sparse, distinct, scat
spicate, lateral, with c. 30 monads,
up to 35 mm wide.
hairy, 1.8–2.5 mm long.
abaxially hairy, 1.6–2.1 mm long, herba
ceous to (or almost to) the margin.
3.5–4.4 mm long.
11–16 per bundle; filaments
red, 15–18 mm long, the bundle claw 8–10.2 mm long,
0.5–0.6 times as long as the filaments.
110–140 per locule.
– Lake Minigwal district.
on deep red sand.
This species presented a monoter
penoid oil. The principal component was 1,8cineole
(81.3%). This was accompanied by lesser amounts of
apinene (3.4%), limonene (3.8%), aterpineol (4.9%),
bpinene (0.9%) and pcymene (0.8%). Sesquiterpenes
were neither numerous nor plentiful, with the principal
components being spathulenol (0.3%), globulol and vir
idiflorol (both 0.1%).
This analysis was performed on 0.3 g of a
4yearold airdried herbarium sample and as a result there
is no oil yield given.
This species is little known but it could be worth
trialling as an ornamental in arid regions, as suggested by
Elliot and Jones (1993).
7. Species ac
sia 8: 334, fig. 1a (1992)
araucarioides, from Araucaria, a genus of
Araucariaceae, and the Greek oides, resembling, in refer
ence to the perceived similarity between the leafy shoots
of this plant and those of Araucaria
to 1.5 m tall; bark rough, pale
glabrescent, minutely squamose, seri
ternate, 1.9–3.7 mm long,
0.8–1.4 mm wide, 2–3 times as long as wide, subsessile;
blade glabrescent, lanuginulosepuberulous, oblong,
narrowly elliptic or narrowly ovate, in transverse section
shallowly lunate or transversely semielliptic, the base
narrowly cuneate to rounded, the apex acute to rounded
or obtusely shortly acuminate, the veins longitudinal, 3,
obscure, more or less in rows.
inflorescences), with 2–17 monads, up to 14 mm wide.
glabrous, 0.8–1.2 mm long.
almost to) the margin or scarious in a narrow marginal
band c. 0.5 mm wide.
deciduous, 1–1.3 mm long.
3–5 per bundle; filaments cream, 1.8–5 mm long,
the bundle claw 0.8–1.4 mm long, 0.3–0.4 times as long
as the filaments.
4.5–5.5 mm long.
c. 20 per
2.5 mm long, with sepaline teeth; cotyledons
planoconvex (approaching planoconvex).
Natural occurrence: Western Australia: the Ongerup –
Cape Riche – Jerramungup district.
land, dense heathland, tall shrubland, on gravelly sand,
rocky loam over shale, and shallow red loamy clay.
Recorded as flowering from July to
leaf oil. The principal component was apinene (57.1%)
and this was accompanied by lesser amounts of 1,8cineole
(25.8%), bpinene (3.2%), limonene (2.8%), aterpineol
(2.3%) and transpinocarveol (1.2%). Sesquiterpenes were
neither numerous nor plentiful. The main members were
spathulenol (1.7%), globulol (0.8%) and viridiflorol (0.3%).
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was
The unusual leaf arrangement and small white
flower heads combine to make this species worth
experimenting with as an ornamental for Mediterranean
climates. Holliday (2004) reported it has succeeded in
Adelaide, South Australia.
ALREADY SCALED TO 150%
barium 1: 54, figs 10, 15J (1968)
terious, in reference to the apparent rarity of the species
0.4–15 m tall; bark papery,
hairy to glabrescent, sericeous.
alternate, 23–75 mm long, 7–26 mm wide,
2–5.5 times as long as wide, longpetiolate to short
petiolate; blade glabrescent, sericeous, elliptic, obovate,
narrowly to broadly elliptic or narrowly to broadly obo
vate, in transverse section transversely linear or oblunate,
the base attenuate, the apex usually obtuse (sometimes
acute, rounded, obtusely shortly acuminate or retuse),
the veins longitudinal, 5–11,
and sometimes also upper axillary, with 5–11 triads, up
to 18 mm wide.
hairy, 1.4–1.6 mm long.
abaxially glabrous, 0.9–1 mm long, scarious
in a marginal band 0.15–3 mm wide.
1.5–2 mm long.
6–9 per bundle; filaments
white, 5–5.5 mm long, the bundle claw 0.8–1.5 mm long,
0.2 times as long as the filaments.
c. 6 mm long.
25–40 per locule.
2.5–4 mm long, the calyx
lobes deciduous or rarely persistent; cotyledons obvolute.
Queensland: from the tip of
Cape York Peninsula south to the Cooktown district.
