Table of contents school of plant biology introduction


THE BOTANIC GARDENS & PARKS AUTHORITY



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THE BOTANIC GARDENS & PARKS AUTHORITY


Kings Park and Botanic Garden is a national leader in conservation biology and restoration ecology research, providing a unique "one-stop-shop" that delivers practical research outcomes for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem restoration. The staff comprises >45 research scientists and postgraduate students in the core integrated disciplines of conservation genetics, propagation science, seed science, germplasm storage, restoration ecology and orchid conservation. For further information see: www.bgpa.wa.gov.au/science


Facilities: Equipment, computers, laboratories, office space, expertise and administration are available in the Biodiversity Conservation Centre (BCC) at Kings Park and Botanic Garden.

Research area: “Restoration Ecology and Restoration Ecophysiology”


1. Optimising seedling establishment in mine site restoration.

The ability of seedlings to establish in restoration sites is dictated by their interaction with abiotic stresses such as drought and soil compaction. This project will use novel approaches to understand Banksia woodland species tolerance to these stresses. Working in collaboration with industry partners outcomes from this project will underpin future restoration processes.

Dr. Jason Stevens (9480 3639), Email: Jason.Stevens@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr Deanna Rokich, Email: Deanna.Rokich@bgpa.wa.gov.au


2. Rehabilitating a sand quarry: optimising seed broadcasting and seedling establishment.

A project to develop seed broadcasting efficiency in a post-quarry context is provided to students interested in the rehabilitation of disturbed/mined lands. The project will investigate effects of site conditions (eg topography, aspect, age) and site/soil amendments (e.g. fencing, soil stabilizers) on seed loss, seed germination and seedling establishment.

Dr Deanna Rokich, Email: Deanna.Rokich@bgpa.wa.gov.au
3. Why are weeds killing our native bushland?

To assist land managers devise appropriate weed management plans and ultimately prescriptions for restoration purposes, an understanding of the biology and ecology of key weed species is of utmost importance. Projects may also have the opportunity to address potential impacts of herbicide and wetting agent applications on seedbanks, seeds, seedlings, and plants.

Dr Deanna Rokich, Email: Deanna.Rokich@bgpa.wa.gov.au
Further information:

Dr Deanna Rokich, Email: Deanna.Rokich@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr. Jason Stevens (9480 3639), Email: Jason.Stevens@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Research area: “Conservation Biotechnology”


1. Correlating cell membrane composition with tolerance to cryogenic treatments

The aim is to study the factors that determine the ability of various plants to survive cryogenic storage, with a focus on recalcitrant and endangered species of relevance in post-mining rehabilitation. The preservation of cell membrane structure is essential for the survival of tissues subjected to cryogenic storage at very low temperatures. Plant sterols and phospholipids are known to regulate membrane fluidity and permeability and the unsaturated degree of these fatty acids appears to be closely associated with abiotic stress resistance in plants. Free fatty acids, produced during water stress by action of lipases on polar lipids, may be stored in neutral lipids (triacylglycerols) in order to avoid oxidation by free radicals and reactive oxygen species and, hence, their abundance and type may influence post-cryogenic survival. This project will characterise the species-dependent composition of biological membranes, which will help to provide a rationale for observed differences in tissue survival upon thawing, and will be the basis for future molecular modelling and biophysical studies of membrane structure and dynamics.

Dr. Eric Bunn (9480 3647), Email: Eric.Bunn@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Assoc. Prof. Ricardo L. Mancera


2. Evaluation of oxidative stress markers in cryotolerant and cryosensitive plant species

The aim is to study the factors that determine the ability of various plants to survive cryogenic storage, with a focus on recalcitrant and endangered species of relevance in post-mining rehabilitation. Oxidative stress markers are detectable in cryopreserved cells from many species and it has been demonstrated that tissues with high catalase and low superoxide dismutase activity show increased tolerance to cryostorage. Elevated levels of antioxidant activity have also been correlated with a reduction in the production of hydroxyl radicals. Low temperature stress can also stimulate ethylene biosynthesis, a response that has been correlated with senescence and plant stress, which can also be utilised as an indicator of post-cryogenic storage membrane damage. This project will determine the significance of stress markers for cryosensitive and cryotolerant Australian plant native species during cryogenic storage.

