The information given for each of the species in this section is a summary of know­



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Essential oils:

 This species presented a predominantly 

sesquiterpenoid leaf oil. The principal monoterpene 

detected was a­pinene (19.1%). The only other monoterpe­

nes of consequence were b­pinene (1.0%), trans­pinocarveol 

(1.1%) and a­terpineol (0.7%). Two major oxygenated ses­

quiterpenes were present, C15H24O (32.4%) and C15H26O2 

(20.4%), and these were accompanied by three other oxy­

genated sesquiterpenes, two of formula C15H24O (2.2% and 

9.4%) and one of formula C15H26O2 (2.4%), as well as other 

oxygenated sesquiterpenes present in small amounts. These 

compounds remain, at present, unidentified.

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.



Melaleuca 

cliffortioides

Diels


124

Melaleuc

a c

oc

cine

a

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Western Australian Naturalist 10: 28, figs 

A–J (1966)



Derivation:

 coccinea, from the Latin coccineus, deep red, 

crimson, in reference to the flower colour of this species



Description:

 

Shrub 

to 2 m tall. 



Branchlets 

hairy to gla­

brescent, subvelutinulous to puberulous. 

Leaves 

decussate, 

peltate, 4.75–11 mm long, 2.5–5.5 mm wide, 1.5–2.2 times 

as long as wide, sessile; blade hairy to glabrescent, indu­

mentum velutinulous to subvelutinulous, elliptic or ovate, 

in transverse section sublunate or strongly sublunate, the 

base cuneate or subcordate, the apex acute or broadly 

acute, the veins longitudinal, 9–15, 



oil glands 

moderately 

dense, distinct, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

spicate, lateral on 

secondary shoots, with 7–14 triads, up to 50 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy, 1.8–2.1 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxi­


ally hairy, costate, 1.4–1.8 mm long, scarious in a marginal 

band c. 0.1 mm wide. 



Petals 

caducous, 3–4.5 mm long. 



Stamens 

11–15 per bundle; filaments crimson, 20–22 mm 

long, the bundle claw 8–14 mm long, 0.6 times as long 

as the filaments. 



Style 

20–22 mm long. 



Ovules 

35–40 per 

locule. 

Fruit 

3.5–5 mm long, with sepaline teeth or the 

calyx lobes weathering away; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the Kalgoor­

lie–Norseman–Chifley district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in sparse shrubland, 

and on sand near outcropping granite.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from Novem­

ber to January.



Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species contained 

comparable amounts of both monoterpenes and sesquiter­

penes. The principal monoterpenes were a­pinene (9.1%) 

and 1,8­cineole (12.8%). These were accompanied by lesser 

amounts of b­pinene (3.1%), limonene (2.2%), a­terpineol 

(2.9%) and trans­pinocarveol (0.7%). The main sesquiter­

penes encountered were g­eudesmol (8.3%), a­eudesmol 

(9.9%), b­eudesmol (25.6%) and several unidentified 

oxygenated sesquiterpenes (each <3.0%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 1.9%.

Notes:

 This species has adapted well to cultivation in 

Australia as an ornamental shrub in regions with a dry 

temperate climate and possesses a degree of frost tolerance.



Melaleuca 

coccinea

A.S.George



125

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a c

ombo

ynensis

Publication:

 Novon 16: 471 (2006)

Derivation:

 comboynensis, from the locality Comboyne 

Ranges, New South Wales

Synonym:

 Callistemon comboynensis Cheel



Description:

 

Shrub or tree 

0.3–5 m tall; bark hard. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, pubescent overlaid with more 

or less sericeous­pubescent hairs, or the shorter hairs 

somewhat lanuginulose­pubescent grading to pubes­

cent. 

Leaves 

alternate, 27–95 mm long, 7–17 mm wide, 

3.5–8 times as long as wide, long­ or short­petiolate; 

blade glabrescent, sericeous, more or less lanuginose, or 

lanuginose­pubescent, narrowly elliptic, narrowly obovate, 

elliptic or obovate, in transverse section transversely linear, 

obsublunate or sublunate, the base very narrowly attenuate 

or very narrowly cuneate, the apex very shortly acuminate 

or acute, the veins pinnate, 10–20, 

oil glands 

moderately 

dense, dense or sparse, obscure or distinct, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

spicate, interstitial (the leaves distal to 

the inflorescence reduced in size), with 15–50 monads, 

40–65 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy or glabrescent, 3.2–

4.5 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy or glabrescent, 

1.5–2.5 mm long, herbaceous to the margin. 

Petals 

decidu­


ous, 3.9–6.1 mm long. 

Stamens 

31–41 per flower; filaments 

red or bright crimson, 18–27 mm long; anthers purple to 

almost black. 



Style 

20–34 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 100–200 per 

locule. 

