The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats

Table S11. Checklist of the phylum Chlorophyta and comments to the checklist

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Table S11. Checklist of the phylum Chlorophyta and comments to the checklist

Algae belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta (Kingdom Plantae) have been classified by Classes, Orders, Families, Species and other infraspecific levels (subspecies, varieties and forms). Ordination is alphabetical. When no infraspecific level is indicated the taxa corresponds to the type variety.

This list is based in the check-list by Gallardo et al. (1993), with some updates and modifications. Particular attention has been devoted to local checklists published after the revision by Gallardo et al. (1993): Puglia (Southern Italy) (Cormaci et al., 2001), Tuscany (Northwestern Italy) (Rindi et al. 2002), Morocco (Benhissoune et al. 2001) and Italian coasts (Furnari et al. 2003). Lists of Mediterranean introduced species have also been considered (e.g. Verlaque 2001; Boudouresque & Verlaque 2002; Zenetos et al. 2005, 2008; Verlaque et al. in press). Black Sea is not included.

Taxonomy follows Algaebase ( if not otherwise indicated. Endemic species (found only in the Mediterranean basin, Black Sea included) are preceded by the symbol *. A careful and critical examination of the existing records of every species from the available literature has been performed in order to consider a species as endemic. Introduced species are preceded by the symbol #. As it is not always easy to detect introduced species from the distributional records, we mainly follow the criteria by other authors specialized in this issue. Superscript numbers refer to notes. Some of the commonest synonyms found in Mediterranean literature (if any) are sometimes placed after the currently accepted name. Other synonyms can be found at Algaebase. A list of taxa inquirenda as well as a list of taxa excludenda is also given at the end of the list; species considered as taxa inquirenda or taxa excludenda in Gallardo et al. (1993) are not stated again.

Phylum Chlorophyta


Class Bryopsidophyceae


Order Bryopsidales


Family Bryopsidaceae1

Blastophysa rhizopus Reinke (=Blastophysa polymorpha Kjellman)

Bryopsidella neglecta (Berthold) Rietema [=Derbesia neglecta Berthold; Bryopsidella halymeniae (Berthold) J. Feldmann]

*Bryopsidella ostreobiformis Calderón-Sáenz & Schnetter

Bryopsis adriatica (J. Agardh) Frauenfeld

Bryopsis corymbosa J. Agardh

Bryopsis cupressina Lamouroux (=Bryopsis penicillata Kützing)

*Bryopsis dichotoma De Notaris

Bryopsis duplex De Notaris [=Bryopsis balbisiana Lamouroux; =Bryopsis disticha (J. Agardh) Kützing]

Bryopsis feldmannii Gallardo & Furnari (=Bryopsis cupressoides J. Feldmann)

Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux (=Bryopsis monoica Berthold ex Funk)

Bryopsis muscosa Lamouroux

*Bryopsis penicillum Meneghini

Bryopsis pennata Lamouroux

Bryopsis plumosa (Hudson) C. Agardh

*Bryopsis secunda J. Agardh

Pseudobryopsis myura (J. Agardh) Berthold [=Trichosolen myurus (J. Agardh) Taylor]


Family Caulerpaceae

#Caulerpa mexicana Sonder ex Kützing

Caulerpa prolifera (Forsskal) Lamouroux (=Caulerpa ollivieri Dostál)2

#Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh var. cylindracea (Sonder) Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque3,4

#Caulerpa racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner) Weber van Bosse f. requienii (Montagne) Weber van Bosse

#Caulerpa racemosa var. turbinata (J. Agardh) Eubank/uvifera (C. Agardh) J. Agardh

#Caulerpa scalpelliformis (Brown ex Turner) C. Agardh

#Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh


Family Chaetosiphonaceae

Chaetosiphon moniliformis Huber


Family Codiaceae

Codium adhaerens C. Agardh5

Codium bursa (Linnaeus) C. Agardh

*Codium coralloides (Kützing) Silva

Codium decorticatum (Woodward) Howe [=Codium elongatum (Turner) C. Agardh]

