The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats

Seaweeds and seagrasses (by Enric Ballesteros)

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Seaweeds and seagrasses (by Enric Ballesteros)

Table S7. Mediterranean biodiversity (species/infraspecific taxa, families, orders, classes) for the phyla Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Magnoliophyta and all the macrophytobenthos

Total number of species/intraspecific taxa is also split into introduced, endemics and others.

Table S8. Percentage of introduced, endemics and other macrophytobenthic species/infraspecific taxa by phylum and totals

Table S9. Checklist of the phylum Heterokontophyta and comments to the checklist

Algae belonging to the phylum Heterokontophyta (Kingdom Chromista) have been classified by Classes, Orders, Families, Species and other infraspecific levels (subspecies, varieties and forms). Ordination is alphabetical. When no infraspecific level is indicated the taxa corresponds to the type variety.

This list is based in the check-list by Ribera et al. (1992), with some updates and modifications. Particular attention has been devoted to local checklists published after the revision by Ribera et al. (1992): Puglia (Southern Italy) (Cormaci et al. 2001), Tuscany (Northwestern Italy) (Rindi et al. 2002), Morocco (Benhissoune et al. 2002) and Italian coasts (Furnari et al. 2003). Lists of Mediterranean introduced species have also been considered (e.g. Boudouresque & Verlaque 2002; Zenetos et al. 2005, 2008; Verlaque et al. in press) as well as some specific papers (e.g. Cormaci et al. 1994; Ramon 2000; Ribera et al. 2005; Alongi et al. 2007; Taskin et al. 2010). Black Sea is not included.

Taxonomy follows Algaebase ( if not otherwise indicated. Endemic species (found only in the Mediterranean basin, Black Sea included) are preceded by the symbol *. A careful and critical examination of the existing records of every species from the available literature has been performed in order to consider a species as endemic. Introduced species are preceded by the symbol #. As it is not always easy to detect introduced species from the distributional records, we mainly follow the criteria by other authors specialized in this issue. Superscript numbers refer to notes. Some of the commonest synonyms found in Mediterranean literature (if any) are sometimes placed after the currently accepted name. Other synonyms can be found at Algaebase. A list of taxa inquirenda as well as a list of taxa excludenda is also given at the end of the list; species considered in Ribera et al. (1992) are not stated again.

Kingdom Chromista


Phylum Heterokontophyta


Class Pelagophyceae


Order Sarcinochrysidales


Family Sarcinochrysidaceae

Chrysonephos lewisii (Taylor) Taylor

Nematochrysopsis marina (J. Feldmann) Billard (=Tribonema marinum J. Feldmann)


Class Xanthophyceae


Order Vaucheriales


Family Vaucheriaceae

Vaucheria dichotoma (Linnaeus) Martius

Vaucheria piloboloides Thuret

Vaucheria sescuplicaria Christensen

Vaucheria submarina (Lyngbye) Berkeley

Vaucheria synandra Woronin

Vaucheria velutina C. Agardh (=Vaucheria thuretii Woronin)

Vaucheria woroniniana Heering


Class Phaeophyceae


Order Cutleriales


Family Cutleriaceae

Cutleria adspersa (Mertens ex Roth) De Notaris (=Aglaozonia melanoidea Sauvageau)

Cutleria chilosa (Falkenberg) Silva (=Aglaozonia chilosa Falkenberg; =Cutleria monoica Ollivier)

Cutleria multifida (Turner) Greville [=Aglaozonia parvula (Greville) Zanardini]

Zanardinia typus (Nardo) Silva [=Zanardinia prototypus (Nardo) Nardo]


Order Desmarestiales


Family Arthrocladiaceae

Arthrocladia villosa (Hudson) Duby


Family Desmarestiaceae

Desmarestia aculeata (Linnaeus) Lamouroux

Desmarestia dresnayi Lamouroux ex Leman

Desmarestia ligulata (Stackhouse) Lamouroux (=Desmarestia adriatica Ercegovic)

#Desmarestia viridis (O.F. Müller) Lamouroux


Order Dictyotales


Family Dictyotaceae

Dictyopteris lucida Ribera, Gómez-Garreta, Pérez-Ruzafa, Barceló & Rull

Dictyopteris polypodioides (De Candolle) Lamouroux [=Dictyopteris membranacea (Stackhouse) Batters]

Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) Lamouroux

Dictyota dichotoma var. intricata (C. Agardh) Greville [=var. implexa (Desfontaines) Gray]

Dictyota fasciola (Roth) Lamouroux [=Dilophus fasciola (Roth) Howe]

Dictyota fasciola var. repens (J. Agardh) Ardissone

Dictyota linearis (C. Agardh) Greville

*Dictyota mediterranea (Schiffner) Furnari (=Dilophus mediterraneus Schiffner)

#Dictyota sp.1

Dictyota spiralis Montagne [=Dilophus ligulatus (Kützing) J. Feldmann]

Lobophora variegata (Lamouroux) Womersley ex Oliveira

#Padina boergesenii Allender & Kraft

#Padina boryana Thivy (=Padina tenuis Bory)

Padina pavonica (Linnaeus) Thivy

#Rugulopteryx okamurae (Dawson) Hwang, Lee & Kim [=Dictyota okamurae (Dawson) Hörnig, Schnetter & Prud'homme van Reine]

Spatoglossum schroederi (C. Agardh) Kützing

Spatoglossum solierii (Chauvin ex Montagne) Kützing

#Spatoglossum variabile Figari & De Notaris

#Stypopodium schimperi (Buchinger ex Kützing) Verlaque & Boudouresque

Taonia atomaria (Woodward) J. Agardh

*Taonia atomaria f. ciliata (C. Agardh) Nizamuddin

*Taonia lacheana Cormaci, Furnari & Pizzuto

Zonaria tournefortii (Lamouroux) Montagne


Order Ectocarpales


Family Acinetosporaceae

Acinetospora crinita (Carmichael ex Harvey) Sauvageau [=Acinetospora vidovichii (Meneghini) Sauvageau]

*Feldmannia battersiides (Ercegovic) Cormaci & Furnari

Feldmannia irregularis (Kützing) Hamel

Feldmannia lebelii (Areschoug ex P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan) Hamel [=Feldmannia caespitula (J. Agardh) Knoepffler-Péguy]

Feldmannia padinae (Buffham) Hamel

Feldmannia paradoxa (Montagne) Hamel [=Feldmannia globifera (Kützing) Hamel]

*Feldmannia paradoxoides (Ercegovic) Cormaci & Furnari

Feldmannia simplex (P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan) Hamel

*Hincksia dalmatica (Ercegovic) Cormaci & Furnari

Hincksia fuscata (Zanardini) Silva

*Hincksia geniculata (Ercegovic) Cormaci & Furnari

Hincksia granulosa (Smith) Silva

*Hincksia hauckii (Ercegovic) Cormaci & Furnari

Hincksia hincksiae (Harvey) Silva

Hincksia mitchelliae (Harvey) Silva

Hincksia ovata (Kjellman) Silva

Hincksia sandriana (Zanardini) Silva

Hincksia secunda (Kützing) Silva


Family Chordariaceae

*Acrospongium ralfsioides Schiffner

#Acrothrix gracilis Kylin

Ascocyclus orbicularis (J. Agardh) Kjellman2

Asperococcus bullosus Lamouroux [=Asperococcus turneri (Smith) Hooker]

*Asperococcus bullosus f. profundus J. Feldmann

Asperococcus ensiformis (Chiaje) Wynne (=Asperococcus compressus Griffiths ex Hooker)

Asperococcus fistulosus (Hudson) Hooker

Asperococcus scaber Kuckuck

Botrytella micromora Bory

#Botrytella parva (Takamatsu) Kim

Chilionema hispanicum (Sauvageau) Fletcher

Cladosiphon contortus (Thuret) Kylin

*Cladosiphon cylindricus (Sauvageau) Kylin (=Castagnea cylindrica Sauvageau)

*Cladosiphon irregularis (Sauvageau) Kylin (=Castagnea irregularis Sauvageau)

*Cladosiphon mediterraneus Kützing (=Castagnea mediterranea (Kützing) Hauck)

#Cladosiphon zosterae (J. Agardh) Kylin

Climacosorus mediterraneus Sauvageau

Corynophlaea crispa (Harvey) Kuckuck

*Corynophlaea flaccida (C. Agardh) Kützing

*Corynophlaea hamelii J. Feldmann

*Corynophlaea umbellata (C. Agardh) Kützing

*Cylindrocarpus kuckuckii Taskin, Wynne & Özturk

Cylindrocarpus microscopicus P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan

