Syzygium hodgkinsoniae Conservation Advice Page 1 of 4 Approved conservation advice (s266B of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999) Approved Conservation Advice for

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This conservation advice was approved by the Minister / Delegate of the Minister on 3 July 



Syzygium hodgkinsoniae Conservation Advice - Page 1 of 4 


Approved conservation advice  

(s266B of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999

Approved Conservation Advice for   

Syzygium hodgkinsoniae (Smooth-bark Rose Apple) 

This Conservation Advice has been developed based on the best available information at the 

time this conservation advice was approved.  


Syzygium hodgkinsoniae, Family Myrtaceae, also known as Smooth-bark Rose Apple or Red 

Lilly Pilly, is a small tree to 11 m with a trunk diameter of up to 150 mm and a cylindrical or 

irregular habit. The leaves are dark green above, paler beneath, borne in opposite pairs and are 

oval to lance-shaped, with a short, blunt tip. The bark is dark brown and smooth. The flowers 

are white with a honey fragrance and the fruits are bright red and fleshy, with a diameter of 

40 mm and a single seed (Floyd, 1989; NSW NPWS, 2002). 

Conservation Status 

Smooth-bark Rose Apple is listed as vulnerable. This species is eligible for listing as 

vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cwlth) 

(EPBC Actas, prior to the commencement of the EPBC Act, it was listed as vulnerable 

under Schedule 1 of the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 (Cwlth). Smooth-bark Rose 

Apple is also listed as vulnerable under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 

(NSW) and rare under the Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland). 

Distribution and Habitat 

Smooth-bark Rose Apple occurs in riverine rainforest on rich alluvial or basaltic soils, from 

the Richmond River in NSW to Gympie, Queensland, with a disjunct occurrence in north 

Queensland (Floyd, 1989; NSW NPWS, 2002). The species occurs mostly as scattered 

individuals along watercourses, where the habitat is frequently limited and degraded 

(Landmark Ecological Services, Ecograph & Terrafocus, 1999).  

Recorded occurrences in NSW include Toonumbar and Unumgar State Forests, Big Scrub 

and Minyon Falls Forest Reserves, Davis Scrub and Brunswick Heads Nature Reserves, as 

well as sites at Lismore, Alstonville, Wardell, Hayters Hill, Mullumbimby, Billinudgel, 

Crabbes Creek, Burringbar, Eungella, Upper Oxley and Couch Creek (Floyd, 1989; 

Sheringham & Westaway, 1995; NSW NPWS, 2002). There are 37 recorded occurrences of 

this species in the Byron Bay Local Government Area (LGA), of which 12 are within Nature 

Reserves. There are four recorded individuals in Tweed LGA (Tweed Shire Council, 2002). 

In south-east Queensland, this species occurs along the coastal parts of Moreton and Wide 

Bay districts to Maleny and Kin Kin. In north Queensland, occurrences have been recorded 

near Kuranda and Gordonvale (LA Craven, 1999, pers. comm.). This species occurs within 

the Northern Rivers (NSW) and Wet Tropics, Burnett Mary and South East Queensland 

(Queensland) Natural Resource Management Regions. 

The distribution of this species is overlaps with the “White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely’s Red 

Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland” EPBC Act-listed threatened 

ecological community. 


The main identified threats to Smooth-bark Rose Apple are weed infestation (Barry & 

Thomas, 1994; WJF McDonald 2001, pers. comm.); clearing and fragmentation of habitat for 

development, agriculture, road works and powerlines; general degradation of rainforest 

This conservation advice was approved by the Minister / Delegate of the Minister on 3 July 



Syzygium hodgkinsoniae Conservation Advice - Page 2 of 4 


habitat; grazing and trampling by domestic stock; roadside slashing; and mowing and illegal 

collection for horticulture (Barry & Thomas, 1994). Significant weeds are Camphor Laurel 

(Cinnamomum camphora), Lantana (Lantana camara)Small-leaved Privet 

(Ligustrum sinense) and various introduced pasture grasses (Barry & Thomas, 1994). In the 

Maleny area, Qld, Small-leaved Privet and Lantana are significant weeds (WJF McDonald 

2001, pers. comm.). 

The main potential threats to Smooth-bark Rose Apple include limited opportunities for 

natural regeneration (Floyd, 1989; Barry & Thomas, 1994; Landmark Ecological Services, 

Ecograph & Terrafocus, 1999). This is related to factors including that many mature 

specimens occur as isolated paddock trees, and the species’ habitat is affected by stream-bank 

erosion, fire and coastal storms. Limited pollination may occur because of reduced numbers 

of pollinators, and germination may be reduced because of the activities of seed-eating 

organisms, or less seed dispersal because of reduced numbers of larger fruit pigeons  

Research Priorities 

Research priorities that would inform future regional and local priority actions include: 


Identify threats at Smooth-bark Rose Apple sites. 


Design and implement a monitoring program. 


More precisely assess population size, distribution, ecological requirements and the 

relative impacts of threatening processes. 


Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional 



Undertake seed germination and/or vegetative propagation trials to determine the 

requirements for successful establishment.   


Determine genetic populations within the range of this species, genetic relationships 

between populations and the viability of populations


Identify pollinating agents. 