Codium effusum (Rafinesque) Delle Chiaje (=Codium difforme Kützing)

#Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot ssp. tomentosoides (van Goor) Silva6

#Codium taylorii Silva

Codium tomentosum Stackhouse

Codium vermilara (Olivi) Delle Chiajei


Family Derbesiaceae

#Derbesia boergesenii (Iyengar & Ramanathan) Mayhoub

*Derbesia corallicola Funk

#Derbesia rhizophora Yamada

Derbesia tenuissima (Moris & De Notaris) P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan (=Halicystis parvula Schmitz ex Murray)

Pedobesia simplex (Meneghini ex Kützing) Wynne & Leliaert (=Pedobesia lamourouxii (J. Agardh) J. Feldmann, Loreau, Codomier & Couté)

Pedobesia solieri J. Feldmann ex Abélard & Knoepffler


Family Ostreobiaceae

Ostreobium quekettii Bornet & Flahault


Family Udoteaceae

Flabellia petiolata (Turra) Nizamuddin [=Udotea petiolata (Turra) Boergesen]

Halimeda tuna (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux [=Halimeda tuna var. platydisca (Decaisne) Barton; =Halimeda tuna f. albertisii Piccone]

Penicillus capitatus Lamarck (=Espera mediterranea Decaisne)

Pseudochlorodesmis furcellata (Zanardini) Boergesen

Pseudochlorodesmis furcellata var. canariensis Boergesen

*Pseudochlorodesmis tenuis Ercegovic


Order Dasycladales


Family Polyphysaceae

Acetabularia acetabulum (Linnaeus) Silva (=Acetabularia mediterranea Lamouroux)

Acetabularia calyculus Lamouroux

Parvocaulis parvulus (Solms-Laubach) Berger, Fettweiss, Gleissberg, Liddle, Richter, Sawitsky & Zuccarello (=Acetabularia parvula Solms-Laubach)


Family Dasycladaceae

#Batophora sp.7

Dasycladus vermicularis (Scopoli) Kraser

#Neomeris annulata Dickie


Class Chlorophyceae


Order Chlorococcales


Family Chlorochytriaceae

Chlorochytrium cohnii Wright

Chlorochytrium lemnae Cohn (=Chlorochytrium willei Printz)


Order Chaetophorales


Family Chaetophoraceae

*Didymosporangium repens Lambert

Stromatella monostromatica (Dangeard) Kornmann & Sahling

Stromatella papillosa (Dangeard) Kornmann & Sahling


Order Tetrasporales


Family Palmellopsidaceae

Palmophyllum crassum (Naccari) Rabenhorst [=Palmophyllum crassum f. gestroi (Piccone) Giaccone; =Palmophyllum crassum var. orbiculare (Bornet) J. Feldmann]


Family Tetrasporaceae

Tetraspora gelatinosa (Vaucher) Desvaux


Order Volvocales


Family Carteriaceae

Carteria feldmannii Conrad & Kufferath8


Family Chlamydomonadaceae

Brachiomonas submarina Bohlin (=Brachiomonas gracilis Bohlin; =Brachiomonas westiana Pascher)8

Oltmannsiella lineata Zimmermann8


Family Dunaliellaceae

Asteromonas gracilis Artari8

Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco8


Class Prasinophyceae


Order Chlorodendrales


Family Chlorodendraceae

Prasinocladus lubricus Kuckuck f. subsalsus (Davis) Zimmermann

*Tetraselmis fontiana (Margalef) R.E. Norris, Hohi & Chihara (=Platymonas fontiana Margalef)8