Dr. Eric Bunn (9480 3647), Email: Eric.Bunn@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Assoc. Prof. Ricardo L. Mancera


3. Evaluation of plant tissue responses to a range of cryogenic solutions

The aim is to study the factors that determine the ability of various plants to survive cryogenic storage, with a focus on recalcitrant and endangered species of relevance in post-mining rehabilitation.Relatively little is known about how cryogenic solutions promote survival after liquid nitrogen storage and their specific mode of action. The most commonly used cryoprotectant, the plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2), has been successfully applied to many different Australian species. While other solutions are successful on a number of plants, only PVS2 yields high survival following liquid nitrogen immersion. The exact reason for this lack of survival is currently unknown, despite the fact that the composition of the different solutions is relatively similar. All these solutions have glycerol, ethylene glycol, sucrose and DMSO as their core components, which are believed to aid cell membrane stabilisation during cooling through interactions with membrane structures, promoting cell desiccation by increasing the osmotic potential extracellularly, and replacing intracellular water so that cellular volume is not substantially altered during desiccation. This project will investigate the changes that occur in the shoot tips of cryosensitive and cryotolerant Australian plant native species upon cooling with liquid nitrogen in the presence of different cryogenic solutions.

Dr. Eric Bunn (9480 3647), Email: Eric.Bunn@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Assoc. Prof. Ricardo L. Mancera


4. Smoke and sex – using the smoke chemical as a propagation tool?

The recent discovery by UWA and Kings Park scientists of the active smoke chemical (karrikinolide) is a triumph of Australian science. Karrikins are a new class of naturally-occurring plant growth-promoting compounds and research has now established that they can stimulate plant tissues grown in vitro. Recent research has found in vitro cultured somatic embryos derived from Baloskion tetraphyllum (Restionaceae) were stimulated to grow and develop more rapidly when exposed to karrikinolide. However, little else is known about the effects of Karrikins, their active concentration or other responsive species or tissues. This project aims to discover and document the effects of karrikinolide on embryogenic callus derived from Lepidosperma spp.

Dr. Eric Bunn (9480 3647), Email: Eric.Bunn@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr. Shane Turner (9480 3639), Email: Shane.Turner@bgpa.wa.gov.au


5. The doomsday vault for die-back resistant Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata).

Cryogenics involves the use of liquid nitrogen to provide ultra-low temperatures (below -130°C) for long-term storage of plant tissue. This project offers an exciting challenge in developing cryogenic storage protocols for the long-term storage and sustainable development of elite clones of dieback-resistant Jarrah for restoration and forestry.

Dr. Eric Bunn (9480 3647), Email: Eric.Bunn@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr. Shane Turner (9480 3639), Email: Shane.Turner@bgpa.wa.gov.au


6. Saving the sedges – researching mass propagation of Australian native sedges.

An honours project will be offered on developing tissue culture-based mass propagation techniques for the dryland Cyperaceae (sedges) species Mesomalaena pseudostygia, Mesomalaena tetragona and Schoenus grandiflorus. This project will investigate methods of mass-producing plants through specialised plant tissue culture techniques, concentrating on the challenging area of seed embryo extraction and culture.

Dr. Eric Bunn (9480 3647), Email: Eric.Bunn@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr. Shane Turner (9480 3639), Email: Shane.Turner@bgpa.wa.gov.au


7. Propagation and storage biology of the critically endangered species Commersonia sp. Mt Groper (Sterculiaceae).

Commersonia sp. Mt Groper is poorly studied species known to occur from less than 5 sites along the South coast of Western Australia. Little is currently known about its propagation biology and storage requirements, aspects which are critical to securing its long term future. This project will therefore investigate key features of the seed biology of this species and will also assess the applicability of plant tissue culture for its mass propagation. In addition, the response of seeds and somatic tissues (shoot cultures and shoot tips) to various forms of long-term storage such as maintenance at 10 °C, 5 °C, -18 °C and -196 °C (cryostorage) will also be assessed.