Elachista flaccida (Dillwyn) Fries

Elachista fucicola (Velley) Areschoug

Elachista intermedia P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan

*Elachista intermedia var. clavaeformis Ercegovic

*Elachista jabukae Ercegovic

*Elachista neglecta Kuckuck

Elachista stellaris Areschoug

Eudesme virescens (Carmichael ex Berkeley) J. Agardh

Giraudia sphacelarioides Derbès & Solier

*Gontrania lubrica Sauvageau

#Halothrix lumbricalis (Kützing) Reinke

*Hecatonema liagorae (J. Feldmann) Hamel

Hecatonema terminale (Kützing) Kylin [=Hecatonema maculans (Collins) Sauvageau]

*Herponema graniferum Kuckuck

Herponema solitarium (Sauvageau) Hamel

Herponema valiantei (Bornet ex Sauvageau) Hamel

Herponema velutinum (Greville) J. Agardh

Kuetzingiella battersii (Bornet ex Sauvageau) Kornmann

*Kuetzingiella battersii var. mediterranea (Sauvageau) Gómez & Ribera

#Leathesia marina (Lyngbye) Decaisne (=Leathesia difformis Areschoug)

*Leathesia mucosa J. Feldmann

*Leathesia mucosa var. condensata J. Feldmann

Leptonematella fasciculata (Reinke) Silva

*Leptonematella neapolitana (Schussnig) Cormaci & Furnari

Liebmannia leveillei J. Agardh

Lithosiphon laminariae (Lyngbye) Harvey (=Streblonema oligosporum Strömfelt; =Streblonema thuretii Sauvageau)

Mesogloia lanosa P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan

Mesogloia vermiculata (Smith) Gray

Microcoryne ocellata Strömfelt

Microspongium gelatinosum Reinke

Microspongium tenuissimum (Hauck) A.F. Peters (=Streblonema tenuissimum Hauck)

Mikrosyphar polysiphoniae Kuckuck

Myriactula arabica (Kützing) J. Feldmann

*Myriactula elongata (Sauvageau) Hamel

*Myriactula gracilis van der Ben

*Myriactula rigida (Sauvageau) Hamel

Myriactula rivulariae (Suhr) J. Feldmann

Myriactula stellulata (Harvey) Levring

#Myriogloea sciurus (Harvey) Kuckuck ex Oltmanns

*Myrionema conchicola (J. Feldmann) Boudouresque

Myrionema liechtensternii Hauck

Myrionema magnusii (Sauvageau) Loiseaux

Myrionema strangulans Greville

Myriotrichia adriatica Hauck

Myriotrichia repens Hauck (=Myriotrichia clavaeformis Harvey?)

*Nemacystus flexuosus (C. Agardh) Kylin var. giraudyi (J. Agardh) De Jong (=Nemacystus ramulosus Derbès & Solier)

Nemacystus hispanicus (Sauvageau) Kylin

Petrospongium berkeleyi (Greville) Nägeli ex Kützing

*Phaeostroma bertholdii Kuckuck

*Protasperococcus myriotrichiiformis Sauvageau

Protectocarpus speciosus (Boergesen) Kornmann

Punctaria latifolia Greville

#Punctaria tenuissima (C. Agardh) Greville (=Streblonema effusum Kylin)

Sauvageaugloia griffithsiana (Griffiths & Harvey) Hamel & Kylin (=Myriocladia chordariaeformis P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan; =Cladosiphon chordariaeformis P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan)

Spermatochnus paradoxus (Roth) Kützing

Spongonema tomentosum Hudson) Kützing

Stictyosiphon adriaticus Kützing

Stictyosiphon soriferus (Reinke) Rosenvinge

Stictyosiphon tortilis (Gobi) Reinke

Stilophora tenella (Esper) Silva [=Stilophora rhizodes (C. Agardh) J. Agardh]

Streblonema infestans (Gran) Batters

Streblonema parasiticum (Sauvageau) De Toni

Streblonema sphaericum (Derbès & Solier) Thuret

Streblonema stilophorae (P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan) Kylin

*Streblonemopsis irritans Valiante

Sphaerotrichia divaricata (C. Agardh) Kylin

#Sphaerotrichia firma (Gepp) Zinova

Strepsithalia liagorae Sauvageau

Strepsithalia liebmanniae Miranda

Striaria attenuata (Greville) Greville [=Striaria attenuata f. crinita (J. Agardh) Hauck; =Striaria attenuata f. ramosissima (Kützing) Hauck]