Tetraselmis tetrathele (West) Bucher (=Platymonas tetrathele West)8


Order Pyramimonadales


Family Pyramimonadaceae

Halosphaera viridis Schmitz8

Pyramimonas amylifera Conrad8

Pyramimonas octociliata N. Carter8


Class Trebouxiophyceae


Order Prasiolales


Family Prasiolaceae

Prasiola crispa (Lightfoot) Kützing

Prasiola stipitata Suhr ex Jessen

Rosenvingiella polyrhiza (Rosenvinge) Silva


Class Ulvophyceae


Order Cladophorales


Family Anadyomenaceae

Anadyomene stellata (Wulfen) C. Agardh

Microdictyon tenuius Gray


Family Cladophoraceae

Aegagropila linnaei Kützing (=Cladophora aegagropila (Linnaeus) Trevisan)

Chaetomorpha gracilis Kützing

Chaetomorpha ligustica (Kützing) Kützing [=Rhizoclonium lubricum Setchell & Gardner; Rhizoclonium tortuosum (Dillwyn) Kützing]9,10

Chaetomorpha linum (O.F. Müller) Kützing [=Chaetomorpha aerea (Dillwyn) Kützing; =Chaetomorpha crassa (C. Agardh) Kützing]

Chaetomorpha mediterranea (Kützing) Kützing9,10

*Chaetomorpha mediterranea var. crispa (J. Feldmann) Gallardo, Gómez-Garreta, Ribera, Cormaci, Furnari, Giaccone & Boudouresque9, 10

Chaetomorpha pachynema (Montagne) Kützing

Cladophora albida (Nees) Kützing

Cladophora battersii Hoek

Cladophora coelothrix Kützing

Cladophora dalmatica Kützing

Cladophora echinus (Biasoletto) Kützing

Cladophora feredayi Harvey

Cladophora flexuosa (O.F. Müller) Kützing

Cladophora fracta (O.F. Müller ex Vahl) Kützing

Cladophora globulina (Kützing) Kützing

Cladophora glomerata (Linnaeus) Kützing

Cladophora glomerata var. crassior (C. Agardh) Hoek

#Cladophora herpestica (Montagne) Kützing [=Cladophoropsis zollingerii (Kützing) Reinbold; =Cladophoropsis javanica (Kützing) Silva]

Cladophora hutchinsiae (Dillwyn) Kützing

Cladophora laetevirens (Dillwyn) Kützing

Cladophora lehmanniana (Lindenberg) Kützing

Cladophora liebetruthii Grunow

Cladophora liniformis Kützing

Cladophora nigrescens Zanardini ex Frauenfeld

#Cladophora patentiramea (Montagne) Kützing

Cladophora pellucida (Hudson) Kützing

Cladophora prolifera (Roth) Kützing

Cladophora retroflexa (Bonnemaison ex P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan) Hamel

Cladophora ruchingeri (C. Agardh) Kützing

Cladophora rupestris (Linnaeus) Kützing

Cladophora sericea (Hudson) Kützing

Cladophora socialis Kützing

Cladophora vadorum (Areschoug) Kützing

Cladophora vagabunda (Linnaeus) Hoek

Cladophoropsis membranacea (Hofman Bang ex C. Agardh) Boergesen (=Cladophoropsis gerloffii Nizamuddin; Cladophoropsis modonensis auct. non (Kützing) Reinbold]

Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth) Harvey [=Rhizoclonium implexum (Dillwyn) Kützing; =Rhizoclonium kerneri Stockmayer; =Rhizoclonium kochianum Kützing]10


Order Oltmannsiellopsidales


Family Oltmannsiellopsidaceae

Dangemannia microcystis (Dangeard) T. Friedl & C.J. O'Kelly [=Planophila microcystis (Dangeard) Kornmann & Sahling]


Order Siphonocladales


Family Siphonocladaceae

*Siphonocladus pusillus (C. Agardh ex Kützing) Hauck


Family Valoniaceae

Valonia aegagropila C. Agardh

Valonia macrophysa Kützing

Valonia utricularis (Roth) C. Agardh

Valonia ventricosa J. Agardh [Ventricaria ventricosa (J. Agardh) Olsen & West]