Fruit 

4.1–7 mm long, the calyx lobes persistent or 

deciduous; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Queensland, New South Wales: 

montane country from the border ranges to the Gibraltar 

Range area.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in mountain heath, 

eucalypt forest along cliff line, margin of wet sclerophyll 

forest, along rocky watercourses, shrubland in crevices and 

pockets on massive rock outcrops, crevices on cliff, heath 

in gutters of rocky domed mountain top, on granite, and 

rhyolite.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from March 

to December.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species was domi­

nated by monoterpenes. The principal components were 

a­pinene (28.3%) and 1,8­cineole (42.9%). These were 

accompanied by lesser amounts of limonene (5.6%), 

a­terpineol (6.2%), p­cymene (2.5%) and linalool (0.5%). 

Sesquiterpenes, while numerous, were not plentiful, with 

the principal components being b­caryophyllene (0.7%), 

globulol (1.2%) and spathulenol (1.1%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.1%.

Reference on essential oils: 

Brophy et al. 1998, as 

Callistemon comboynensis

Notes:

 This bottlebrush species is moderately well known 

in cultivation in Australia, where it is regarded as a hardy 

ornamental for temperate regions.



Melaleuca 

comboynensis

(Cheel) Craven



126

Melaleuc

a c

oncinna

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Bulletin de la classe physico-mathématique 

de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg 

10: 339 (1852)

Derivation:

 concinna, from the Latin concinnus, neat, 

pretty, elegant, in reference to the appearance of the species

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.3–1.5 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabres­


cent, minutely sericeous to sericeous or pubescent to more 

or less sericeous­pubescent. 



Leaves 

alternate, 3.5–13 mm 

long, 1–1.8 mm wide, 3–12 times as long as wide, sub­

sessile to short­petiolate; blade glabrescent, minutely 

sericeous to sericeous or more or less sericeous­pubescent, 

very narrowly obovate, narrowly obovate, suboblong, 

linear­obovate or linear, in transverse section transversely 

elliptic, depressed obovate or semicircular to almost semi­

transversely elliptic, the base narrowly cuneate or rounded, 

the apex obtusely shortly acuminate, acuminate, rounded 

or acute, the veins longitudinal, 3, 

oil glands 

moderately 

dense or dense, obscure, more or less in rows or in rows. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, pseudoterminal and sometimes 

also upper axillary, with 4–9 triads, up to 17 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy, 1–1.8 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially 

hairy or glabrous, 0.3–0.6 mm long, scarious through­

out or scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.3 mm wide. 



Petals 

deciduous, 0.8–1.5 mm long. 



Stamens 

(2–)3–5 per 

bundle; filaments pink, purple or mauve, 3–8 mm long, 

the bundle claw 0.9–1.7 mm long, 0.2–0.3 times as long 

as the filaments. 

Style 

4.5–8 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 8–10 per 

locule. 

Infructescences 

globose (rarely approaching ‘peg­

fruited’). 

Fruit 

2–3 mm long, with weakly developed 

sepaline teeth or the calyx lobes weathering away; cotyle­

dons planoconvex.



Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the South 

Stirling – Jerramungup – Ravensthorpe district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in tall mallee scrub, 

heathland, high shrubland, and on sand over clay or lat­

erite or granite.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from Septem­

ber to January.



Essential oils:

 This species presented a predomi­

nantly monoterpenoid oil. The principal monoterpenes 

were a­pinene (31.9%) and 1,8­cineole (11.6%). These 

were accompanied by lesser amounts of linalool (3.1%), 

limonene (1.9%), b­pinene (1.1%) and a­terpineol (2.5%). 

The principal sesquiterpenes present were viridiflorene 

(2.1%), globulol (7.6%), viridiflorol (5.6%), spathulenol 

(1.9%), E,E­farnesal (7.7%), and cubeban­11­ol (3.4%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.2%.

Melaleuca 

concinna

Turcz.


127

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a c

oncr

et

a

Publication:

 Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae 3: 118 

(1862)


Derivation:

 concreta, from the Latin concretus, grown 

together, condensed, in reference to the tightly packed fruit 

of this species

Description:

 

Shrub 

to 6 m tall; bark papery, peeling­

flaking. 

Branchlets 

glabrescent, with sericeous or 

spreading­ascending to spreading pubescent hairs. 

Leaves 

spreading­ascending or ascending, 17–112 mm 

long (often 30–70), 0.9–3.7 mm wide, 14–102 times as 

long as wide (often 20–60), petiole 0.5–2 mm long; 

blade glabrescent, sericeous or spreading­ascending 

to spreading pubescent, linear, linear­obovate, nar­

rowly obovate or linear­elliptic, in transverse section 

transversely linear, sublunate, depressed obovate or 

depressed angular­obovate, in lateral view straight or 

incurved, the base very narrowly cuneate, the apex nar­

rowly acuminate, acuminate, obtusely shortly acuminate 

or aristate, 



oil glands 

scattered. 



Inflorescences 

capitate, 

with 4–18 triads. 