*Zosterocarpus oedogonium (Meneghini) Bornet


Family Ectocarpaceae

Asterocladon rhodochortonoides (Boergesen) Uwai, Nagasato, Motomura & Kogame (=Ectocarpus rhodochortonoides Boergesen)

Ectocarpus fasciculatus Harvey

Ectocarpus fasciculatus var. abbreviatus (Kützing) Sauvageau

Ectocarpus fasciculatus var. pycnocarpus (Rosenvinge) Cardinal

Ectocarpus commensalis Setchell & Gardner [=Ectocarpus parvus (Saunders) Hollenberg]

Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye (=Ectocarpus confervoides Le Jolis; =Ectocarpus siliculosus var. penicillatus C. Agardh)

*Ectocarpus siliculosus var. adriaticus (Ercegovic) Cormaci & Furnari

Ectocarpus siliculosus var. arctus (Kützing) Gallardo

Ectocarpus siliculosus var. crouaniorum (Thuret) Gallardo

Ectocarpus siliculosus var. dasycarpus (Kuckuck) Gallardo [=var. crassus (Kjellman) Gallardo]

#Ectocarpus siliculosus var. hiemalis (P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan ex Kjellman) Gallardo

Ectocarpus siliculosus var. pygmaeus (Areschoug) G. Russell

Ectocarpus siliculosus var. subulatus (Kützing) Gallardo

*Ectocarpus siliculosus var. venetus (Kützing) Gallardo

Ectocarpus virescens Thuret ex Sauvageau

Kuckuckia spinosa (Kützing) Kornmann (=Kuckuckia kylinii Cardinal)

Pilinia rimosa Kützing


Family Pylaiellaceae

Bachelotia antillarum (Grunow) Gerloff

#Pylaiella littoralis (Linnaeus) Kjellman


Order Fucales


Family Cystoseiraceae

Cystoseira abies-marina (Gmelin) C. Agardh

*Cystoseira algeriensis J. Feldmann

*Cystoseira amentacea (C. Agardh) Bory

*Cystoseira amentacea var. spicata (Ercegovic) Giaccone (=Cystoseira spicata Ercegovic)

*Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta Montagne [=Cystoseira stricta (Montagne) Sauvageau]

Cystoseira baccata (Gmelin) Silva

*Cystoseira balearica Sauvageau [=Cystoseira brachycarpa J. Agardh var. balearica (Sauvageau) Giaccone]3

*Cystoseira balearica var. claudiae Giaccone

Cystoseira barbata (Stackhouse) C. Agardh

*Cystoseira barbata f. repens Zinova & Kalugina

*Cystoseira barbata f. insularum Ercegovic

*Cystoseira barbata var. tophuloidea (Ercegovic) Giaccone

*Cystoseira barbatula Kützing (=Cystoseira graeca Schiffner ex Gerloff & Nizamuddin)

*Cystoseira brachycarpa J. Agardh

*Cystoseira caespitosa Sauvageau4

Cystoseira compressa (Esper) Gerloff & Nizamuddin [=Cystoseira compressa f. rosetta (Ercegovic) Cormaci, Furnari, Scammacca & Serio]

*Cystoseira compressa f. plana (Ercegovic) Cormaci, Furnari, Scammacca & Serio

*Cystoseira compressa var. pustulata Ercegovic5

*Cystoseira corniculata (Turner) Zanardini6

*Cystoseira crinita Duby

*Cystoseira crinitophylla Ercegovic

*Cystoseira dubia Valiante

*Cystoseira elegans Sauvageau

Cystoseira foeniculacea (Linnaeus) Greville [=Cystoseira ercegovicii Giaccone; =Cystoseira discors (Linnaeus) C. Agardh]

*Cystoseira foeniculacea f. latiramosa (Ercegovic) Gómez-Garreta, Barceló, Ribera & Rull

*Cystoseira foeniculacea f. tenuiramosa (Ercegovic) Gómez-Garreta, Barceló, Ribera & Rull

*Cystoseira foeniculacea f. schiffneri (Hamel) Gómez-Garreta, Barceló, Ribera & Rull