Order Ulothricales


Family Gomontiaceae

Eugomontia sacculata Kornmann11

Gomontia polyrhiza (Lagerheim) Bornet & Flahault


Family Ulothricaceae

Spongomorpha aeruginosa (Linnaeus) Hoek [=Spongomorpha lanosa (Roth) Kützing]

Ulothrix flacca (Dillwyn) Thuret (=Ulothrix pseudoflacca Wille)10

Ulothrix implexa (Kützing) Kützing10

Ulothrix subflaccida Wille10

Urospora penicilliformis (Roth) Areschoug (=Urospora mirabilis Areschoug)


Order Ulvales


Family Bolbocoleonaceae

Bolbocoleon piliferum Pringsheim


Family Capsosiphonaceae

Capsosiphon fulvescens (C. Agardh) Setchell & Gardner


Family Gayraliaceae

Gayralia oxysperma (Kützing) Vinogradova ex Scagel, Gabrielson, Garbary, Golden, Hawkes, Lindstrom, Oliveira & Widdowson

Gayralia oxysperma f. wittrockii (Bornet) Bliding


Family Kornmanniaceae12

Blidingia chadefaudii (J. Feldmann) Bliding

Blidingia marginata (J. Agardh) Dangeard

Blidingia minima (Nägeli ex Kützing) Kylin

Blidingia ramifera (Bliding) Garbary & Barkhouse (=Blidingia minima var. ramifera Bliding)

Blidingia subsalsa (Kjellman) Kornmann & Sahling ex Scagel, Gabrielson, Garbary, Golden, Hawkes, Lindstrom, Oliveira & Widdowson

Pseudendoclonium submarinum Wille


Family Phaeophilaceae

Phaeophila dendroides (P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan) Batters

*Phaeophila hirsuta (Ercegovic) R. Nielsen


Family Ulvaceae13

Ochlochaete hystrix Thwaites (=Ochlochaete ferox Huber)

Percusaria percusa (C. Agardh) Rosenvinge

Tellamia contorta Batters (=Tellamia intricata Batters)

*Ulva adriatica (Bliding) Ballesteros (=Enteromorpha adriatica Bliding)

*Ulva aragoënsis (Bliding) Ballesteros (=Enteromorpha aragoënsis Bliding)

Ulva bifrons Ardré

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C. Agardh [=Enteromorpha clathrata (Roth) Greville; =Enteromorpha ramulosa (Smith) Carmichael]14

Ulva compressa Linnaeus [=Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus) Nees; =Enteromorpha compressa var. usneoides (Bonnemaison ex J. Agardh) Bliding]

Ulva curvata (Kützing) De Toni

#Ulva fasciata Delile

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen [=Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh]

Ulva flexuosa ssp. linziformis (Bliding) Ballesteros

Ulva flexuosa ssp. paradoxa (C. Agardh) Wynne

Ulva flexuosa ssp. pilifera (Kützing) Wynne

Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus [=Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus) Nees]

Ulva intestinalis f. cornucopiae (Lyngbye) Ballesteros

*Ulva jugoslavica (Bliding) Ballesteros (=Enteromorpha jugoslavica Bliding)

Ulva kylinii (Bliding) Hayden, Blomster, Maggs, Silva, Stanhope & Waaland (=Enteromorpha kylinii Bliding)

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

Ulva linearis Dangeard

Ulva linza Linnaeus [=Enteromorpha linza (Linnaeus) J. Agardh; =Enteromorpha ahlneriana Bliding]

Ulva multiramosa (Bliding) Ballesteros (=Enteromorpha multiramosa Bliding)15

*Ulva neapolitana Bliding

#Ulva pertusa Kjellman

Ulva prolifera O.F. Müller [=Enteromorpha prolifera (O.F. Müller) J. Agardh]

Ulva prolifera ssp. gullmariensis (Bliding) Taskin

Ulva pseudolinza (Koeman & Hoek) Hayden, Blomster, Maggs, Silva, Stanhope & Waaland (=Enteromorpha pseudolinza Koeman & Hoek)