Hypanthium 

0.8–1.3 mm long, 0.8–1.5 mm 

wide. 

Calyx lobes 

5, indistinctly free, abaxially glabrous, 

0.2–0.5 mm long. Petals usually deciduous or sometimes 

caducous, broadly ovate to subcircular, 0.9–2.1 mm long, 

oil glands subcircular to circular, elliptic or rarely linear. 

Stamens 

3–9 per bundle (usually 5–7), the filaments 

cream to white, or yellow, 4.2–9.2 mm long, the bundle 

claw 1.2–4.3 mm long, 0.3–0.6 times as long as the fila­

ments. 

Style 

4.5–9.4 mm long. 



Ovules 

15–20 per locule. 



Infructescences 

longer than wide to as wide as long (rarely 

shorter than wide), 6–9.8 mm wide, the constituent fruits 

closely packed and not retaining a significant separate 

identity (the fruiting hypanthia closely packed for their 

full length). Seeds 0.6–0.9 mm long, the cotyledons 

planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

lower Murchison River district southwards to the Cataby 

– Regans Ford district.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in heath, shrubland, 

scattered mallees with shrubs, mallee–acacia–melaleuca 

vegetation, Melaleuca shrubland, low heath, Banksia 

woodland, on grey sand, brown clayey sand over sand­

stone, yellow sandy loam, sandy slopes below laterite 

jump­up, drainage line with (currently saturated) greyish 

sand, yellow sand dune, lateritic pale (red) brown loam, 

slightly saline clay loam, white loamy clay seepage slope, 

and laterite.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from August 

to November.



Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species was variable, 

with monoterpenes predominating. Two chemotypes 

appeared to be present. Chemotype I (only in LAC 

10210) contained terpinen­4­ol (35.4%) as its principal 

component, with lesser amounts of g­terpinene (12.6%), 

a­terpinene (7.3%), sabinene (8.3%) and a­pinene (4%). 

The sesquiterpene in greatest abundance was spathulenol 

(1.8%) and all told they accounted for <3% of the oil. 

Chemotype II (in both LAC 10210 and 10219) contained 

1,8­cineole (28–82%, the majority >58%) as the principal 

component. This was accompanied by lesser amounts of 

a­pinene (4–21%, the majority >8%), limonene (2–5%), 

terpinen­4­ol (1–2%) and a­terpineol (1–3%). Sesquiter­

penes did not contribute much to the oil, with spathulenol 

(0.3–4.0%), globulol (0.4–12.0%, the majority <2.0%) 

and bicyclogermacrene (0.3–3.0%) being the principal 

components.

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (dry weight, w/w) was 0.8–2.2%.



Reference on essential oils: 

Brophy et al. 2006b



Notes:

 This is the most variable species of the broom­

bush complex and the species includes many populations 

Melaleuca 

concreta

F.Muell.


Melaleuc

a c

oncr

et

a

 7



. Species ac

counts


128

Melaleuc

a c

oncr

et

(c

on



tinued

) 



 7

. Species ac

counts

that have distinctive morphologies. Although variation in 



leaf length is high between the populations, there are sev­

eral unifying features, notably the infructescence usually 

being somewhat spicate and the leaves being broader than 

thick. It appears that there are many local variants adapted 

to particular local conditions. The chemotype containing 

significant amounts of terpinen­4­ol is of interest as a 

medicinal essential oil source although, since this analysis 

is on only one sample, an investigation within the species 

would be required to check on oil yield and the variation 

in the amount of this compound present.

It is not known if this species has ever been harvested 

for making brushwood fencing. Selected forms may well 

be useful as ornamentals in regions with a Mediterranean 

climate. Given that it has a very broad ecological amplitude 

and is morphologically variable, it should be possible to 

select forms to fit several landscape profiles.



129

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a c

ond

ylosa

Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic 

Botany 12: 869 (1999)



Derivation:

 condylosa, from the Greek kondylos, knob, 

prominence, in reference to the knobbly infructescence 

that often occurs in this species



Description:

 

Shrub 

0.3–3 m tall; bark papery. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, more or less retrorsely pubescent. 

Leaves alternate, 9.5–32 mm long, 1.3–2.1 mm wide, 

6–15 times as long as wide, short­petiolate to subses­

sile; blade glabrescent, more or less retrorsely pubescent, 

linear­obovate or linear, in transverse section semicir­

cular to transversely semielliptic, depressed obovate or 

transversely elliptic, the base attenuate, the apex shortly 

acuminate, the veins longitudinal, 3, 

oil glands 

moderately 

dense, distinct to obscure, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capi­


tate, pseudoterminal, with 6–11 triads, up to 20 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy, 1.2–1.5 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially 

hairy, 0.2–0.5 mm long, scarious throughout. 

Petals 

decid­


uous, 1.2–2 mm long. 

