dense heath with some mallee, low closed heath, on sand
plain, sand over granite and laterite, and sand over clay.
Recorded as flowering from January
both mono and sesquiterpenes in approximately equal
amounts. The principal monoterpenes were 1,8cineole
(19–33%) and apinene (9–15%). These were accompanied
by lesser amounts of limonene (0.6–2.0%) and aterpineol
(2–4%). The principal sesquiterpenes identified in the oil
were spathulenol (9–15%), globulol (5–8%), viridiflo
rol (5–9%), bicyclogermacrene (1–3%) and belemene
(0.7–2.0%). There was a considerable number of sesquit
erpenes, comprising about 20% of the oil, that have not
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3–0.5%.
This species should be trialled as an ornamental
in regions with a Mediterranean climate as the brightly
coloured flowers contrast well with the silvery grey foliage.
7. Species ac
Australian Systematic Botany 17: 259 (2004)
atroviridis, from the Latin ater, black and
viridis, green, in reference to the commonly dark green
foliage of this species
Tree or shrub
to 12 m tall; bark papery,
glabrescent, sericeous or sericeous
spreadingascending, 22–56 mm long,
0.6–1.4 mm wide, 28–55 times as long as wide, petiole
0.2–0.6 mm long; blade glabrescent, sericeous or sericeous
pubescent, linear, in transverse section circular, subcircular,
transversely narrowly elliptic or depressed obovate, in lateral
view incurved or straight, the base very narrowly cuneate
or parallel, the apex narrowly acute, narrowly acuminate
0.8–1 mm long, 0.9–1.4 mm
5 (rarely 4), distinct or connate, abaxi
ally glabrous, 0.2–0.5 mm long.
obovate, 1.3–1.6 mm long.
7–11 per bundle, the
filaments yellow, lemon or cream, 2–3.7 mm long, the
bundle claw 1.8–3 mm long, 0.6–1.0 times as long as the
2.5–3.3 mm long.
9–11 per locule.
longer than wide, 5.4–8.5 mm wide, the
constituent fruits closely packed and not retaining a sig
nificant separate identity (the fruiting hypanthia closely
packed for their full length). Seeds 0.5–0.9 mm long, the
Coorow – Perenjori – Lake Moore – Yellowdine district
southwards to the Beaufort River – Pingrup – Varley
woodland, Melaleuca shrubland, with Eucalyptus sargentii
and chenopods, with Eucalyptus–Casuarina–Melaleuca
and samphire, on light brown loamy sand just above sam
phire flat, red clayey sand over laterite pan, redbrown
clayey sand over granite, on light brown sandy clay, on grey
clayey sand on fringe of salt pan, on brown loamy sand in
broad saline drainage line, skeletal soil over granite, and
hardsetting grey clay.
Craven & Lepschi
. Species ac
Recorded as flowering usually between
December and February.
nonsprouting forms of this species (see ‘Notes’ below) was
dominated by monoterpenes. The principal monoterpene
was 1,8cineole (34–74%). This was accompanied by
lesser amounts of apinene (4–35%, the majority <24%),
limonene (2–6%), terpinen4ol (0.2–2.0%) and aterpin
eol (0.6–5.0%). Sesquiterpenes did not contribute much to
the leaf oil, with the major compounds being spathulenol
(0.3–3.0%), globulol (1–3%) and a, b and geudesmol
(from one site, each 0.1–5.0%).
0.3–1.0% for one sample (WOS 2139) and 2.5–3.3% for
another (WOS 2118).
Reference on essential oils:
Brophy et al. 2006b
Melaleuca atroviridis commonly is found on
the margins of saline country low in the landscape in
southwestern Western Australia. This may be an artefact
caused by secondary salinity, reflecting the species’ greater
tolerance to salt than the other species in the original veg
etation. The species is not restricted to such saline habitats
and also occurs in winterwet, freshwater habitats, and on
welldrained sites high in the landscape. It seems the low
landscape populations are ‘seeders’, not resprouting from
the base of the plant after events such as fire or brush
cutting but recruiting new plants from seed stored on the
killed individuals. Populations occurring higher in the
landscape, whether on sand plains or low hills, appear to be
‘sprouters’, with cut plants regrowing from the base. Geoff
Cockerton (pers. comm.) reports that both seeding and
sprouting forms are included in a large plantation of this
species in Western Australia that has been established for
brushwood production for making fencing.
Botany 12: 861 (1999)
barlowii, in honour of Bryan Alwyn Barlow
(1933–), a specialist in Old World Loranthaceae and the
initiator of Melaleuca studies in Canberra, Australia
0.4–2.6 m tall.
alternate, 19.5–41 mm long,
3–8.5 mm wide, 4–10 times as long as wide, subsessile to
shortpetiolate; blade glabrescent (the sericeous to rarely
sericeouspubescent hairs ephemeral), narrowly ovate,
narrowly elliptic, very narrowly ovate or very narrowly
elliptic, in transverse section transversely linear or shal
lowly lunate, the base attenuate to narrowly cuneate, the
apex acuminate, the veins pinnate, longitudinalpinnate
or longitudinal (when longitudinal, the veins 3 – c. 5),
dense to moderately dense, distinct to obscure,
capitate or shortly spicate,
pseudoterminal and sometimes also upper axillary, with
10–15 triads, up to 30 mm wide.
1.8 mm long.
abaxially glabrous, 0.4–0.7 mm
long, scarious in a marginal band 0.2–0.3 mm wide.
deciduous, 1.6–2.7 mm long.
bundle; filaments mauve to purple, 7.3–11 mm long, the
bundle claw 2–3.8 mm long, 0.3–0.4 times as long as the
8–12 mm long.
c. 10–15 per locule.