Dr. Shane Turner (9480 3639), Email: Shane.Turner@bgpa.wa.gov.au
Further information:

Dr. Eric Bunn (9480 3647), Email: Eric.Bunn@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr. Shane Turner (9480 3639), Email: Shane.Turner@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Research area: “Conserving and restoring genetic diversity”

1. Identifying local provenance seed collection zones for bushland rehabilitation, and

2. Assessment of the “home-site” advantage, and its consequences for bushland rehabilitation.

How far from a restoration site can seed be collected whilst still maintaining the genetic integrity of the local population? Is there a “home-site advantage”? What are the consequences of mixing provenances? Within this project, there is enormous scope for population genetic studies using a range of molecular markers, but typically microsatellites, as well as ecological studies, pollination studies and landscape characterisation studies across a broad range of species – individually or as an integrated study, to contribute to better outcomes in bushland rehabilitation. This project can even go underwater and investigate these issues for seagrass meadow restoration.

Supervisors: Dr Siegy Krauss (Siegy.Krauss@bgpa.wa.gov.au); Dr Janet Anthony (Janet.Anthony@bgpa.wa.gov.au); Dr Liz Sinclair (esinclair@iinet.net.au)
3. Does genetic erosion threaten the viability of recently fragmented populations?

Do recently fragmented populations produce fewer, and/or genetically inferior, offspring, and does this affect the long-term viability of these populations? Do pollinators reach and effectively service plants in geographically separated plant populations? This project offers the opportunity to utilize molecular markers and field based studies to assess reproductive success, mating patterns, pollen dispersal and inbreeding depression in small and large populations of recently and/or historically fragmented plant populations. This project suits a candidate with an interest in plant pollinator interactions in an ecological restoration and habitat fragmentation context.

Supervisor: Dr Siegy Krauss (Siegy.Krauss@bgpa.wa.gov.au)
4. Phylogenetic relationships and speciation in WA using DNA sequences

South-western WA is known worldwide as a biodiversity hotspot. Our understanding of the number and relationships of plant species in SW WA is still far from complete. Numerous "species complexes" need to be investigated to determine whether the observed variation is driven by morphological plasticity, evolutionary history, or ecology, and whether multiple species are hidden under a single name. Such fundamental questions are important for our understanding of evolutionary history and biological processes in our ancient flora, and underpin our management of biodiversity in SW WA. Conservation issues are especially important in this time of economic boom, to avoid rare and localised species becoming extinct before they are even discovered. Current research interests are in the horticulturally significant Verticordia (featherflowers), Grevillea, Anigozanthos (kangaroo paws) and Goodeniaceae, and highly diverse groups such as Stylidium (triggerplants), Drosera (sundews) and Lepidosperma sedges. Some projects would be co supervised by taxonomic experts at the WA Herbarium.

Supervisors: Dr Matt Barrett (Matt.Barrett@bgpa.wa.gov.au); Dr Siegy Krauss (Siegy.Krauss@bgpa.wa.gov.au)
5. Realized dispersal in banksias.

Dispersal of seed and pollen is a key process affecting many aspects of the evolutionary dynamics of plant species. We have developed a battery of powerful molecular markers for the assessment of realized dispersal of both pollen (through paternity assignment) and seed (through population allocation) both within and among populations of banksias. This project extends on our recent research highlighting the genetically novel and significant consequences of pollination by highly-mobile nectar-feeding birds, and would suit a candidate with an interest in animal-plant interactions.

Supervisors: Dr TianHua He (Tianhua.He@bgpa.wa.gov.au); Dr Siegy Krauss (Siegy.Krauss@bgpa.wa.gov.au)
6. Pollination ecology and reproductive biology of rare acacias.

Acacia karina is a narrow endemic, restricted to a handful of populations on ironstone in the mid-west of WA. Some of these populations are to be impacted by mining activities, and an understanding of the levels and structuring of genetic variation, and the processes impacting on this genetic variation, are required for management and conservation. This project applies newly developed microsatellite markers for the detailed assessment of realized mating patterns through an analysis of paternity, to generate new data on outcrossing rates and pollen dispersal. In addition, fieldwork during its flowering period will generate new data on pollinators, pollinator movement and behaviour, and the reproductive biology of A. karina. These data will be interpreted in the context of assessing impacts of mining activities on the long-term viability of this species, and contribute novel information on the reproductive biology of acacias generally.