Stamens 

5–7 per bundle; filaments 

pale yellow (ageing to pinkish), 5–6.5 mm long, the bun­

dle claw 1.9–2.8 mm long, 0.3–0.5 times as long as the 

filaments. 

Style 

7–8.5 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 15 per locule. 



Infructescences 

globose. 



Fruit 

2–2.5 mm long, the calyx 

lobes weathering away (protuberances on fruit are not 

sepaline teeth); cotyledons planoconvex.



Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the Narem­

been–Kondinin–Hyden district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in mallee–Melaleuca 

shrubland, low open mallee woodland, sand plain vegeta­

tion, on yellow­brown loam, and sandy loam.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in October and 

November.

Essential oils:

 This species presented a predominantly 

monoterpenoid oil. The principal components were 

1,8­cineole (30–39%) and a­pinene (11–27%). These were 

accompanied by limonene (2–3%), a­terpineol (3–5%) 

and b­pinene (0.7–2.0%). Sesquiterpenes, while numer­

ous, were individually present in small amounts with the 

principal contributors being globulol (4–10%), viridiflo­

rol (1–5%), g­eudesmol (4–8%), a­eudesmol (2–6%) and 

b­eudesmol (3–7%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3–1.0%.

Melaleuca 

condylosa

Craven


130

Melaleuc

a c

ono

thamnoide

s

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Journal of the Royal Society of Western 

Australia 47: 61 (1964)



Derivation:

 conothamnoides, from Conothamnus, a 

genus of Myrtaceae, and the Greek ­oides, resembling, in 

reference to a perceived similarity between this species and 

a species of Conothamnus



Description:

 

Shrub 

0.3–1.5 m tall. 



Branchlets 

gla­


brescent (sometimes rapidly so), sericeous­pubescent 

to pubescent. 



Leaves 

alternate, (11–)24–45 mm long, 

4–11 mm wide, 2–5 times as long as wide, subsessile to 

short­petiolate; blade glabrescent, sericeous to sericeous­

pubescent and often lanuginose­pubescent on the margins, 

narrowly obovate, oblong, narrowly elliptic to elliptic, 

obovate or ovate, in transverse section transversely lin­

ear, the base attenuate, narrowly cuneate to cuneate or 

rounded, the veins longitudinal, 5(–7), 

oil glands 

dense 


or moderately dense, obscure to distinct, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate or shortly spicate, pseudoterminal 

and sometimes also upper axillary, with 8–15 triads, up 

to 35 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 1.8–2.5 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, 0.3–0.7 mm long, scarious 

in a marginal band 0.1–0.3 mm wide. 

Petals 

deciduous, 

2–4 mm long. 

Stamens 

7–9 per bundle; filaments purple, 

magenta or rarely pink, 8.5–14.5 mm long, the bundle 

claw 2.5–5.6 mm long, 0.2–0.5 times as long as the fila­

ments. 

Style 

11–19.5 mm long. 



Ovules 

8–20 per locule. 



Infructescences 

globose. 



Fruit 

2.5–4 mm long, the calyx 

lobes weathering away; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Arrino – Mt Gibson district south to the Toodyay–Younge­

din district, and east to the Comet Vale – Coolgardie 

district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in open shrubland, sand 

plain, Casuarina thicket, low heath, eucalypt woodland, 

dense shrubland, on sandy loam over granite, sandy clay 

over laterite, and red loam.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from August 

to January, and also in April.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species contained 

both mono­ and sesquiterpenes but monoterpenes pre­

dominated. The principal monoterpenes were 1,8­cineole 

(21–35%), b­pinene (9–23%) and a­pinene (13–24%). 

These were accompanied by lesser amounts of limonene 

(1–3%), terpinen­4­ol (0.5–2.0%) and a­terpineol (3–5%). 

The principal sesquiterpenes were globulol (2–8%), 

viridiflorol (1–3%), spathulenol (2–6%) and a­cadinol 

(0.7–2.0%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was <0.4%.

Notes:

 This very attractive shrub has been successfully 

grown in Australia in areas with a Mediterranean climate 

but Holliday (2004) reported it is not easy to grow in sum­

mer rainfall areas.

Melaleuca 

conothamnoides

C.A.Gardner



131

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a c

or

dat

a

Publication:

 Bulletin de la classe physico-mathématique 

de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg 

10: 339 (1852)

Derivation:

 cordata, from the Latin cordis, heart, hence 

cordatus, heart­shaped, in reference to the leaf shape

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.3–3 m tall; bark fibrous, grey. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, pubescent to sericeous­pubescent 

or rarely sericeous. 

