de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg
10: 343 (1852)
adnata, from the Latin adnatus, adnate, in
reference to the leaf orientation
0.8–6 m tall; bark paperyfibrous.
glabrescent, pubescent or lanuginose.
decussate, peltate, 4.3–12.5 mm long, 1.4–3.8 mm
wide, 2–9 times as long as wide, sessile; blade glabrescent
to hairy, lanuginosepubescent, pubescent or lanuginose,
sometimes also with sericeous hairs, narrowly ovate, ovate
or narrowly elliptic, in transverse section lunate, shallowly
lunate or transversely semielliptic, the base attenuate or
truncate, the apex narrowly acute to very narrowly acute,
the veins longitudinal, 5–7,
obscure to distinct,
more or less in rows.
spicate, lateral (usually
below the leaves) and rarely also interstitial in that a leafy
axis may be distal to the inflorescence, with 8–50 mon
ads, up to 15 mm wide.
very sparsely so), 1.2–1.5 mm long.
glabrous, usually costate, 0.8–1.1 mm long, scarious in
a broad marginal band 0.1–0.2 mm wide.
10–16 per bundle;
filaments white, cream or rarely pale pink, 2.7–6.8 mm
long, the bundle claw 1.8–3.8 mm long, 0.5–0.7 times as
long as the filaments.
5.5–9.3 mm long.
2–3.3 mm long, the calyx lobes abaxi
ally usually weathering away, rarely replaced by poorly
developed sepaline teeth or the lobes persistent; cotyledons
Western Australia: from the
Kalbarri district south and east to the Ongerup and Mt
Recorded as occurring in dense low shrubland,
open eucalypt woodland, tall open eucalypt forest, mallee,
sparse tall shrubland, clay depression, on brown sandy soil,
sandy loam with laterite, stony slopes, and red loam.
mainly monoterpenes. The principal components were
1,8cineole (28–39%), bpinene (18–20%), apinene
(6–8%), limonene (7–9%) and aterpineol (7–8%). The
main sesquiterpenes were a, b and geudesmol (each
2–5%) and globulol (1–3%).
7. Species ac
agathosmoides, from Agathosma, a genus of
Rutaceae, and the Greek oides, resembling, in reference to
a perceived resemblance to species of Agathosma
0.5–1.5 m tall; bark fibrous.
decussate, peltate, 2–3 mm
long, 1–1.8 mm wide, 1.4–2 times as long as wide, sessile;
blade glabrescent (hairs present as marginal cilia only),
obovate, elliptic or oblong, in transverse section lunate
or broadly vshaped, the base truncate to cordate, the
apex rounded or broadly acute, the veins longitudinal, 5,
sparse, distinct, scattered.
glabrous, 1.8–2.5 mm long.
abaxially glabrous, costate, 1.5–2 mm long,
scarious in a marginal band 1–2 mm wide.
12–19 per bundle;
filaments white or greenishwhite, 3.2–6.0 mm long, the
bundle claw 2.5–5.0 mm long.
6.0–7.6 mm long.
20–30 per locule.
3.5–4.5 mm long, with
sepaline teeth; cotyledons planoconvex.
Western Australia: the Lake
land, regenerating mallee with shrub understorey, on
brown stony clay soil, red clay, and welldrained loamy
monoterpenoid oil, though no compound predominated.
The principal monoterpenes encountered were apinene
(14.3%), bpinene (8.0%), pinocarvone (4.0%), trans
pinocarveol (10.7%), verbenone (8.3%) and an unknown
oxygenated monoterpene, molecular weight 148. The main
sesquiterpenes encountered were spathulenol (7.8%),
globulol (7.5%) and ledol (2.2%).
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.
This species has novelty interest as its flowers
seemingly erupt from the branchlets and branches but the
flowers unfortunately are not as attractive as they are in the
pink to purpleflowered M. suberosa, another species in
which the flowers are inserted on the branches.
alsophila, from the Greek, alsos, grove, and
philos, loving, in reference to the common occurrence of
this species in groves
ex Benth.) Barlow
3–15 m tall; bark papery,
white, pale grey or brownishwhite.
alternate, 25–85 mm long, 5–11 mm
wide, 3.5–10.5 times as long as wide, shortpetiolate;
blade glabrescent to sericeous with many lanuginulose
hairs, narrowly elliptic or narrowly obovate, in transverse
section transversely linear, the base attenuate, the apex
obtuse, rounded, acute, narrowly acute or acuminate, the
veins longitudinal, 5–7,
dense to sparse, usu
ally obscure, scattered.
lateral or sometimes pseudoterminal or rarely interstitial,
with 2–15 dyads, 12–15 mm wide.
abaxially glabrous or hairy,
0.8–1 mm long, scarious in a marginal band 0.2–0.3 mm
caducous, 1.8–2.3 mm long.
bundle; filaments white to cream (rarely recorded as red
dish), 3.4–6.8 mm long, the bundle claw 2–3.1 mm long,
0.3–0.5 times as long as the filaments.
