The cardiovascular system is transport system of body



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The cardiovascular system is transport system of body

  • The cardiovascular system is transport system of body

  • It comprises blood, heart and blood vessels.

  • The system supplies nutrients to and remove waste products from various tissue of body.

  • The conveying media is liquid in form of blood which flows in close tubular system.



Transport nutrients, hormones

  • Transport nutrients, hormones

  • Remove waste products

  • Gaseous exchange

  • Immunity

  • Blood vessels transport blood

  • Heart pumps blood through blood vessels



  • BLOOD

  • HEART

  • BLOOD VESSELS



  • The Blood: Blood cells & Plasma

  • Blood cells

  • 1- Erythrocytes - Red Blood Cells

  • 2- Leucocytes

  • 3- Thrombocytes

  • Plasma is fluid portion



Heart is a four chambered, hollow muscular organ approximately the size of your fist

  • Heart is a four chambered, hollow muscular organ approximately the size of your fist

  • Location:

    • Superior surface of diaphragm
    • Left of the midline
    • Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum






Generating blood pressure

  • Generating blood pressure

  • Routing blood

    • Heart separates pulmonary and systemic
    • circulations
  • Ensuring one-way blood flow

    • Heart valves ensure one-way flow
  • Regulating blood supply



  • Blood Vessels -A closed network of tubes

  • These includes:

  • Arteries

  • Capillaries

  • Veins



-Arteries(Distributing channel)

    • -Arteries(Distributing channel)
      • Thick walled tubes
      • Elastic Fibers
      • Circular Smooth Muscle
    • Capillaries (microscopic vessels)
      • One cell thick
      • Serves the Respiratory System
    • Veins (draining channel)


General structure

  • General structure

  • 1.Tunica intima

  • 2.Tunica media

  • 3.Tunica adventitia



  • Conducting Vessels

  • Distributing Vessels

  • Resistance Vessels

  • Exchange Vessels

  • Capacitance / Reservoir Vessels



Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries.

  • Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries.

  • They are the thickest blood vessels and they carry blood high in oxygen known as oxygenated blood (oxygen rich blood).



  • Accompanied by vein and nerves

  • Lumen is small

  • No valves

  • Repeated branching



Elastic- e.g. (Aorta & its Major branches)

  • Elastic- e.g. (Aorta & its Major branches)

  • Muscular -e.g.(Renal, Testicular, Radial, Tibial etc.)

  • Arterioles (<0.1 mm)-

  • Terminal arterioles

  • Meta-arterioles

  • Thoroughfare

  • channel/ preferred



The smallest blood vessels are capillaries and they connect the arteries and veins.

  • The smallest blood vessels are capillaries and they connect the arteries and veins.

  • This is where the exchange of nutrients and gases occurs.



  • BODY CONTAINS TWO KINDS OF CAPILLARIES

  • CONTINUOUS-SKIN, LUNG, SMMOTH MUSCLE, CONNECTIVE TISSUES

  • FENESTRATED- PANCREAS,ENDOCRINE GLANDS, SMALL INTESTINE,CHOROID PLEXUS,CILLIARY PROCESS etc.



  • SINUSOIDS- Large irregular vascular space (30-40 micron) eg.Liver, Spleen, Bone marrow, suprarenal, Parathyroid etc.



Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart are called veins.

  • Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart are called veins.

  • They have one-way valves which prevent blood from flowing backwards.

  • They carry blood that is high in carbon dioxide known as deoxygenated blood (oxygen poor blood).



Thin Walled

  • Thin Walled

  • Large irregular lumen

  • Have valves

  • Dead space around

  • Types:

  • Large

  • Medium

  • Small



Veins without valves:

  • Veins without valves:

  • SVC & IVC

  • Hepatic, Renal

  • Uterine, Ovarian not Testicular

  • Facial

  • Pulmonary

  • Umbilical

  • Emissary

  • Portal Veins <2mm



Veins without Muscular tissue:

  • Veins without Muscular tissue:

  • Dural venous sinuses

  • Pial Veins

  • Retinal

  • Veins of erectile tissue of sex organs

  • Veins of spongy bones



Factors responsible for venous return:

  • Factors responsible for venous return:

  • Muscle contraction

  • Negative intrathoracic pressure

  • Pulsation of arteries

  • Gravity

  • Valves



Communication between vessels

  • Communication between vessels

  • ARTERIAL:

  • Actual( end to end & convergent)-Palmar, plantar, Circle of Willis, Labial Intestinal arcade, etc.

  • Potential-Coronary, around joints etc.



ARTERIOVENOUS ANASTOMOSIS:

  • ARTERIOVENOUS ANASTOMOSIS:

  • Skin of nose

  • Lips

  • External Ear

  • Mucus membrane of GI & nose

  • Erectile tissue of sex organ

  • Thyroid

  • Tongue



END ARTERIES:

  • END ARTERIES:

  • Central artery of retina

  • Arteries of spleen, liver, kidneys, metaphyses of long bones

  • Central branches of cerebral cortex



Coronary circulation – the circulation of blood within the heart.

    • Coronary circulation – the circulation of blood within the heart.
    • Pulmonary circulation – the flow of blood between the heart and lungs.
    • Systemic circulation – the flow of blood between the heart and the cells of the body.
    • Fetal Circulation


Pulmonary circulation

    • Pulmonary circulation
    • The flow of blood between the heart and lungs.
    • Systemic circulation The flow of blood between the heart and the cells of the body.




    • Portal circulation - the flow of blood between tow set of capillaries before draining in systemic veins.






Diseases and Disorders

  • Diseases and Disorders

    • BLOOD PRESSURE
    • HAEMORRHAGE/STROKE
    • ARTERIOSCLEROSIS
    • ANEURYSM
    • CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD)
    • HEART ATTACK
    • CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE (CHF)
    • ANEMIA, HEMOPHILIA, AND LEUKEMIA


Problems with the cardiovascular system are common, but they don’t just affect older people.

  • Problems with the cardiovascular system are common, but they don’t just affect older people.

  • Many heart problems affect children and teenagers.





1-All of the following are the example of elastic arteries except:

  • 1-All of the following are the example of elastic arteries except:

  • Aorta

  • Common carotid artery

  • Subclavian artery

  • Radial artery



2-All of the following are the example of end arteries except:

  • 2-All of the following are the example of end arteries except:

  • Central branches of cerebral arteries

  • Central artery of retina

  • Facial artery

  • Splenic artery



3-Arteriovenous anastomosis are found at all of the following sites except:

  • 3-Arteriovenous anastomosis are found at all of the following sites except:

  • Skin of lips

  • Erectile tissue of penis

  • Thyroid gland

  • Liver



4-All of the following are the example of portal circulation except:

  • 4-All of the following are the example of portal circulation except:

  • Hepatic circulation

  • Renal circulation

  • Circulation of hypophysis cerebri

  • Pulmonary circulation



5-All of the following are features of veins except:

  • 5-All of the following are features of veins except:

  • Thin walls

  • Thin tunica media

  • Thin tunica adventia

  • Wide lumen



1- General Anatomy by Vishram Singh

  • 1- General Anatomy by Vishram Singh

  • 2- Clinical Anatomy by R. Snell

  • 3-Gray’s Anatomy




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