Regional Priority Actions  

The following regional priority recovery and threat abatement actions can be done to support 

the recovery of Smooth-bark Rose Apple.


Habitat Loss, Disturbance and Modification 


Monitor known populations to identify key threats.  


Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and 

the need to adapt them if necessary.  


Control access routes to suitably constrain public access to known sites on public land. 


Suitably control and manage access on private land. 


Ensure road widening and maintenance activities (or other infrastructure or development 

activities involving substrate or vegetation disturbance) in areas where Smooth-bark Rose 

Apple occurs do not adversely impact on known populations. 


Manage any disruptions to water flows. 

Invasive Weeds 


Develop and implement a management plan for the control of weeds in the local region 

(Barry & Thomas, 1994) that is integrated with the fire management strategy. 

Trampling, Browsing or Grazing 


Develop and implement a stock management plan for roadside verges and travelling stock 


This conservation advice was approved by the Minister / Delegate of the Minister on 3 July 



Syzygium hodgkinsoniae Conservation Advice - Page 3 of 4 




Develop and implement a suitable fire management strategy for Smooth-bark Rose Apple 

that is integrated with the weed management strategy.




Provide maps of known occurrences to local and state Rural Fire Services and seek 

inclusion of mitigative measures in bush fire risk management plans, risk register and/or 

operation maps. 

Conservation Information 


Raise awareness of Smooth-bark Rose Apple within the local community.  


Encourage horticulturists to buy plants only from licensed nurseries. 


Raise awareness of nurseries to national translocation protocols. 

Enable Recovery of Additional Sites and/or Populations 


Investigate options for linking, enhancing or establishing additional populations, and 

encourage regeneration of habitat around isolated paddock trees.   


Undertake appropriate seed collection and storage.  


Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al., 2004) if establishing additional 

population is considered necessary and feasible.  

Local Priority Actions



The following local priority recovery and threat abatement actions can be done to support the 

recovery of Smooth-bark Rose Apple. 

Habitat Loss, Disturbance and Modification 


Minimise adverse impacts from land use at known sites, particularly the remnants in 

Upper Tallebudgera Creek in the Gold Coast hinterland (Barry & Thomas, 1994). 

Invasive Weeds 


Identify and remove weeds in the local area, which could become a threat to the Smooth-

bark Rose Apple, using appropriate methods.  

Trampling, Browsing or Grazing 


Develop, initiate and encourage management regimes on public lands (and private 

property) that minimise physical damage the trees and their habitat, and provide 

opportunity for the species to regenerate. 


Prevent grazing and trampling pressure at known sites on leased crown land through 

exclusion fencing or other barriers. 

This list does not necessarily encompass all actions that may be of benefit to Smooth-bark 

Rose Apple, but highlights those that are considered to be of highest priority at the time of 

preparing the conservation advice.  

Existing Plans/Management Prescriptions that are Relevant to the Species 


NSW Threat Abatement Plan – Invasion of native plant communities by 

Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush and Boneseed) (DEC, 2006), and 


Weeds of National Significance: Lantana (Lantana camara) Strategic Plan (ARMCANZ, 


These prescriptions were current at the time of publishing; please refer to the relevant 

agency’s website for any updated versions.  


This conservation advice was approved by the Minister / Delegate of the Minister on 3 July 



Syzygium hodgkinsoniae Conservation Advice - Page 4 of 4 


Information Sources: 

Agriculture & Resource Management Council of Australia & New Zealand (ARMCANZ) 2001, Weeds of 

National Significance: Lantana (Lantana camara) Strategic Plan, National Weeds Strategy Executive 

Committee, Launceston. 

Barry, SJ & Thomas GT 1994, Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A 

Conservation Review, Qld Department of Environment and Heritage.  

Craven, LA (Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research). Personal communication. 1999.   

Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) 2006, NSW Threat Abatement Plan – 

Invasion of native plant communities by Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush and Boneseed), viewed 14 

March 2008, <


Floyd, AG 1989, Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne.  

Landmark Ecological Services, Ecograph & Terrafocus 1999, Byron Flora and Fauna Study, Report prepared 

for Byron Shire Council. 

McDonald, WJF (Qld Herbarium, Environmental Protection Authority). Personal communication. 2001.  

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NPWS) 2002, Threatened Species of the Upper North Coast of New 

South Wales, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Coffs Harbour. 

Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997, Forest taxa at risk, threats, conservation needs and recovery 

planning in south-east Queensland, Queensland Govt & National Parks & Wildlife Service.  

Sheringham, P & Westaway J 1995, Significant Vascular Plants of Upper North East NSW: A report by the 

NSW NPWS for the Natural Resources Audit Council, NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service. 

Tweed Shire Council 2002, Tweed Shire Council – Recreation Services – Rare and Significant Trees, viewed 14 

March 2008, <


Vallee, L, Hogbin, T, Monks, L, Makinson, B, Matthes, M & Rossetto, M 2004, Guidelines for the 

Translocation of Threatened Plants in Australia - Second Edition, Australian Network for Plant Conservation, 


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pubs -> Approved Conservation Advice for
pubs -> Established under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999

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