Recorded as occurring in tall lowland swamp
forest, Acacia thicket, heath, shrubland, and on sand.
dominated by monoterpenes. It appeared to exist in
two chemical forms. The principal compounds in the
first form were apinene (26–51%) and 1,8cineole
(10–39%). These were accompanied by lesser amounts of
limonene (4–6%), sabinene (0.2–7.0%), bpinene (1–3%),
gterpinene (0.7–7.0%), terpinen4ol (0.3–8.0%, this in
the bulk sample) and aterpineol (2–7%). Sesquiter penes,
while numerous, did not contribute much to the oil, with
the major components being germacreneD (1–2%),
dcadinene (2–4%) and acadinol (0.7–2.0%). The sec
ond chemical form contained terpinen4ol (23–31%) as
principal component, with significant amounts of 1,8cin
eole (2–27%), apinene (5–12%), limonene (5–6%),
gterpinene (4–8%), pcymene (3–8%) and aterpineol
(3–7%). Once again, sesquiterpenes did not contribute
much to the oil.
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.6–1.0%.
References on essential oils:
Brophy et al. 1988;
Brophy and Doran 1996
This species has attractive foliage but, as noted by
Wrigley and Fagg (1993), the flowers are not noteworthy.
Should hybrids between redflowered forms of M. nervosa
or M. viridiflora be successful, it might be possible to com
bine the desirable foliage of M. arcana with red flowers
from another species and thus produce plants of horticul
tural merit for tropical environments.
The chemotype containing significant amounts of
terpinen4ol is interesting, though the oil yield would
have to be improved.
ALREADY SCALED TO 200%
Society of Western Australia 3: 187 (1918)
argentea, from the Latin argenteus, silvery,
in reference to the typically sivery colour of the foliage
Tree or shrub
3–45 m tall; bark papery,
white, creamy grey or reddish.
hairy to gla
brescent (rarely glabrous), sericeous.
53–130 mm long, 7–24 mm wide, 5–14 times as long as
wide (often 7–14), longpetiolate; blade hairy to glabres
cent (rarely subglabrous), sericeous, very narrowly elliptic,
very narrowly ovate, narrowly elliptic or falcate, in trans
verse section transversely linear (to slightly oblunate),
the base attenuate, the apex narrowly acute, narrowly
acuminate, acute or acuminate, the veins longitudinal,
moderately dense to dense, obscure to dis
spicate, pseudoterminal or
interstitial and often also upper axillary, with 5–20 triads,
up to 30 mm wide.
hairy, 1.3–2.3 mm long.
abaxially hairy, 1.1–1.5 mm long, scarious in a
band 0.1–0.3 mm wide.
deciduous, 2.6–3.2 mm long.
7–9 per bundle; filaments white, creamyyellow or
creamygreen, 8–10 mm long, the bundle claw 1.2–1.8 mm
long, 0.2 times as long as the filaments.
c. 50–60 per locule.
2.5–4 mm long, the
calyx lobes deciduous; cotyledons obvolute.
Western Australia, Northern
Territory, Queensland: from the Gascoyne River district
in Western Australia eastwards to the northern part of the
Northern Territory and northern Queensland.
stream lines, on sand, white clay, brown silty clay, and
coarse sand among granite boulders.
Recorded as flowering from January
but, for the most part, monoterpenes predominated. One
sample (BVG 2307) contained apinene (3–10%), 1,8cin
eole (2–15%), gterpinene (7–10%), sabinene (6–19%) and
terpinen4ol (13–18%) as major compounds. A second
sample (BVG 2251) showed apinene (10–15%), limonene
(18–30%), 1,8cineole (3–12%), gterpinene (3–11%) and
terpinolene (3–12%) as major components. While a third
sample (GJM 1719) gave a sesquiterpenic oil, with several
samples containing Enerolidol (88–92%) as principal
component and another sample containing 1,8cineole
(26%), bicyclogermacrene (12%), globulol (10%), viridi
florol (8%) and spathulenol (10%) as major components.
The oil yield (dry weight, w/w) was 0.1–1.2%.
Reference on essential oils:
Melaleuca argentea is a characteristic riparian tree
along the larger streams in monsoonal northern Australia
and its silvery foliage readily permits its distinction from
the other common riparian species of the genus, M. leu-
cadendra. Where conditions permit, it often is rheophytic.
The species is wellsuited for planting in parks, road verges
etc. in tropical and subtropical regions. The existence of
forms containing high amounts of Enerolidol are worthy
of note, though a good oil yield would be needed before
commercial cultivation could be undertaken.
The populations in the Pilbara region, Western Australia,
may be separated as a distinct species as a result of DNA
studies by Robert Edwards (pers. comm.).