Supervisors: Dr Paul Nevill (Paul.Nevill@bgpa.wa.gov.au); Dr Siegy Krauss (Siegy.Krauss@bgpa.wa.gov.au)
7. Local provenance and differentiation among native triggerplant (Stylidiaceae) populations

Nearly 70% of triggerplant species occur in Southwest Western Australia, highlighting the Stylidiaceae as an important target for conservation and restoration. Are populations of Stylidium species adapted to local environments? How far can seed be collected from a restoration site without negative consequences for the fitness of restored populations? This project will use molecular markers to measure genetic diversity and structure among populations of one or more triggerplant species in the Perth region. In addition, there will be opportunities for field and greenhouse (ecophysiological) studies to determine fitness consequences of mixing seed sources in restoration. Ultimately, these data will contribute to genetic provenance maps for seed collection and improved outcomes for bushland restoration.

Supervisors: Dr Siegy Krauss; Prof Hans Lambers, Dr Erik Veneklaas, Dr Kristina Hufford (Kristina.Hufford@bgpa.wa.gov.au)
All of these projects are supported by external funds.
Further information:

Dr. Siegy Krauss (9480 3673), Email: Siegy.Krauss@bgpa.wa.gov.au



Research Area: “Understanding seeds for restoration”

1. Identification and characterisation of the water gap in the seeds of Australian Rhamnaceae.

Worldwide approximately 17 plant families are known to possess physically dormant seeds yet the anatomical seed coat structure regulating the movement of water into seeds has still to be located in four f these families including the Rhamnaceae. Using a number of different techniques such as dye permeation, imbibition, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy this project will seek to locate, identify and describe this key feature in the seeds of Australian Rhamnaceae. In addition, this project will also assess the general seed characteristics, basic seed dormancy and germination requirements of selected Australian Rhamnaceae in order to more fully understand their general seed ecology.

Dr. Shane Turner (9480 3639), Email: Shane.Turner@bgpa.wa.gov.au


2. Rehabilitation in the World Heritage Area (Shark Bay): understanding the effects of drought and salinity on seed germination.

Successful rehabilitation in coastal areas of the semi-arid zone is limited by drought and high soil salinity. Plant emergence and survival patterns are influenced by the ability of seeds/seedlings to persist under drought and/or saline conditions. This project will determine the effects of drought and salinity on seed germination and seedling establishment of species from the Shark Bay area, to assist with rehabilitation efforts in that region.

Dr Lucy Commander (9480 3622), Email: Lucy.Commander@bgpa.wa.gov.au
3. Smoking out the enemy: using smoke-chemicals to trigger weed seed germination

Using smoke-chemicals such as karrikinolide to trigger weed seeds to germinate synchronously could help to reduce the weed burden in agricultural industries. Yet not all species and seed lots can be triggered to germinate with these chemicals. To explore the role of the environment in determining the smoke-responsiveness of seeds, this project will investigate how water- and temperature-stress during plant development affect the dormancy-state of the resulting seeds. The project will involve both laboratory- and glasshouse-based experiments, and includes scope to develop skills in molecular biology.

Further information:

Dr Rowena Long, email: rowena.long@bgpa.wa.gov.au


Further information:

Dr. Shane Turner (9480 3639), Email: Shane.Turner@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr Lucy Commander (9480 3622), Email: Lucy.Commander@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr Rowena Long, email: rowena.long@bgpa.wa.gov.au




Research Area: “Native plants for broadacre restoration - innovative use of native species for sustainable farming systems”
1. Reproductive strategies and genetic structure of wild and naturalised Microlaena stipoides populations of south-western Australia
Widely distributed species employ defined reproductive strategies to persist in particular environments. In low risk environments such as high rainfall areas, strategies may be substitutable such as early flowering for germination regulatory strategies related to temperature / moisture and seedbank longevity. Reproductive strategies may narrow substantially in high risk, low rainfall environments and may include high seed dormancy, early synchronous flowering and high seed to stem ratios. This project explores the adaptive relationship between reproductive characteristics and the environment across a wide range of Microlaena populations collected across south-western Australia.