*Cystoseira funkii Schiffner ex Gerloff & Nizamuddin7

Cystoseira humilis Schousboe ex Kützing

Cystoseira humilis var. myriophylloides (Sauvageau) Price & John

*Cystoseira hyblaea Giaccone

*Cystoseira jabukae Ercegovic

*Cystoseira jabukae f. tenuissima (Ercegovic) Cormaci, Furnari, Giaccone, Scammacca & Serio

Cystoseira mauritanica Sauvageau [=Cystoseira gibraltarica (Sauvageau) Dangeard?]8

*Cystoseira mediterranea Sauvageau

Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) Roberts

*Cystoseira pelagosae Ercegovic

*Cystoseira rayssiae Ramon

*Cystoseira sauvageauana Hamel9

*Cystoseira sedoides (Desfontaines) C. Agardh

*Cystoseira spinosa Sauvageau (=Cystoseira adriatica Sauvageau)

*Cystoseira spinosa var. compressa (Ercegovic) Cormaci, Furnari, Giaccone, Scammacca & Serio (=Cystoseira platyramosa Ercegovic)

*Cystoseira spinosa var. tenuior (Ercegovic) Cormaci, Furnari, Giaccone, Scammacca & Serio

*Cystoseira squarrosa De Notaris

*Cystoseira susanensis Nizamuddin

Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss

Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) Roberts

*Cystoseira zosteroides (Turner) C. Agardh (=Cystoseira opuntioides Bory ex Montagne)10


Family Fucaceae

Fucus spiralis Linnaeus

Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus

*Fucus virsoides J. Agardh


Family Sargassaceae

Sargassum acinarium (Linnaeus) Setchell

Sargassum desfontainesii (Turner) C. Agardh

Sargassum flavifolium Kützing

Sargassum furcatum Kützing

*Sargassum hornschuchii C. Agardh

#Sargassum muticum (Fensholt) Yendo

*Sargassum trichocarpum J. Agardh

Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh


Order Laminariales


Family Alariaceae

#Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar


Family Chordaceae

#Chorda filum (Linnaeus) Stackhouse


Family Laminariaceae

Laminaria ochroleuca Bachelot de la Pylaie

*Laminaria rodriguezii Bornet

#Saccharina japonica (Areschoug) Lane, Mayes, Druehl & Saunders (=Laminaria japonica Areschoug)


Order Nemodermatales


Family Nemodermataceae

Nemoderma tingitanum Schousboe ex Bornet


Order Onslowiales

Family Onslowiaceae

*Verosphacela silvae Alongi, Cormaci & Furnari

Order Ralfsiales


Family Ralfsiaceae

Hapalospongidion macrocarpum (J. Feldmann) León Álvarez & González (=Mesospora mediterranea J. Feldmann)

Pseudolithoderma adriaticum (Hauck) Verlaque (=Lithoderma adriaticum Hauck)

Pseudolithoderma extensum (P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan) Lund

Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) Areschoug


Family Neoralfsiaceae

Neoralfsia expansa (J. Agardh) Lim & Kawai [=Ralfsia expansa (J. Agardh) J. Agardh]


Order Scytosiphonales


Family Scytosiphonaceae

#Colpomenia peregrina Sauvageau

Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier

Compsonema gracile Kuckuck

Compsonema minutum (C. Agardh) Kornmann

Hydroclathrus clathratus (C. Agardh) Howe

Petalonia fascia (O.F. Müller) Kuntze

Petalonia zosterifolia (Reinke) Kuntze

Rosenvingea intricata (J. Agardh) Boergesen

#Scytosiphon dotyi Wynne

Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngbye) Link

Stragularia clavata (Harvey) Hamel (=Ralfsia disciformis P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan)


Order Sphacelariales


Family Choristocarpaceae

*Choristocarpus tenellus Zanardini

Discosporangium mesarthrocarpum (Meneghini) Hauck


Family Sphacelariaceae

Cladostephus spongiosus (Hudson) C. Agardh

Cladostephus spongiosus f. verticillatus (Lightfoot) Prud'homme van Reine [=Cladostephus hirsutus (Linnaeus) Boudouresque & Perret-Boudouresque]

Sphacelaria brachygonia Montagne

Sphacelaria cirrosa (Roth) C. Agardh (=Sphacelaria hystrix Suhr ex Reinke)