6–9 per locule.
1.5–2.3 mm long, the
calyx lobes abaxially persistent or deciduous; cotyledons
Territory: the Kimberley region of Western Australia and
the adjacent region of the Northern Territory, and the
northern coastal region of the Great Sandy Desert region
of Western Australia.
Recorded as occurring in low open woodland,
edges of saltmarsh behind mangrove, vine thicket behind
coastal dune, lowlying woodland, sandy creek beds, on
silty soil, white clay, red sand, black alluvial soil, and rocky
Recorded as flowering from May to
chemical forms, in which apinene/1,8cineole or
pcymene/terpinen4ol were prominent. The pinene/
cineole form (GJM 1764) contained apinene (8–66%) or
1,8cineole (15–66%) as principal component, with lesser
amounts of transpinocarveol (1–17%) as the next most
abundant component. No other component was more than
1%. The pcymene/terpinen4ol form (BVG 2354) con
tained pcymene (21–44%), terpinen4ol (15–28%) and
geranial (12–19%) as principal components, with lesser
amounts of apinene (2–4%) and limonene (1–3%).
Another collection (JB 156, from Derby) contained
1,8cineole (30–44%) and terpinen4ol (15–28%) as prin
(GJM 1764), 1.0–1.2% (BVG 2354) and 0.1–0.3% (JB 156).
As with M. acacioides, this species may have
potential for shelter belts or specimen plantings in regions
with saline soils and a monsoonal tropical climate. There
may be potential for cultivation of the chemical variety
containing terpinen4ol/geranial, although a market
would have to be found for this oil type and the yields
would have to be improved.
ALREADY SCALED TO 150%
A.Cunn. ex Benth.
Journal and Proceedings of the Royal
Society of New South Wales 58: 195 (1924)
alternifolia, from the Latin alternus, alter
nate, folium, leaf, in reference to the leaf arrangement
Shrub or tree
2.5–14 m tall; bark papery,
peeling in long flakes, reddishbrown.
nate and decussate), 10–32 mm long, 0.4–1 mm wide,
20–40 times as long as wide, shortpetiolate to subsessile;
blade glabrescent, lanuginulose or lanuginosepubescent,
linear, in transverse section shallowly lunate, lunate or
transversely semielliptic, the base attenuate, the apex
narrowly acute, the veins apparently longitudinal, 3,
dense or moderately dense, distinct to obscure,
scattered to more or less in rows.
pseudoterminal and often also upper axillary, rarely
approaching interstitial, with 6–24 monads, up to
25 mm wide.
glabrous or sometimes hairy,
1.7–2 mm long.
abaxially glabrous, 1.1–1.3 mm
long, scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.2 mm wide.
deciduous, 2.3–2.7 mm long.
bundle; filaments white, 13–14 mm long, the bundle
claw 8.6–10.5 mm long, 0.7–0.8 times as long as the
c. 3.8 mm long.
c. 85 per locule.
2.8–4 mm long, the calyx lobes abaxially persistent
or replaced by sepaline teeth; cotyledons obvolute.
Queensland, New South Wales:
from the Stanthorpe district in Queensland south and east
into New South Wales to the Lismore and Grafton areas,
with disjunct populations near Port Macquarie. Range in
elevation is from near sea level to 800 m.
Recorded as occurring on coastal plains and
adjacent ranges where it grows on seasonally inundated
swamps and along watercourses, on mainly alluvial silty
loams, and sandy loams derived from granite.
Recorded as flowering from June to
This species was reported by Homer et
al. (2000) to contain six chemotypes and, while statistics
do show this, principally there were three main chemi
cal forms. The main commercial chemotype contained
terpinen4ol (30–40%, with some provenances going up
to 50%). This was accompanied by significant amounts
of aterpinene and gterpinene. Chemotype II contained
1,8cineole (25–90%) and associated monoterpenes.
Chemotype III contained terpinolene (40–55%) as its
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 3–6%,
though the terpinolene chemotype (chemotype III) was
Southwell 1999 and references therein; Homer et al. 2000
Selected forms of M. alternifolia are used as a
source of tea tree oil and this is discussed separately (see
Chapter 3). The species is also suitable for use as an orna
mental and is probably more reliable in damp soils than
the closely related M. linariifolia.
(Maiden & Betche) Cheel
in Craven & Lepschi, Australian System-
atic Botany 12: 859 (1999)
amydra, from the Greek amydros, indistinct,
unclear, in reference to the similarity of this species to
M. seriata and M. ryeae
0.3–2.5 m tall; bark fibrous.
glabrescent, pubescent to lanuginosepubescent
or lanuginose to lanuginulose.
