Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Antipyretic activity studies on the roots of Wattakaka volubilis(L.f.) Stapf.
SYNOPSIS FOR M. PHARM DISSERTATION
RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, BANGALORE, KARNATAKA BY
AMIT KUMAR SHUKLA I- M. PHARM (2008-2009) PHARMACOGNOSY DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOGNOSY M.S. RAMAIAH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY BANGALORE- 560054
RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, BANGALORE, KARNATAKA
ANNEXURE – II
PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECT FOR DISSERTATION
NAME OF THE CANDIDATE AND ADDRESS
AMIT KUMAR SHUKLA,
94-H R/0 MUGALHAN, P/0 JHUNGIAN, GORAKHPUR,
UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA.
NAME OF THE INSTITUTION
M.S. RAMAIAH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, BANGALORE.
COURSE OF STUDY AND SUBJECT
DATE OF ADMISSION
TITLE OF THE TOPIC
Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Antipyretic activity studies on the roots of Wattakaka volubilis.
BRIEF RESUME OF THE INTENDED WORK
NEED FOR STUDY
Nature always stands as a golden mark to exemplify the outstanding phenomenon of symbiosis. The biotic and abiotic elements of nature are all inter dependent. Plants are indispensable to human beings. The knowledge of drugs has accumulated over thousands of years as a result of man’s inquisitive nature which has provided today many effective means of health-care.
All phyla of plants “Of which concervative estimates place the total number of known spieces at approximately 335000” contains speices that yield official and unofficial products of medicinal importance. The oldes known herbal is Pen-t’sao written by emperor Shen Nung around 3000 B.C. It contains 365 drugs, one for each day of the year1.
‘Murva’ is an important ayurvedic drug used for the treatment of general body ailments like fever, laxative, urinary diseases, pruritus, sterlity, rigidity in lower limbs and skin diseases2. The botanical sources of Murva are Clematis tribola, Sanseviera zeylanica, Maerua oblongifolia, Chonemorpha macrophylla, , Helicteres isora. and Wattakaka volubilis3. The accepted botanical source is Marsdenia tenacissima4.
The genus Wattakaka belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae, It is known as cotton milk plant and green wax flower5, a tall, woody climber, with densely lenticellate and pustular branches. The roots contain a glucoside and traces of an alkaloid6. It is distributed in most parts of India7, Taiwan, Cambodia, Nepal, Sri Lanka8.
Several glycosides are found in Wattakaka volubilis such as dregeosides H, Dp1, Da1, Gp1,Ga1-isolated9. Glycosides-dregeosides Ap1, Ao1, Aa1, A11, C11, Kp1 and Ka1-isolated from stem10. Drevogenin D, mp.227 degree, isolated from seeds and characterized as 3β, 11β, 12β, 14β, 20 prntahydroxypregn-5-ene11.
Wattakaka volubilisis used in the treatment ofkidney stones12; roots are reported to be a remedy for colic pain; plant found to have mild CNS-depressant, anthelmintic, antispasmodic, cytotoxic, antimutagenic and anticancer activities13.
The present investigation is aimed to carry out acute toxicity and antipyretic activity of roots of Wattakaka volubilis (L.f.) Stapf. Since “MURVA” is reported to be used against fever.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Three novel Polyoxypregnane glycosides, volubiloside A, B and C isolated from the flowers of Degea volubilis was reported14.
An unusual novel triterpenoid ether,multiflor-7-en-12,13-ether and a new multiflor-7-en-12α-ol from Wattakaka volubilis has been reported15.
Eight polyoxypregnane glycosides, Marsdenoside A-H, isolated from the CHCl3-soluble frcation of the ethanolic extract of the stem of Marsdenia tenacissima, along with six known glycosides and two known Polyoxypregnane aglycones has been reported16.
Two oligosaccharides from Marsdenia roylei, and their structures determined as O-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl -(1→4)-cymaral and ethyl O-β-D-oleandropyranosyl-(1→4)-O-3-O- methyl -6-deoxy- β-D-allopyranoside, respectively has been reported17.
Novel saponins hainaneosides A & B isolated from Marsdenia hainanensis, these saponins possesing fertility- regulating activity has been reported19.
A new triterpenoides named griffithol with oleanic acid, longispinogenin and chichipegenin isolated from the stem of Marsdenia griffithii was reported20.
A pregnane glycosides ester was isolated from Marsdenia koi by column
chromatography. The structure was identified on the basis of IR, 1H-
NMR, 13C- NMR and FAB-MS has been reported 21.