Sphacelaria fusca (Hudson) Gray

Sphacelaria nana Nägeli ex Kützing

Sphacelaria plumula Zanardini

Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing

Sphacelaria tribuloides Meneghini

Sphacella subtilissima Reinke


Family Stypocaulaceae

Halopteris filicina (Grateloup) Kützing

Stypocaulon scoparium (Linnaeus) Kützing


Order Sporochnales


Family Sporochnaceae

Carpomitra costata (Stackhouse) Batters

*Carpomitra costata var. mediterranea J. Feldmann

Nereia filiformis (J. Agardh) Zanardini

Sporochnus gaertnera (Gmelin) C. Agardh

Sporochnus pedunculatus (Hudson) C. Agardh

Stilopsis lejolisii (Thuret) Kuckuck & Nienburg ex Hamel


Order Tilopteridales


Family Phyllariaceae

Phyllariopsis brevipes (C. Agardh) Henry & South [=Phyllaria reniformis (Lamouroux) Rostafinsky]

Phyllariopsis purpurascens (C. Agardh) Henry & South

Saccorhiza polyschides (Lightfoot) Batters


1. Rull et al. (2007) reported Dictyota ciliolata Sonder ex Kützing from the Northwestern Mediterranean but recent molecular examination of the collected specimens suggests that it is another, still unidentified, species.

2. We follow Algaebase in not considering Ascocyclus orbicularis (J. Agardh) Kjellman as synonym of Myrionema magnusii (Sauvageau) Loiseaux.

3. We prefer to maintain the specific category of Cystoseira balearica Sauvageau awaiting molecular evidences for its inclusion within Cystoseira brachycarpa J. Agardh.

4. We prefer to maintain the specific category of Cystoseira caespitosa Sauvageau awaiting molecular evidences indicating its identity with Cystoseira balearica Sauvageau.

5. Awaiting molecular evidences, we consider Cystoseira compressa (Esper) Gerloff & Nizamuddin var. pustulata Ercegovic (=Cystoseira epiphytica Schiffner ex Gerloff & Nizamuddin) to be a different taxa from Cystoseira humilis Kützing var. humilis.

6. This species is considered here to be a Mediterranean endemics. In our opinion, records from the Indian Ocean (Silva et al. 1996) need reexamination.

7. See Verlaque et al. (1999) for the differences between this species and Cystoseira jabukae Ercegovic.

8. Synonymy between Cystoseira mauritanica Sauvageau and Cystoseira gibraltarica (Sauvageau) Dangeard needs reexamination.

9. Includes Cystoseira sauvageauana var. polyoedematis (Sauvageau) Hamel. C. sauvageauana is considered here as endemic. In our opinion, records from the Atlantic Ocean (Prud'homme van Reine et al. 2005) need reexamination.

10. This species is considered here to be a Mediterranean endemic. In our opinion, records from the Indian Ocean (Silva et al. 1996) need reexamination.
Taxa inquirenda (see also Ribera et al. 1992)
Cystoseira mediterranea var. valiantei Sauvageau: see Verlaque et al. (1999).

Ectocarpus elegans Meneghini ex Ardissone: see Furnari et al. (2003).

Leathesia cervicornis Berthold: see Furnari et al. (2003).

Sphacelaria olivacea (Smith) C. Agardh: see Furnari et al. (2003).
Taxa excludenda (see also Ribera et al. 1992)
Cystoseira myrica (Gmelin) C. Agardh: see Zenetos et al. (2005).

Dictyota ciliolata Sonder ex Kützing: Molecular examination of specimens identified as Dictyota ciliolata in the Northwestern Mediterranean (Rull et al. 2007) suggest that they do not belong to this species (J. Rull, pers. comm.).

Sargassum latifolium (Turner) C. Agardh: unsupported records (Zenetos et al. 2008).

Sorocarpus sp.: Specimens tentatively identified as Sorocarpus sp. correspond to Botrytella parva (Takamatsu) Kim (Zenetos et al. 2008).

Spatoglossum asperum J. Agardh: see Zenetos et al. (2005)

Alongi G, Cormaci M, Furnari G. 2007. Verosphacela silvae sp. nov. (Onslowiaceae, Phaeophyceae) from the Mediterranean Sea. Phycological Research 55: 42-46.

Benhissoune S, Boudouresque CF, Verlaque M. 2002. A checklist of the seaweeds of the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Morocco. II. Phaeophyceae. Botanica Marina 45: 217-230.

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