Leaves 

alternate, 7.5–30 mm long, 

6.5–30 mm wide, 0.8–1.8 times as long as wide, subses­

sile to short­petiolate; blade soon glabrescent, pubescent 

to less often sericeous­pubescent or rarely with some 

sericeous hairs and occasionally lanuginose­pubescent 

distally and on the margins, broadly ovate to ovate, in 

transverse section transversely linear, the base cordate, 

subcordate or rounded, the apex acuminate, obtusely 

shortly acuminate or rounded, the veins longitudinal, 

5–7(–9), 

oil glands 

moderately dense, distinct to obscure, 

scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate or shortly spicate, pseudo­

terminal and often also upper axillary, sometimes lateral 

below the leaves, with 7–19 triads, up to 35 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 1.5–2 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially 

glabrous, 0.2–0.5 mm long, scarious in a marginal band 

0.05–0.2 mm wide. 



Petals 

deciduous, 1.3–3 mm long. 



Stamens 

7–12 per bundle; filaments purple to mauve, 

pink or magenta, 8.8–14 mm long, the bundle claw 

(1.3–)2–4.5 mm long, 0.1–0.4 times as long as the fila­

ments. 

Style 

11–14 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 5–12 per locule. 



Infructescences 

globose. 



Fruit 

2–4 mm long, the calyx 

lobes weathering away; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: widespread 

from the southern Shark Bay district south­eastwards to 

the Esperance district.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in mallee heath, mallee 

woodland, sand plain, Casuarina thicket, closed shrubland, 

on lateritic sandy clay, and granite.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from March 

to January.

Essential oils:

 This species produced a variable 

oil, with either both monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes 

being prevalent or only monoterpenes being prominent 

compounds. For the first chemical form, the principal 

monoterpenes were a­pinene (14.6%) and 1,8­cineole 

(12.2%). There were lesser amounts of b­pinene (1.8%), 

trans­pinocarveol (1.7%), linalool (1%) and a­terpineol 

(1.7%). The principal sesquiterpenes were g­eudesmol 

(14.5%), b­eudesmol (17.5%) and a­eudesmol (3.9%), with 

lesser amounts of globulol (1.6%), spathulenol (1.6%), allo­

aromadendrene and a­muurolene (both 1.7%). The second 

chemical form produced a­pinene (25%) and 1,8­cineole 

(29.1%) as principal components. These were accompanied 

by lesser amounts of b­pinene (2.1%), limonene (2.2%) 

and a­terpineol (5.3%), and the sesquiterpenes spathulenol 

(3.7%), a­cadinol (3.1%), bicyclogermacrene (1.7%) and 

germacrene­D (1.5%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) of the first 

chemical form was 0.4%, while for the second form it was 

0.7%.

Reference on essential oils: 

Brophy and Lassak 1992



Melaleuca 

cordata

Turcz.


132

Melaleuc

a c

ornuc

opiae

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Austrobaileya 2: 74 (1984)

Derivation:

 cornucopiae, from the Latin cornu, horn, 

and copiosus, plentiful, abounding, in reference to the 

appearance of the inflorescence of this species, especially 

the male inflorescence, being somewhat horn­like due to 

the numerous floral units of the inflorescence being pro­

tected by overlapping bracts

Description:

 

Shrub or tree 

1–4 m tall; bark papery, grey. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, silky­sericeous. 



Leaves 

alternate, 

40–105 mm long, 4–15 mm wide, 6–15 times as long as 

wide, long­petiolate; blade glabrescent, sericeous, nar­

rowly elliptic or narrowly obovate, in transverse section 

transversely linear, oblunate or lunate, the base attenuate 

to cuneate, the apex acute to rounded, the veins longitudi­

nal, 3–7, 



oil glands 

moderately dense, obscure, scattered. 



Inflorescences 

spicate, pseudoterminal or sometimes 

interstitial, sometimes also lateral, with c. 10–50 triads, 

up to 15 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 1–1.5 mm long. 



Calyx 

absent. 


Petals 

deciduous, 1.9–2.2 mm long. 



Stamens 

5 or 6 per bundle; filaments white, 4.5–5.9 mm 

long, the bundle claw 1.2–1.8 mm long, 0.3–0.4 times as 

long as the filaments. 



Style 

c. 7 mm long (in male flow­

ers the gynoecium is absent). 

Ovules 

c. 30 per locule. 



Fruit 

2.5–4 mm long; cotyledons obvolute.



Natural occurrence:

 Northern Territory: western 

Arnhem Land.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in mixed low woodland 

and eucalypt forest, low heath, and on skeletal sandy soils 

over sandstone.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from Decem­

ber to April.

Essential oils:

 This species presented a monoterpe­

noid oil. The principal monoterpenes encountered were 

a­pinene (21.9%), a­phellandrene (33.9%) and terpi­

nolene (10.5%). These compounds were accompanied by 

lesser amounts of limonene (2.2%), E­b­ocimene (2.8%), 

g­terpinene (3.2%) and p­cymene (3.0%). 1,8­cineole was 

not present. Sesquiterpenes were neither numerous nor 

plentiful, with the major members being globulol (3.0%), 

viridiflorol (1.1%), spathulenol (2.8%) and bicyclogerma­

crene (0.8%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (dry weight, w/w) was 1.0%.