Dr. Christopher Loo, email: christopher.loo@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Prof. Kingsley Dixon, email: kingsley.dixon@bgpa.wa.gov.au

2. Seed biology of the native grass Monachather paradoxus (Broad-leaved Wanderrie grass); Genetic variation in growth and reproduction within and between populations of the native grass Monachather paradoxus (Broad-leaved Wanderrie grass);
M. paradoxus is a native perennial grass with broad scale potential as a persistent pasture species for low rainfall farming systems in Western Australia. The species occurs widely throughout the central and northern agricultural region as well as the inland and northern pastoral regions and arid zones. The projects listed aim to develop a better understanding of how M. paradoxus is able to persist across different environments in terms of seed, growth and reproduction characteristics.

Dr. Christopher Loo, email: christopher.loo@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Prof. Kingsley Dixon, email: kingsley.dixon@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr. Jason Stevens, email: Jason.stevens@bgpa.wa.gov.au


3. Germination, emergence and vegetative growth in Lespedeza juncea (L.f.) Pers. (Fabaceae).
Lespedeza is a warm season perennial legume native to Australia and appears well suited to infertile acid soils atypical of degraded farming systems. To explore the suitability of Lespedeza to WA dryland farming systems, this project will investigate seed dormancy, germination, seedling emergence and vegetative growth attributes in relation to light, temperature and soil characteristics.

Dr. Christopher Loo, email: christopher.loo@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Richard Snowball,DAFWA
4. Reproductive and dispersal factors influencing the natural recruitment of Maireana brevifolia (Small Leaf Bluebush) in saline landscapes
Small Leaf Bluebush is a common herbaceous perennial on saline landscapes. The species is known to recruit in the absence of grazing. This objective of this study is to develop an understanding of the influence of the timing of seed dispersal, role of seedbank and vegetation cover and timing of rainfall in the recruitment process.

Further information:

Dr. Christopher Loo, email: christopher.loo@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Assoc. Prof. E.G. Barrett Lennard,


5. Use of seed enabling technology to improve the establishment of agricultural and NRM important perennials
Australian native plants have been identified as having a large potential for pasture/cropping systems, agro-forestry and land remediation. However, the need to lower the cost of production or land rehabilitation by improving plant establishment success. Kings Park has strategically developed many germination enhancement treatments that aim to reduce the amount of seed usage and produce more vigorous plants thus assisting these industries in becoming more economically viable. A range of projects are being offered working on a wide variety of herbaceous and woody native perennial species as well as native grasses for direct seeding. Topics include general seed biology, refining seed enabling technology and use of seed coating to improve delivery and establishment success.

Further information:

Dr. Christopher Loo, email: christopher.loo@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr. Jason Stevens, email: Jason.stevens@bgpa.wa.gov.au


Research Area: “Pollination Biology”


1. The effects of habitat fragmentation on pollination systems on the Swan Coastal Plain

Western Australia is recognised as a biodiversity hotspot through the combination of high floristic diversity and pervasive anthropogenic threats. Critical to conservation of this flora is an understanding of reproductive strategies, particularly pollination. Yet remarkably pollination systems have been studied in very few insect pollinated plants including many of our most well known wildflowers. This project aims to resolve pollination systems in a range of species naturally occurring in floristically diverse urban remnants and the effects of habitat fragmentation and habitat modification on pollinator communities.

Dr Ryan Phillips, email Ryan.Phillips@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Mr Myles Menz, email Myles.Menz@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Prof. Kingsley Dixon, email Kingsley.Dixon@bgpa.wa.gov.au
2. Bee pollination of pea plants and the potential for competition with feral honey bees

Western Australian pea plants (Fabaceae) are characterized by high species diversity and a range of striking floral colour patterns. The majority of species are believed to be pollinated by native bees and, more recently, the feral honey bee (Apis mellifera). However, most aspects of this interaction remain largely unstudied including the foraging specificity of native bees, the relative importance of Apis mellifera for pollination, differences in foraging behaviour between bee species and the consequences for pollen movement. This project will investigate these issues by focusing on winter flowering pea plants in the Darling Range (Hovea and Davesia).