6(–7.6) mm long, (1.3–)1.5–2(–2.7) mm wide,
(1.5–)2–2.8(–4.8) times as long as wide, subsessile or rarely
shortpetiolate; blade glabrescent, lanuginosepubescent
to pubescent, or sometimes lanuginose, elliptic to narrowly
elliptic or rarely narrowly obovate, in transverse section
transversely linear, sublunate or lunate, the base narrowly
cuneate or rarely cuneate or attenuate, the apex obtuse to
rounded or rarely acute, the veins longitudinal, 3,
moderately dense, distinct to obscure, in rows
(sometimes more or less so) or scattered.
capitate, pseudoterminal and sometimes also
upper axillary, with 7–20 monads, up to 20 mm wide.
hairy, 1.5–2 mm long.
glabrous or hairy, 0.5–1.8 mm long, scarious in a marginal
band 0.25–0.9 mm wide or scarious throughout.
deciduous, 1.5–3 mm long.
5–10 per bun
dle; filaments pink or mauve to purple, 7–10 mm long, the
bundle claw 2.5–4 mm long, 0.3–0.5 times as long as the
8.5–10.5 mm long.
10–15 per loc
pegfruited or sometimes approaching
3–3.5 mm long, often with very weakly
developed sepaline teeth; cotyledons obvolute.
Western Australia: from the
Arrowsmith River district south to the Dandaragan–
Recorded as occurring in open heath, sand
plain, heath on marshy flat, low closed forest, shrubland,
a flood plain, on sand over lateritic gravel and clay, peaty
sand, and loam.
Recorded as flowering from Septem
ber to November.
nated by monoterpenes. The principal component was
1,8cineole (55.2%) and there were lesser amounts of
apinene (11.7%), bpinene (2.0%), limonene (1.8%), lin
alool (1.2%) and aterpineol (4.0%). Sesquiterpenes did
not contribute much to the oil. Their major components
were spathulenol (7.8%), bicyclogermacrene, globulol and
acadinol (all 0.5–1.0%).
10: 340 (1852)
apodocephala, from the latinised Greek,
apodus, sessile, and cephalus, headed, in reference to the
0.2–4 m tall.
alternate, 4–11.5 mm long, 0.7–1.7 mm wide,
5–12 times as long as wide, subsessile to shortpetiolate;
blade soon glabrescent (the lanuginulosepuberulous to
lanuginulose hairs ephemeral), linear, linearobovate,
linearovate, very narrowly obovate or very narrowly
ovate, in transverse section transversely narrowly elliptic,
transversely elliptic, subcircular or flattened transversely
semielliptic, the base broadly attenuate or narrowly
cuneate, the apex obtusely shortly acuminate, acuminate,
narrowly acute, acute or rounded, the veins longitudi
sparse, obscure, more or less in rows.
capitate, lateral or pseudoterminal and
then approaching interstitial, with 1–15 monads, up to
12 mm wide.
glabrescent, 1–2 mm long.
abaxially glabrescent or glabrous, 0.6–
1.2 mm long, herbaceous to (or almost to) the margin.
deciduous, 1.2–2.3 mm long.
bundle; filaments white or creamywhite, 1.5–5.5 mm long,
the bundle claw 0.2–0.3 mm long, 0.1–0.4 times as long as
4–6 mm long.
15–40 per loc
3–5.5 mm long, with sepaline teeth; cotyledons
subobvolute (almost planoconvex).
Western Australia: from the
Stirling Range east to the Truslove district.
dense low heath in open shrub mallee, on sand, and damp
Recorded as flowering from January
contained significant amounts of both mono and ses
quiterpenes. The principal monoterpenes were apinene
(14.8%), bpinene (15.0%), limonene (8.6%) and aterpi
neol (2.8%). The major sesquiterpenes detected were
spathulenol (13.0%), globulol (10.3%), bicyclogermacrene
(2.6%), cubeban11ol (2.7%), bcaryophyllene (1.9%),
viridiflorene (1.0%) and viridiflorol (3.1%).
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.1%.
Australian Systematic Botany 3: 182, fig. 7c (1990)
road, solitary, in reference to the isolated locality of the
type collection, the only collection then known
to 2 m tall; bark fibrous, grey.
hairy, with both lanuginulose and subsericeous
alternate, 6.5–11 mm long, 1.3–1.7 mm wide,
5–7 times as long as wide, shortpetiolate to subsessile;
blade glabrescent, with both lanuginulose and subseri
ceous hairs, narrowly obovate or narrowly elliptic, in
transverse section transversely narrowly oblong or sub
lunate, the base attenuate, the apex acute or acuminate,
the veins longitudinal, 3,