Ulva radiata (J. Agardh) Hayden, Blomster, Maggs, Silva, Stanhope & Waaland (=Enteromorpha radiata J. Agardh)

Ulva ralfsii (Harvey) Le Jolis (=Enteromorpha ralfsii Harvey)

Ulva rigida C. Agardh (=Ulva scandinavica Bliding)

Ulva rotundata Bliding

Ulva simplex (Vinogradova) Hayden, Blomster, Maggs, Silva, Stanhope & Waaland [=Enteromorpha simplex (Vinogradova) Koeman & Hoek]

*Ulva stipitata (Dangeard) Ballesteros var. linzoides (Bliding) Ballesteros (=Enteromorpha stipitata Dangeard var. linzoides Bliding)

Ulva torta (Mertens) Trevisan [=Enteromorpha torta (Mertens) Reinbold]

#Ulvaria obscura (Kützing) Gayral ex Bliding [=Monostroma obscurum (Kützing) J. Agardh]

Umbraulva olivascens (Dangeard) Furnari


Family Ulvellaceae

Acrochaete flustrae (Reinke) O'Kelly (=Epicladia flustrae Reinke)

Acrochaete geniculata (N.L. Gardner) O'Kelly

Acrochaete inflata (Ercegovic) Gallardo, Gómez-Garreta, Ribera, Cormaci, Furnari, Giaccone & Boudouresque (=Pseudodictyon inflatum Ercegovic)

Acrochaete leptochaete (Huber) Nielsen

Acrochaete repens Pringsheim

Acrochaete viridis (Reinke) R. Nielsen (=Entocladia viridis Reinke)

Acrochaete wittrockii (Wille) R. Nielsen (=Entocladia wittrockii Wille)

*Entocladia endolithica (Ercegovic) R. Nielsen

Entocladia major (J. Feldmann) R. Nielsen (=Endoderma majus J. Feldmann)

*Entocladia pennata (J. Feldmann) R. Nielsen

Epicladia perforans (Huber) R. Nielsen

*Pringsheimiella conchyliophila J. Feldmann

Pringsheimiella scutata (Reinke) Marchewianka

Pseudopringsheimia confluens (Rosenvinge) Wille (=Ulvella confluens Rosenvinge)

Ulvella acervus Dangeard

Ulvella lens P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan

Ulvella setchellii Dangeard


1. Genus Bryopsis Lamouroux requires nomenclatural and taxonomical re-investigation.

2. We agree with González Henríquez & Santos Guerra (1983) in considering that Caulerpa prolifera and Caulerpa ollivieri are conspecific.

3. Delimitation of Caulerpa racemosa varieties follows Verlaque et al. (2000) amended by Verlaque et al. (2003).

4. Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea was first reported as Caulerpa racemosa aff. var. occidentalis (J. Agardh) Boergesen (Verlaque et al. 2000).

5. Codium adhaerens C. Agardh is present in the Mediterranean (Alboran Sea) (Benhissoune et al. 2001; Ballesteros pers. obs., confirmed by PC Silva).

6. The subspecies of Codium fragile that has been introduced in the Mediterranean has been usually identified as ssp. tomentosoides (e.g. Gallardo et al. 1993; Boudouresque & Verlaque 2002; Zenetos et al. 2005). However, Verlaque et al. (in press) only report ssp. fragile.

7. Reported by Bottalico et al. (2006).

8. Planktonic flagellates, not benthic.

9. We do not follow John et al. (2004) nor Algaebase in considering Chaetomorpha ligustica (Kützing) Kützing and Chaetomorpha mediterranea (Kützing) Kützing as synonyms.