The effect of aqueous and solvent extracts of Marsdenia volubilis on growth of human pathogenic bacteria and fungi was studied in laboratory condition. Plant possess a wide range antibacterial and antifungal effect has been reported 22.
Antidiabetic properties of plants (Androgrphis lineate, Androgrphis paniculata, Costus speciosus Wattakaka volubilis) used by two major tribal groups in South Tamilnadu, India has been reported 23.
Protection against Selenite Cataract in rat lens by Drevogenin D, a triterpenoid Aglucone from Dregea volubilis was reported, treatment with Drevogenin D at a concentration of 50µg/ml24.
Hypoglycemic activity of Marsdenia volubilis was reported. The inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Marsdenia volubilisleaves and Phylianthus niruri on glucose blood levels was investigated in fasting, normal ,alloxan induced diabetic25.
Apply leaf juice of Wattakaka volubilis by adding little lime on affected part to cure sprains once day till cured was reported26.
Aliquots of extracts from ethnopharmacological plants that have activity against the effects of sarafotoxins present in snake venom are isolated from Wattakaka volubilis was reported27.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
AIMS 1. To undertake Pharmacognostical investigation on roots of Wattakaka volubilis.
2. To investigate and evolve Phytochemical parameters for the drug.
3. To investigate and evaluate acute toxicity and antipyretic activity of the drug.
To study taxonomical characters of the plant which help in the investigation.
To understand the macro and microscopical characters of the drug besides phytochemical analysis. This helps in evolving diagnostic characters for the identification of the drug and also contribute towards Pharmacopeial standards.
To carry out acute toxicity studies.
To evaluate the antipyretic activity of the drug.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
SOURCE OF DATA
Literature survey, Websites.
Journals and Publications.
Lab based studies.
METHOD OF COLLECTION OF DATA
Field and laboratory based studies Field Work:
The selected plant roots will be collected from forests. The voucher specimen will be collected and deposited at the herbarium/museum of the department.
The plant material will be identified by using various Floras like the Flora of Coorg28, Flora of Presidency of Bombay29, Herbarium specimens will be prepared following the method of Jain and Rao as per International standards30.
Free hand sections of the drug will be taken following Wallis31. Microscopical investigation and histochemical tests will be carried out following Evans32.
Quantitative microscopy for carrying out the measurement of tissues will
be done by using stage and ocular micrometers. Photomicrographs will be taken and images captured on computer.
Physical constants of drug will be determined as per Indian Pharmacopoeia33, and Phytochemical tests for detection of organic constituents will be done as per Harborne34. The chromatographic, fluorescence and HPTLC
studies will be carried out following Krebs et al35, Chase and Pratt36.
Acute toxicity studies: Determination of minimum lethal dose of the drug extracts will be performed followed by OECD guidelines37. Swiss albino mice of either sex of weight range of 20-25g will be used for acute toxicity studies. Mice which do not fall within this weight range will not be included in the study38.
50 mice will be used for determination of minimal lethal dose studies.
Antipyretic activity :39 40 41
Antipyretic activity of the drug extracts will be studied on albino rats
(Wistar strain) of either sex in the weight range of 170-190 g. Animals outside this weight range will be excluded from the study.
No. of groups = 6 (each)
(each containing 6 rats)
Group 1: vehicle control group
Group 2: standard group, 45mg /kg of Paracetamol p.o.
Groups 3 & 4: Two doses each of aqueous extract of drug p.o.
Groups 5 & 6: Two doses each of alcohol extract of drug p.o.
Total: 36 rats will be required.
Basal body temperature of all animals will be noted first. Fever will be induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of Brewer’s yeast (20%w/v) in distilled
water. After 18 hours rats will show increased body temperature. Drugs will be administered to febrile rats once and body temperature will be noted at specific
intervals of (4 hrs.) after drug treatment.
The results will be subjected to statistical analysis by one way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test.
Does the study require any investigation to be conducted on patients or other humans or animals? If so, please describe briefly. Yes, Animal experiments on rats will be required for studying antipyretic activity and mice will be required for acute toxicity studies.
Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of
7.3? Yes, ethical committee clearance has been obtained. Certificate copy enclosed
LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy, 26th edition, Nirali
Prakashan, Pune. 2004:1-5.
2. Kolammal M. Pharmacognosy of Ayurvedic Drugs, series-1