Notes:

 Melaleuca cornucopiae is a useful ornamental 

shrub for the monsoonal tropics. Although the flowers are 

not dramatic, the unusual inflorescence may be very long, 

and the glossy leaves and branchlet bark are appealing.

Melaleuca 

cornucopiae

Byrnes


133

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a cr

oxf

or

diae

Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic 

Botany 12: 870 (1999)

Derivation:

 croxfordiae, in honour of Eileen Jessie Crox­

ford (1912–2006), of Albany, Western Australia, whose 

field knowledge of the flora of the Albany district has been 

of benefit to botanical science



Description:

 

Tree or shrub 

1.5–5 m tall; bark papery. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, sericeous. 



Leaves 

alternate, 

14–60 mm long, 1.5–5.2 mm wide, 4–25 times as long 

as wide, short­petiolate; blade glabrescent, sericeous, 

linear­elliptic, linear­obovate, very narrowly elliptic, very 

narrowly obovate or narrowly elliptic, in transverse section 

transversely linear, the base attenuate, the apex acuminate, 

narrowly acuminate or narrowly acute to acute, the veins 

longitudinal, 5, 

oil glands 

moderately dense or dense, 

obscure, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, pseudotermi­

nal and sometimes also upper axillary, with 5–12 triads, 

up to 22 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

glabrescent or rarely 

glabrous, 1.5–2 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, 

0.2–0.6 mm long, scarious throughout or rarely scarious 

in a marginal band 0.1–0.2 mm wide. 



Petals 

deciduous, 

1.3–1.7 mm long. 

Stamens 

5–8 per bundle; filaments 

white, cream or pale yellow, 6–9 mm long, the bundle claw 

1.8–3(–3.8) mm long, 0.2–0.4(–0.5) times as long as the 

filaments. 

Style 

7–11.5 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 5–10 per loc­

ule. 

Infructescences 

globose. 



Fruit 

3–4 mm long, the calyx 

lobes weathering away or sometimes replaced by weakly 

developed sepaline teeth; cotyledons obvolute.



Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the Man­

jimup–Albany district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in shrubland on granite 

pavements, winter­wet swamps, mixed forest over sedges, 

on peaty sandy clay, grey sand, black peat over sand, and 

granite.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from October 

to December.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species was domi­

nated by 1,8­cineole (51–61%). There were lesser amounts 

of limonene (4–6%), a­pinene (2–5%), b­pinene (1–3%), 

myrcene (0.9–2.0%), and a­terpineol (4–6%). There was a 

significant number of unidentified sesquiterpenes present 

in the oil, though in small amounts. The main sesquiterpe­

nes encountered in the oil were globulol (2–7%) and several 

unidentified oxygenated sesquiterpenes (1–7%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 1.3%.

Notes:

 Although this species comes from higher rainfall 

areas in southern Western Australia, Holliday (2004) records 

this species to have been successfully grown in dry clay soils 

in the Adelaide region of South Australia. It should be tri­

alled in other areas as it may prove to be a useful addition 

to ornamental horticulture as is another species from the 

southern Western Australian area, i.e. M. nesophila.



Melaleuca 

croxfordiae

Craven


134

Melaleuc

a ct

enoide

s

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 in Cowley, Quinn, Barlow & Craven, 

Australian Systematic Botany 3: 194, fig. 11c (1990)



Derivation:

 ctenoides, from the Greek ctenos, comb, and 

­oides, resembling, in reference to the resemblance of the 

secund terete leaves of a growth flush projecting as do the 

teeth of a large comb

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.5–4 m tall. 



Branchlets 

gla­


brescent, lanuginulose. 

Leaves 

alternate, 10–35 mm 

long, 0.9–1.5 mm wide, (7.3–)10–35 times as long as 

wide, subsessile; blade glabrescent, lanuginulose, linear, 

linear­obovate or narrowly obovate, in transverse section 

transversely semielliptic, semicircular, depressed obovate 

or sublunate, the base attenuate to narrowly cuneate, the 

apex acuminate or acute, the veins longitudinal­pinnate, 

1–3, 

oil glands 

moderately dense to sparse, obscure to 

distinct, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

spicate, lateral (pseudo­

terminal on secondary shoots), with 10–20 monads, up 

to 25 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

glabrous, 1.8–2.5 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous; scarious in a broad marginal 

band, 0.1–0.4 mm wide, 1–1.3 mm long. 

Petals 

decidu­


ous, 3–3.6 mm long. 

Stamens 

14–18 per bundle; filaments 

mauve, 8.5–11 mm long, the bundle claw 4.2–6.3 mm long, 

0.6–0.7 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

10–11 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

c. 70 per locule. 



Fruit 

3.5–5 mm long, the 

calyx lobes abaxially replaced by sepaline teeth; cotyledons 

flattened planoconvex to planoconvex.



Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Maya district south to the Narembeen–Hyden district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in dense tall heath with 

mallees, low closed heath, on sandy loam, sandy clay over 

laterite, and granite.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from Septem­

ber to November.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil from this species was 

dominated by monoterpenes. The principal components 

were 1,8­cineole (67–76%), a­pinene (2–3%), limonene 

(5–10%), myrcene, b­pinene and g­terpinene (each 1–2%), 

terpinen­4­ol (1–3%) and a­terpineol (3–5%). The only 

sesquiterpenes of greater than 1% were globulol (0.8–2.0%) 

and spathulenol (1–2%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.9%.

Melaleuca 

ctenoides

F.C.Quinn



135

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a cucullat

a

Publication:

 Bulletin de la classe physico-mathématique 

de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg 

10: 343 (1852)

Derivation:

 cucullata, from the Latin cucullus, hood, in 

reference to the leaf blades superficially resembling little 

hoods

Description:

 

Shrub 

1–5 m tall. 



Branchlets 

soon gla­

brescent (the lanuginulose­puberulous hairs ephemeral). 

Leaves 

decussate or alternate (often both conditions occur 

within a seasonal growth unit), peltate, 1.7–5 mm long, 

1.2–2.6 mm wide, 1.3–2.2 times as long as wide, sessile; 

blade glabrous or soon glabrescent (when present, the 

puberulous hairs ephemeral), ovate, broadly ovate, obo­

vate, elliptic or subcircular, in transverse section depressed 

angular­obovate, strongly depressed obtriangular, 

depressed obovate or shallowly lunate, the base cuneate, 

rounded or truncate, the apex acute, broadly acute or 

obtuse, the veins longitudinal, 1–9, 

oil glands 

moderately 

dense, obscure, more or less in rows. 

Inflorescences 

spi­


cate or subcapitate, pseudoterminal, with 4–10 triads, up 

to 15 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

glabrous, 1–1.5 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, c. 0.5 mm long, herba­

ceous to the margin or scarious in a marginal band up 

to 0.05 mm wide. 



Petals 

deciduous, 1.3–1.5 mm long. 



Stamens 

5–9 per bundle; filaments white or cream, rarely 

yellow, 3.2–5.5 mm long, the bundle claw 1.5–2.4 mm long, 

0.3–0.5 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

4.5–5.5 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

8–10 per locule. 



Fruit 

2.5–4 mm long, the 

calyx lobes deciduous; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Lake Grace – Stirling Range district eastwards to the Isra­

elite Bay district.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in mallee heath, open 

eucalypt forest with dense shrubby understorey, on laterite, 

sand, and quartzitic clay soil.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from Septem­

ber to December.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species was primar­

ily a sesquiterpenoid oil, though the principal component 

was a monoterpene. The principal sesquiterpenes in 

the oil were spathulenol (7–11%), caryophyllene oxide 

(4–10%), b­eudesmol (2–12%), g­eudesmol (1–12%), 

b­caryophyllene (1–8%) and viridiflorene (0.5–6%). The 

principal monoterpene was a­pinene (16–22%) and there 

were lesser amounts of b­pinene (0.8–2.0%), verbenone 

(1–2%) and a­terpineol (0.2–2.0%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was <0.2%.

Melaleuca 

cucullata

Turcz.


136

Melaleuc

a cuticularis

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Novae Hollandiae plantarum specimen 2: 

30, t. 171 (1806)



Derivation:

 cuticularis, from the Latin cuticula, cuticle, 

apparently in reference to the papery bark of this species

Description:

 

Shrub or tree 

1–10 m tall; bark papery, off­

white or greyish­cream. 

Branchlets 

soon glabrescent (the 

lanuginulose­puberulous hairs ephemeral). 

Leaves 

decus­


sate, 4–12 mm long, 1.2–3.5 mm wide, 2–7 times as long as 

wide, short­petiolate or subsessile; blade glabrous to early 

glabrescent (the lanuginulose­puberulous hairs ephem­

eral), very narrowly elliptic, very narrowly ovate, narrowly 

elliptic, narrowly ovate or narrowly obovate, in transverse 

section sublunate, shallowly lunate or semicircular, the 

base attenuate or rounded, the apex obtuse, broadly acute 

or acute, the veins longitudinal, 3–5, 



oil glands 

sparse, 


obscure, more or less in rows. 

Inflorescences 

capitate or 

subcapitate, pseudoterminal or terminal, with 1–3 monads, 

up to 20 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

glabrous, 2.2–3 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, 2.5–3.3 mm long, herbaceous 

to (or almost to) the margin. 

Petals 

deciduous, 3.5–4.4 mm 

long. 

Stamens 

19–23 per bundle; filaments white or cream; 

6.5–8.8 mm long, the bundle claw 2.5–3.8 mm long, 

0.4–0.5 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

8–9 mm long. 



Ovules 

80–100 per locule. 