ALREADY SCALED TO 200%
Two subspecies are recognised within this
species: subsp. akineta F.C.Quinn and subsp. armillaris
Australian Systematic Botany 3: 188,
fig. 9b (1990), subsp. akineta; Transactions of the Linnean
Society of London 3: 277 (1797), subsp. armillaris
ing, in reference to its apparently relictual distribution in
South Australia; armillaris, from the Latin armilla, brace
let, apparently in reference to a perceived resemblance of
the inflorescence or infructescence to a bracelet
Shrub or tree
1.2–4 m tall; bark papery
or fibrous, whitish or greyishwhite.
decussate, 4.5–19 mm long, 0.8–4 mm wide,
2.5–18 times as long as wide, shortpetiolate to subsessile;
blade soon glabrescent (the lanuginulose hairs ephem
eral), linear, oblong, narrowly elliptic, elliptic, narrowly
ovate or ovate, in transverse section lunate, conduplicate
involute or transversely linear, the base attenuate to
rounded, the apex acuminate, narrowly acute or nar
rowly acuminate, the veins weakly pinnate (superficially
appearing to have 3 longitudinal veins),
eral (often developing on older wood), with 1–8 monads,
6–20 mm wide.
glabrous, 1.2–2.7 mm long.
abaxially glabrous, 0.5–1.4 mm long, scari
ous in a marginal band 1–2 mm wide.
1.5–3 mm long.
8–18 per bundle; filaments white
or cream (rarely yellowish), 4–7.5 mm long, the bundle
claw 3–4.9 mm long, 0.6–0.7 times as long as the fila
5.1–7.3 mm long.
40–80 per locule.
2.3–4.5 mm long, with sepaline teeth or the calyx
lobes weathering away or rarely persistent; cotyledons
planoconvex to subobvolute.
(Sol. ex Gaertn.) Sm.
from the Lake Gairdner district south to the Darke Peak
district. subsp. armillaris: New South Wales, Victoria,
Tasmania: from the Manning River district in coastal New
South Wales south to fareastern Victoria, extending to
islands of Bass Strait. Naturalised locally in southwestern
Western Australia, southeastern South Australia, Victoria
and the Australian Capital Territory.
ridges and granite inselbergs. subsp. armillaris: Recorded
as occurring in open coastal heathlands, dense thickets
along cliff tops, on headlands, and on a flat sandstone
subsp. akineta: Recorded as flowering
from September to October. subsp. armillaris: Recorded
as flowering from April to December.
subsp. akineta: The leaf oil of this sub
species was dominated by monoterpenes. The principal
component was 1,8cineole (72–79%). This was accom
panied by lesser amounts of apinene (4–6%), limonene
(8–9%), bpinene (1–2%) and aterpineol (4–6%). The
principal sesquiterpenes were globulol, spathulenol and
aromadendrene (all <0.6%). subsp. armillaris: The leaf oil
of this subspecies was dominated by monoterpenes, with
1,8cineole (66–73%) being the most prominent compo
nent. Other components found in the oil in lesser amounts
were limonene (5–9%), apinene (1–5%), myrcene
(1–2%), terpinen4ol (1–3%) and aterpineol (3–4%).
Sesquiterpenes contributed little to the oil, with the most
prominent members being bcaryophyllene (1–3%),
aromadendrene (0.2–2.0%), dcadinene (0.7–2.0%) and
subsp. akineta: The oil yield (fresh weight,
w/w) was 0.6%. subsp. armillaris: The oil yield (fresh
weight, w/w) was 0.1–0.3%.
Reference on essential oils:
Brophy and Lassak
The two subspecies are distinguished as follows:
Melaleuca armillaris subsp. armillaris is widely planted
in southern Australia for shelter belts, road verge plantings
etc. It is not especially showy and in domestic gardens is
mainly useful for providing a fastgrowing screen. This
subspecies can become naturalised and is weedy in some
places, notably in the southwest of Western Australia and
the southwest of Victoria.
aspalathoides, from Aspalathus, a genus of
Fabaceae, and the Greek oides, resembling, in reference to
the similarity between the foliage of this plant and that of
some species of Aspalathus
0.2–1.5 m tall.
length glabrescent), with dense lanuginulose to lanuginu
losepuberulous and sericeouslanuginulose hairs overlaid
with fairly dense appressed to ascending (rarely to spread
ing), sericeous to sericeouspubescent or (rarely) pubescent
alternate, 7–28 mm long, 0.6–1.3 mm wide,
9–30 times as long as wide, sessile to subsessile; blade hairy
or rarely glabrescent, the hairs as on the branchlets, linear
to linearobovate, in transverse section depressed obo
vate, subcircular to circular or transversely elliptic (rarely
more or less rounded depressed obtriangular), the base
truncate or parallel (blade width equals petiole width), the
apex narrowly acute to obtuse, the veins longitudinal, 3,
moderately dense to dense, distinct, scattered.
capitate, pseudoterminal and sometimes
also upper axillary, with 2–5 triads, up to 30 mm wide.
hairy, 2.5–4 mm long.
hairy, 1.6–4 mm long, herbaceous to the margin or scarious
in a marginal band up to c. 0.2 mm wide.
(rarely tardily so), 2.5–4 mm long.
8–12 per bun
dle; filaments purple, pink or mauve, 10.5–21.5 mm long,
the bundle claw 4.5–8.5 mm long, 0.3–0.5 times as long as
17.5–22 mm long.
3–5 mm long, the
calyx lobes weathering away; cotyledons obvolute.
Western Australia: from the
Mingenew–Eneabba district south to the Brookton–Tam