The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats


Seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles (by Daniel Oro & Chiara Piroddi)



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Seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles (by Daniel Oro & Chiara Piroddi)

Table S27. Checklist of the Class Aves (Subphylum Vertebrata, Phyllum Cordata)


Scientific name

English name

Occurrence

Status IUCN*

Observations

Main threats

Puffinus yelkouan

Mediterranean shearwater

Resident

NT

Endemic

By-catch in long lines; invasive predatory species; pollution

Puffinus mauretanicus

Balearic shearwater

Resident

CE

Endemic

By-catch in long lines; invasive predatory species; pollution

Calonectris diomedea

Cory’s shearwater

Resident

LC

 

By-catch in long lines; pollution

Hydrobates pelagicus melitensis

Storm-petrel

Resident

LC

Endemic sub-species

Invasive predatory species; pollution

Phalacrocorax aristotelis desmarestii

Shag

Resident

LC

Endemic sub-species

By-catch in fishing gears

Larus michahellis

Yellow-legged gull

Resident

-

 

-

Larus audouinii

Audouin’s gull

Resident

VU

Endemic

By-catch in fishing gears; pollution

Larus genei

Slender-billed gull

Resident

LC

 

Habitat loss

Larus melanocephalus

Mediterranean gull

Resident

LC

 

Habitat loss

Sterna nilotica

Gull-billed tern

Resident

LC

 

Habitat loss

Sterna sandvicensis

Sandwich tern

Resident

LC

 

Habitat loss

Sterna caspia

Caspian tern

Resident

LC

 

Habitat loss

Sterna hirundo

Common tern

Resident

-

 

Habitat loss

Sterna albifrons

Little tern

Resident

LC

 

Habitat loss

Sterna bengalensis

Lesser Crested tern

Resident

LC

 

Habitat loss

* DD= Data Deficient, NA=Not Assessed, LC =Least concern; NT =Near threatened, VU= Vulnerable, EN= Endangered, CE= Critically Endangered

Table S28. Checklist of the Class Mammalia (Subphylum Vertebrata, Phyllum Cordata)





Scientific names

English name

Distribution

Range

Status IUCN

Occurrence

Threats

Balaenoptera physalus

Fin whale

From Balearic islands to Ionian sea.. Mainly abundant in Corso-Ligurian Basin and Gulf of Lion

Pelagic water

DD*

Resident

Ship collisions, noise and vessel disturbance, pollution

Balaenoptera acutorostrata

Common minke whale

Sightings mainly in the western Mediterranean Sea

 

NA*

Transient

 

Balaenoptera borealis

Sei whale

Sightings in Spain and France

 

NA*

Transient

 

Delphinus delphis

Short-beaked common dolphin

Mainly abundant in Alboran Sea, Gulf of Vera, and Aegean Sea. Present in the north eastern Ionian Sea, Gulf of Corinth, Algeria, Tunisia, Malta. Isolated groups in Sardinia, Corsica and Ischia

Pelagic water - Neritic water

EN*

Resident

By-catch, climate change, pollution, prey depletion

Eubalaena glacialis

North Atlantic right whale

Sightings in Algeria and in Italy

 

NA*

Transient

 

Hyperoodon ampullatus

Northern bottlenose whale

Sightings in France and in Spain

 

NA*

Transient

 

Globicephala melas

Long-finned pilot whale

Mainly in Western Mediterranean Sea, particularly abundant in Alboran Sea and Gulf of Vedra

Pelagic water - Neritic water

DD*

Resident

By-catch; collisions with ships; ship noise and pollution

Grampus griseus

Risso’s dolphin

Higher concentration in Ligurian-Corso-Provençal basin but present also in Balearic, Alboran Sea Ionian and Aegean Sea

Pelagic water

DD*

Resident

By-catch; ship noise and pollution

Kogia sima

Dwarf sperm whale

Two sightings in Italy

 

NA*

Transient

 

Megaptera novaeangliae

Humpback whale

Sighting throughout the basin, particularly in Italy, Greece and France

 

NA*

Transient

 

Mesoplodon bidens

Sowerby’s beaked whale

Sightings in France and in Italy

 

NA*

Transient

 

Mesoplodon densirostris

Blainville’s beaked whale

Sightings in Spain

 

NA*

Transient

 

Mesoplodon europaeus

Gervais’ beaked whale

Sightings in Italy

 

NA*

Transient

 

Monachus monachus

Mediterranean monk seal

Still occurring in the Aegean Sea and Turkey. Small groups in north eastern Ionian Sea, Morocco, Algeria and Croatia.

Neritic water

CR*

Resident

Habitat loss and degradation, deliberate killing, bycatch, prey depletion, pollution

Orcinus orca

Killer whale

Sightings mainly in the western Mediterranean Sea

 

NA*

Transient

 

Phocoena phocoena

Harbour porpoise

Sightings in Spain, Italy and the Aegean Sea

 

NA*

Transient

 

Physeter macrocephalus

Sperm whale

Widely distributed in Balearic Islands, Algerian-Ligurian basin, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ionian Sea and Aegean Sea

Pelagic water

EN*

Resident

By-catch, ship collisions, noise and vessel disturbance,

Pseudorca crassidens

False killer whale

Sightings throughout the basin

 

NA*

Transient

 

Steno bredanensis

Rough-toothed dolphin

Sightings mainly in Israel and also in Italy, France and Greece

 

NA*

Transient

 

Sousa chinensis

Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin

Sightings in Egypt and in Israel

 

NA*

Transient

 

Stenella coeruleoalba

Striped dolphin

Widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean Sea

Pelagic water

VU*

Resident

By-catch, pollution, prey depletion

Tursiops truncatus

Common bottlenose dolphin

Widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean Sea

Pelagic water - Neritic water

VU*

Resident

By-catch, prey depletion, pollution, noise and vessel disturbance

Ziphius cavirostris

Cuvier’s beaked whale

Relatively abundant in eastern Ligurian Sea, southwestern Crete. Present as well in the western Ligurian Sea, Hellenic Trench, southern Adriatic Sea, Spanish waters and Algeria

Pelagic water

DD*

Resident

Navy sonar, by-catch, plastic debris

* DD= Data Deficient, NA=Not Assessed, VU= Vulnerable, EN= Endangered, CR= Critically Endangered











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