10. Requires nomenclatural and taxonomical re-investigation.

11. See Verlaque (2001).

12. Genus Blidingia requires nomenclatural and taxonomical re-investigation.

13. Taxonomy of Mediterranean species of Ulva requires further research.

14. Blomster et al. (1999) consider Enteromorpha ramulosa (Smith) Carmichael, Enteromorpha muscoides (Clemente) Cremades and Enteromorpha crinita Nees to be heterotypic synonyms of Enteromorpha clathrata (Roth) Greville. We maintain the synonymy although in our opinion distinction between these entities at a Mediterranean level should be reassessed.

15. John et al. (2004) note that, according to Hayden et al. (2003), the species is invalid because Bliding (1960) did not cite the type.

Taxa inquirenda (see also Gallardo et al. 1993)
Cladophora hutchinsioides Hoek & Womersley: see Zenetos et al. (2008) regarding the identification of this species.

Cladophora suhriana Kützing: see Furnari et al. (2003).

Enteromorpha prolifera (O.F. Müller) J. Agardh var. crispatissima Schiffner: see Furnari et al. (2003).

Enteromorpha prolifera (O.F. Müller) J. Agardh var. tenuis Schiffner: see Furnari et al. (2003).

Flabellia minima (Ernst) Nizamuddin.

Ulothrix mucosa Oltmanns: see Furnari et al. (2003).

Ulva lactuca Linnaeus f. laciniata (J. Agardh) De Toni: see Furnari et al. (2003).
Taxa excludenda (see also Gallardo et al. 1993)
Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh var. racemosa: see Verlaque et al. (2000).

Caulerpa sertularioides (Gmelin) Howe: doubtful record; its presence in the Mediterranean should be confirmed (Gallardo et al. 1993).

Microdictyon laxereticulatum Setchell: included in the Mediterranean checklist (Gallardo et al. 1993), it is based on a supposed record by Setchell (1929) from Italy. This species is not reported in the Italian checklist by Furnari et al. (2003).

Sphaeroplea braunii Kützing: reported by Güven & Öztig (1971), it is a freshwater species.

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen ssp. biflagellata (Bliding) Ballesteros, comb. nov.: reported as Enteromorpha flexuosa ssp. biflagellata by Sfriso (1987). The taxonomy of the complex flexuosa is so complicated that, in our opinion, the presence of this subspecies in the Mediterranean needs to be confirmed.

Ulva flexuosa Wulfen ssp. paradoxa (C. Agardh) Wynne var. profunda (Bliding) Ballesteros, comb. nov.: reported as Enteromorpha flexuosa ssp. paradoxa var. profunda by Sfriso (1987). The taxonomy of the complex flexuosa is so complicated that, in our opinion, the presence of this variety in the Mediterranean needs to be confirmed.

Ulva hendayensis (Dangeard & Parriaud) Ballesteros comb. nov.: reported from southern Spain by Conde (1984) as Enteromorpha hendayensis. According to Gallardo et al. (1993) the presence of this species in the Mediterranean needs to be confirmed.