Dr Ryan Phillips, email Ryan.Phillips@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Mr Myles Menz, email Myles.Menz@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Prof,.Kingsley Dixon, email Kingsley.Dixon@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Research Area: “Orchid Biology”


1. Microhabitat requirements for the germination and survival of the endangered spider orchid Caladenia huegelii
Caladenia huegelii, the Grand Spider Orchid, is a rare and endangered species restricted to the Swan Coastal Plain. While C. huegelii was probably once common in its restricted range, it is now highly threatened by clearing for agriculture and ongoing urbanization. A multidisciplinary research program has shown that C. huegelii not only has very low reproductive success but relies on a single species of mycorrhizal fungus for germination and annual growth. Fortunately, propagation techniques are well developed, creating the opportunity for reintroductions into the wild. This project will primarily involve a microhabitat study of both the location of adult plants and sites where germination occurs with the aim of better managing the species and optimizing the reintroduction process. Further, we will aim to establish if orchids have more specific habitat requirements during germination than as adult plants. The project will also involve comparison with common co-occuring Caladenia which utilize different species of mycorrhizal fungi. This will enable investigation of the interaction of fungal species and microhabitat in the formation of symbiosis.

Dr Belinda Newman, email Belinda.Newman@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr Ryan Phillips, email Ryan.Phillips@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Mr Myles Menz, email Myles.Menz@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Prof,.Kingsley Dixon, email Kingsley.Dixon@bgpa.wa.gov.au

2. Impacts of population size and co-flowering species on reproductive success in the pea plant mimic Diuris brumalis
The Orchidaceae is remarkable for having a high diversity of deceptive pollination strategies. In many cases the orchid produces a showy display indicative of a nectar producing plant – yet no such reward is provided to the pollinator. Donkey orchids (Diuris) have long been thought to mimic pea plants (Fabaceae), thereby luring pollinators to their nectarless flowers. However, this theory has recently been questioned on the basis that Diuris do not necessarily co-occur with the pea plants they are believed to mimic. This study aims to confirm the sharing of pollinators between Diuris and pea plants and then test if the presence of pea plants has a positive benefit on reproductive success of Diuris. The relationship of reproductive success and population size will also be investigated to test if deceptive pollination strategies are more successful for small populations.

Dr Ryan Phillips, email Ryan.Phillips@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Mr Myles Menz, email Myles.Menz@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr Belinda Newman, email Belinda.Newman@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Prof,.Kingsley Dixon, email Kingsley.Dixon@bgpa.wa.gov.au

3. Ecological drivers of niche occupancy and symbiosis formation in the rare and threatened orchid, Caladenia lodgeana
Caladenia lodgeana is a rare spider orchid restricted to the Collie Basin in the south-west of Western Australia. A large-scale, regional mycorrhizal baiting study revealed that formation of a symbiosis between the orchid and fungi was occurring primarily within established orchid populations and rarely outside of them. This raises the question as to why sites outside of the orchids current range don’t appear to support formation of a mycorrhizal symbiosis? Are the fungi of co-occurring spider orchids able to outcompete the C. lodgeana compatible fungi? This study would focus on baiting for the mycorrhizal fungi of C. lodgeana and other co-occurring spider orchids within and outside the range of C. lodgeana populations. Comparative studies of germination and habitat variables will help determine the ecological drivers of niche occupancy and symbiosis formation. The results of this study will aid in future reintroduction efforts and will also form part of an integrated research program focused on the conservation of the rare and threatened spider orchid, C. lodgeana.

Dr Belinda Newman, email Belinda.Newman@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Dr Ryan Phillips, email Ryan.Phillips@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Mr Myles Menz, email Myles.Menz@bgpa.wa.gov.au

Prof,.Kingsley Dixon, email Kingsley.Dixon@bgpa.wa.gov.au



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