Fruit 

3.8–4.5 mm long, with 

sepaline teeth; cotyledons flattened planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia, South Aus­

tralia: from the Perth district south to the Albany district 

and eastwards to the Israelite Bay district, Western Aus­

tralia, and on Kangaroo Island, South Australia.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in Melaleuca shrubland, 

open eucalypt woodland, on the edge of saltwater inlets 

and saline lagoons, on loamy silt, sandy gravel, peaty soil, 

and sandy clay over granite.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from August 

to December, and also in February.

Essential oils:

 This species presented a monoterpenoid 

oil, though there were small amounts of acyl­phloroglu­

cinol compounds present. The principal monoterpene 

found in the oil was 1,8­cineole (53–59%). This was 

accompanied by lesser amounts of a­pinene (6–15%), 

b­pinene (0.9–3.0%), limonene (5–7%), terpinen­4­ol 

(1–2%) and a­terpineol (1–2%). The principal sesquit­

erpenes encountered in the oil were globulol (1–3%), 

spathulenol (2–3%) and allo­aromadendrene (0.4–1.0%). 

Three aromatic compounds that, from their mass spectra, 

were considered to be acyl­phloroglucinol derivatives 

were also present in totals ranging from 3% to 6%. The 

principal one was identified as 2­hydroxy­4,6­dimethyl­ 

(3 or 5)­methyl­isobutyrophenone.



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.

Notes:

 Melaleuca cuticularis is a species that would 

probably be useful in shelter belts etc. in moist to swampy 

temperate areas. It has some salt tolerance and might be 



valuable in the reclamation of salt­affected land.

Melaleuca 

cuticularis



Labill.

Document Outline

  • 7. Species accounts
    • Melaleuca acacioides F.Muell.
    • Melaleuca acuminata F.Muell.
    • Melaleuca acutifolia (Benth.) Craven & Lepschi
    • Melaleuca adenostyla K.J.Cowley
    • Melaleuca adnata Turcz.
    • Melaleuca agathosmoides C.A.Gardner
    • Melaleuca alsophila A.Cunn. ex Benth.
    • Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel
    • Melaleuca amydra Craven
    • Melaleuca apodocephala Turcz.
    • Melaleuca apostiba K.J.Cowley
    • Melaleuca araucarioides Barlow
    • Melaleuca arcana S.T.Blake
    • Melaleuca argentea W.Fitzg.
    • Melaleuca armillaris (Sol. ex Gaertn.) Sm.
    • Melaleuca aspalathoides Schauer
    • Melaleuca atroviridis Craven & Lepschi
    • Melaleuca barlowii Craven
    • Melaleuca basicephala Benth.
    • Melaleuca beardii Craven
    • Melaleuca biconvexa Byrnes
    • Melaleuca bisulcata F. Muell.
    • Melaleuca blaeriifolia Turcz.
    • Melaleuca boeophylla Craven
    • Melaleuca borealis Craven
    • Melaleuca brachyandra (Lindl.) Craven
    • Melaleuca bracteata F.Muell.
    • Melaleuca bracteosa Turcz.
    • Melaleuca brevifolia Turcz.
    • Melaleuca brevisepala (J.W.Dawson) Craven & J.W.Dawson
    • Melaleuca bromelioides Barlow
    • Melaleuca brongniartii Daeniker
    • Melaleuca brophyi Craven
    • Melaleuca buseana (Guillaumin) Craven & J.W.Dawson
    • Melaleuca caeca Craven
    • Melaleuca cajuputi Powell
    • Melaleuca calcicola (Barlow ex Craven) Craven & Lepschi
    • Melaleuca calothamnoides F.Muell.
    • Melaleuca calycina R.Br.
    • Melaleuca calyptroides Craven
    • Melaleuca campanae Craven
    • Melaleuca camptoclada F.C.Quinn
    • Melaleuca capitata Cheel
    • Melaleuca cardiophylla F.Muell.
    • Melaleuca carrii Craven
    • Melaleuca cheelii C.T.White
    • Melaleuca chisholmii (Cheel) Craven
    • Melaleuca ciliosa Turcz.
    • Melaleuca citrina (Curtis) Dum.-Cours.
    • Melaleuca citrolens Barlow
    • Melaleuca clarksonii Barlow
    • Melaleuca clavifolia Craven
    • Melaleuca cliffortioides Diels
    • Melaleuca coccinea A.S.George
    • Melaleuca comboynensis (Cheel) Craven
    • Melaleuca concinna Turcz.
    • Melaleuca concreta F.Muell.
    • Melaleuca condylosa Craven
    • Melaleuca conothamnoides C.A.Gardner
    • Melaleuca cordata Turcz.
    • Melaleuca cornucopiae Byrnes
    • Melaleuca croxfordiae Craven
    • Melaleuca ctenoides F.C.Quinn
    • Melaleuca cucullata Turcz.
    • Melaleuca cuticularis Labill.


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