentially says use of this species for food preparation
should not be done based on the information provided here. One reason is that
flavour is often acceptable but at certain times of the year the leaves are high
in cyanide so can make the tea toxic!
Esperance sandplains -
There are three subspecies or
, two of which are
Rare Flora (Extant).
coppery red bark on the lower trunk (with green - see photo above) (
Stark difference between male and female plants. See
magnitude of rain events, soil properties, evaporative demand and
aboveground and belowground plant functioning. Understanding these
interactions is highly relevant to a number of ecological problems, including
salinization of cleared agricultural land in southern Australia. Revegetation
efforts to fix problems such as salinization require information on plant water-
use strategies. Sap-flow recordings were used to screen a range of species and
identify four types of response to a large summer rainfall event: (a) no
response, (b) delayed response, (c) small, rapid response and (d) large, rapid
response. Proteaceous shrub species (e.g.
) rapidly increased
transpiration up to five-fold. Shrubs such as
increased transpiration two-fold due to partial summer dormancy. Deep-rooted
) were sufficiently
reliant on soil water that they did not respond to summer rainfall. One hemi-
parasite species, the Christmass Tree
required over 2 weeks
to fully respond to rainfall (
The Western Australian termite,
plant materials according to biomass availability. In shrubland dominated
occurs during the autumn (April–May) and spring (September–October)
Also known as Red Spike Hakea based on its flowers.
Has broad-linear leaves about 25 centimetres long with five to seven distinct
) (see photo).
Is an "obligate seeder". Obligate seeders are plants with large, fire-activated
reproduce and renew the seed bank before the next fire (
). Requires 5-6 years
The species name
is named after George Francis, a Director of the
Adelaide Botanic Gardens
Location in Arboretum: Karri Forest
Map downloaded from
Two early visitors to the coast and islands of Western Australia,
, ventured to eat this plant - its aromatic quality
inspiring its use as a herb. Vlamingh's crew made use of leaves collected, when
, adding it to their meagre onboard diet (
Is widely used in landscaping.
It is listed as a species hard to burn (i.e. it is fire retardant) (
Appears to be widely distributed around Australia (mostly coastal).
Location in Arboretum: Northern Sandplains
considered to have been adequately surveyed and which, whilst being rare (in
Australia), is not currently threatened by any identifiable factors. These species
require monitoring every 5–10 years.
A study undertaken at a site near Lake Indoon found that
, and these only release their seeds in response to fire,
depending on the temperatures reached by the follicles and subsequent number
of wet-dry cycles. While 50% of intact seeds germinate in the laboratory, no
seedlings were observed in the field. Despite the death of some old plants after
a fire in a 15-year-old stand, population size increased by more than 300% over
the following three years, entirely due to suckering from the parent lateral
roots. Flowering of parent plants recommenced three years after the fire, with
most of the new suckers remaining juvenile longer (
A study that aimed to quantify all possible constraints on seed and fruit
(a) over 90% of post-fire resprouts and root suckers in the study population
did not produce any seeds during the ensuing sixteen years.
(i.e. new plants produced by suckering which are genetically
the same as the parent plant) flowered profusely in their sixteenth year.
Damage to reproductive parts by insects' larvae and granivorous birds
appears to be essentially outbreeding (i.e. mating
primarily between unrelated or distantly related individuals of a
species).The efficiency of pollinators, mainly nectarivorous birds, was
hampered by lack of anther dehiscence (i.e. the anthers did not explode
and spray their pollen on the bird as occurs with most species) in the
(d) Most flowers received no germinable pollen and almost all fertilized ovules
did not develop further.
(e) Shortage of mineral nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus,
appeared to account for the variations in follicle production and high level
of seed abortion.
(f) Viability of intact seed was very low. Only 0.0002% of ovules in the
current crop contributed to the viable seed bank one year after
fertilisation. Root suckering appears to function as a nutrient-conserving
alternative to sexual reproduction in this species (
Low seed-set in
has been shown to be due to internal plant
factors, suggesting that it's sterility is adaptive (Lamont & Barrett, 1988)
possesses a malformed stigma which may prevent the normal
reproductive process from taking place. Most populations of
are sterile (
Location in Arboretum: Swan Coastal Plain
is Latin and made up of two components; callo
which means beautiful, and phyla which means leaf (i.e beautiful leaf) (Sharr
1996) (Seddon 1972). Leaves are a different colour on each side.
Leaves have parallel veins at right angles and leaves are held upper-side up,
most eucalypts (Powell 1990).
Fruits take a year to mature, and seeds shed 12-18 months thereafter
Very valuable for birds. Australian Ringneck and Red-capped Parrots chew the
fruit when it is soft, the seeds are a major source pf food for Baudin’s and
Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo, and the flowers and nectar attract range of birds.
The distribution of Red-capped Parrots matches that of Marri, and its beak
leave a circle of beak marks just below neck of the fruit (Powell 1990).
There are short billed and long-billed forms of the White-tailed Black-Cockatoo.
) arose from a western isolate and developed
specialized adaptations for feeding on the fruits of Marri. For food
depends on the seeds of the Marri. In contrast the short-billed form (
) depends on seeds from the small hard fruits of species of
were absent and the diet
of Western Ringtail Possum consisted predominantly of leaves of the two
common eucalypts Marri and Jarrah.
two eucalypts in Western Australia, Marri and Jarrah. Marri leaves had greater
levels of all three nutrients than Jarrah leaves. The observed differences in leaf
nutrient levels are consistent with observed trends in the abundance and
diversity of leaf
and the use of the trees as foraging substrates (i.e.
places to look for insects to eat) by birds.
In regard to the next three dot points please note our
information suggests for example that throwing gum leaves into tea to add
substance exuded from the bark, and ate seeds and gum as cures for diarrhoea
soluble and contains tannins. The kino presumably has an antiseptic and
protective function (Seddon 1972, p. 113).
weeks and had life spans (50%) greater than 42 days. Marri pollen lipid is
dominated by two antibacterial fatty acids: myristic (0.25 mg/g pollen) and
linolenic (1.06 mg/g pollen). This story almost sounds like Roald Dahl's Royal
3-4 days and ceased extending whereas the lesions in roots of Jarrah continued
to extend. After inoculation, the amount of lignin in roots of Marri was
increased above control levels by as much as 53%. Lignin concentrations in
inoculated roots of Jarrah were unchanged. In Marri, the
be very susceptible to invasion by dieback in contrast to the roots which appear
resistant. The invasion of the pathogen into the lignotuber and collar regions of
both species was consistently associated with ponding of water around the