Ulothrix zonata (Weber & Mohr) Kützing: reported from southern Italy (Giaccone et al. 1985), it is a freshwater species.
Nomenclatural changes
According to Hayden et al. (2003) the genus Enteromorpha should be included in Ulva. Therefore the following new combinations are proposed:
Ulva adriatica (Bliding) Ballesteros comb. nov. [Basionym: Enteromorpha adriatica Bliding (1960, Botaniska Notiser 113, p. 174, fig. 3)].
Ulva aragoënsis (Bliding) Ballesteros comb. nov. [Basionym: Enteromorpha aragoënsis Bliding (1960, Botaniska Notiser 113, p. 174, fig. 2a-f)].
Ulva flexuosa Wulfen ssp. biflagellata (Bliding) Ballesteros comb. nov. [Basionym: Enteromorpha biflagellata Bliding (1944, Botaniska Notiser 1944, p. 346, figs. 19-23). Homotypic synonym: Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) C. Agardh ssp. biflagellata Bliding (1963, Opera Botanica 8(3), p. 88)].
Ulva flexuosa Wulfen ssp. paradoxa (C. Agardh) Wynne var. profunda (Bliding) Ballesteros comb. nov. [Basionym: Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) C. Agardh ssp. paradoxa (Dillwyn) Bliding var. profunda Bliding (1963, Opera Botanica 8(3), p. 85, figs. 46-47)].
Ulva flexuosa Wulfen ssp. linziformis (Bliding) Ballesteros comb. nov. [Basionym: Enteromorpha linziformis Bliding (1960, Botaniska Notiser 113, p. 181, figs. 8-9). Homotypic synonym: Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) C. Agardh ssp. linziformis (Bliding) Bliding (1963, Opera Botanica 8(3), p. 87)].
Ulva hendayensis (Dangeard & Parriaud) Ballesteros comb. nov. [Basionym: Enteromorpha hendayensis Dangeard & Parriaud (1960, Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences 250, p. 2972, figs. 1-2)].
Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus f. cornucopiae (Lyngbye) Ballesteros comb. nov. [Basionym: Scytosiphon intestinalis c cornucopiae Lyngbye (1819, Tentamen hydrophytologiae danicae; continens omnia hydrophyta cryptogama Daniae, Holsatiae, Faeroae, Islandiae, Groenlandiae hucusqve cognita, systematice disposita, descripta et iconibus illustrata, adjectis simul speciebus norvegicis, Hafniae, Copenhagen, p. 67). Homotypic synonym: Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus) Nees f. cornucopiae (Lyngbye) J. Agardh].
Ulva jugoslavica (Bliding) Ballesteros comb. nov. [Basionym: Enteromorpha jugoslavica Bliding (1960, Botaniska Notiser 113, p. 172, fig. 1)].
Ulva multiramosa (Bliding) Ballesteros comb. nov. [Basionym: Enteromorpha multiramosa Bliding (1960, Botaniska Notiser 113, p. 177, figs. 4-5)].
Ulva stipitata (Dangeard) Ballesteros comb. nov. [Basionym: Enteromorpha stipitata P. Dangeard (1959, Botaniste 42, p. 42, figs. 16-17)].
Ulva stipitata (Dangeard) Ballesteros var. linzoides (Bliding) Ballesteros comb. nov. [Basionym: Enteromorpha stipitata Dangeard var. linzoides Bliding (1960, Botaniska Notiser 113, p. 179)].

Benhissoune S, Boudouresque CF, Verlaque M. 2001. A checklist of marine seaweeds of the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Morocco I. Chlorophyceae Wille s.l. Botanica Marina 44: 171-182.

Bliding C. 1944. Zur Systematik der schwedischen Enteromorphen. Botaniska Notiser 1944: 331-356.

Bliding C. 1960. A preliminary report on some new Mediterranean green algae. Botaniska Notiser 113: 172-184.

Bliding C. 1963. A critical survey of European taxa in Ulvales. Part I. Capsosiphon, Percusaria, Blidingia, Enteromorpha. Opera Botanica 8(3): 1-160.

Blomster J, Maggs CA, Stanhope MJ. 1999. Extensive intraspecific morphological variation in Enteromorpha muscoides (Chlorophyta) revealed by molecular analysis. Journal of Phycology 35: 575-586.

Bottalico A, Delle Foglie CI, Perrone C, 2006. New records along the Apulian coasts. In: Proceedings of the Second Mediterranean Symposium on Marine Vegetation (Athens, 12-13 December 2003): 77-82. RAC-SPA edit., Tunis.

Boudouresque CF, Verlaque M. 2002. Biological pollution in the Mediterranean Sea: invasive versus introduced macrophytes. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44: 32-38.

Conde F. 1984. Catálogo de las algas macrobentónicas marinas de Málaga. Acta Botanica Malacitana 9: 47-78.

Cormaci M, Furnari G, Alongi G, Serio D, Petrocelli A, Cecere E. 2001. Censimento delle macroalghe marine bentoniche delle coste pugliesi. Thalassia Salentina 25: 75-158.

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