3.5–4 mm long, the calyx
lobes weathering; cotyledons obvolute.
Western Australia: the
shrubland, low open shrubland, disturbed mallee–Acacia–
Melaleuca woodland, in heath dominated by Allocasuarina
and melaleucas, on lateritic light red sand plain, on lateritic
yellow soil, and on hard, gravelly sandy clay loam.
Recorded as flowering in November
majority of monoterpenes. The principal monoterpenes
encountered were bpinene (20.1%), 1,8cineole (19.3%)
and apinene (9.5%). These were accompanied by lesser
amounts of limonene (2.6%) and aterpineol (4.0%). The
principal sesquiterpenes were globulol (5.5%), viridiflorol
(4.1%), bicyclogermacrene (2.8%), bcaryophyllene (1.1%),
cubeban11ol (2.1%) and acadinol (1.8%).
basicephala, from the latinised Greek basis,
base, and cephalus, headed, in reference to the inflores
cences usually being at the base of lateral shoots
to 0.6 m tall.
decussate, 8–12.5 mm long, 1.8–2.5 mm wide,
4–6 times as long as wide, shortpetiolate to subsessile;
blade glabrous, narrowly elliptic or narrowly obovate,
in transverse section transversely linear, the base nar
rowly cuneate or attenuate, the apex narrowly acute to
acute, the veins longitudinal, 3,
dense, distinct, scattered.
proximal on secondary shoots or rarely a lateral cluster,
interstitial or pseudoterminal, with 2–10 monads, up to
10 mm wide.
glabrous, 0.8–1.1 mm long.
abaxially glabrous, c. 0.8 mm long, herba
ceous to the margin.
deciduous, 1.4–2.2 mm
17–23 per bundle; filaments pinkish
purple or mauvepink, 3.5–4.8 mm long, the bundle
claw 0.8–1.5 mm long, 0.5 times as long as the fila
c. 5.5 mm long.
30–40 per locule.
3 mm long, with sepaline teeth or the calyx lobes
weathering away; cotyledons planoconvex.
Western Australia: from the
Augusta district to the Northcliffe district.
swamps, in drainage line on flat, in Leptocarpus sedgeland,
on sandy clay, and brown clay loam.
Recorded as flowering from Novem
ber to February.
noid oil, with the principal component being 1,8–cineole
(65.4%). This was accompanied by lesser amounts of
apinene (2.4%), limonene (3.5%), aterpineol (1.3%),
bpinene (0.9%) and myrtenol (0.9%). Sesquiterpenes did
not contribute greatly to the oil, with the principal mem
bers being bcaryophyllene (3.3%), viridiflorene (1.5%),
spathulenol (1.8%) and viridiflorol (0.9%),
The analysis was performed on 0.2 g of an
8yearold airdried herbarium sample and as a result there
is no oil yield given.
Botany 12: 862 (1999)
beardii, in honour of John Stanley Beard
(1916–2011), a phytogeographer of the Western Australian
1–2.5 m tall.
pubescent or rarely the hairs lanuginosepubescent to more
or less lanuginose.
alternate, 4.8–10.5 mm long, 0.6–
0.8 mm wide, 6–13 times as long as wide, subsessile; blade
glabrescent, with short pubescent hairs overlaid by sparser
(and much longer) pubescent hairs, linearobovate or linear,
in transverse section transversely elliptic, depressed obo
vate or subcircular, the base narrowly cuneate, rounded,
attenuate or parallel (blade width equals petiole width),
the apex rounded to obtuse, the veins longitudinal, 3,
moderately dense, distinct or obscure, scattered
to more or less in rows.
minal and sometimes also upper axillary, with 3–6 triads,
up to 25 mm wide.
hairy, 2–2.5 mm long.
abaxially hairy (rarely subglabrous),
1–2.5 mm long, herbaceous to the margin or scarious in
a marginal band 0.2–0.5 mm wide or scarious throughout.
deciduous, 2.3–3.5 mm long.
8–13 per bun
dle; filaments pink, purple or magenta, 9.5–11 mm long, the
bundle claw 2.7–6.3 mm long, 0.3–0.6 times as long as the
10–13.5 mm long.
c. 15 per locule.
3–5 mm long, the calyx
lobes weathering away; cotyledons obvolute.
Western Australia: the Arrino–
scrubland, on sand plain.
nated by monoterpenes. The principal monoterpenes
were apinene (54–60%) and 1,8cineole (4–15%). These
were accompanied by lesser amounts of bpinene (2–3%),
limonene (0.9–2.0%), pcymene (1–5%) and aterpineol
(1–2%). The principal sesquiterpenes were globulol
(3–5%), viridiflorol (2–4%), spathulenol (1–3%), bicyclo
germacrene (4–6%) and viridiflorene (1–2%).
This species is not known to be in cultivation but
it should be trialled as an ornamental shrub in regions with
Mediterranean climates for it is one of the taller growing of
the M. scabra group of species and has particularly brightly
Austrobaileya 2: 74 (1984)
convexus, convex, in reference to the biconvex shape of
the leaves in transverse section
Tree or shrub
3–8 m tall; bark fibrous to
glabrescent, lanuginulose to lanuginu
losepuberulous, or rarely sericeouslanuginulose overlaid
with a sparse layer of much longer pubescent hairs.
decussate, 6.5–18 mm long, 2–4 mm wide, 2–5 times
as long as wide, subsessile to shortpetiolate; blade glabres
cent, pubescent (to almost sericeouspubescent) and usually
with some shorter lanuginosepubescent to lanuginulose
puberulous or lanuginulose hairs also, narrowly ovate or
narrowly elliptic, in transverse section ‘birdwinged’, the
base rounded or subcordate, the apex shortly acuminate or
acute, the veins longitudinal, 3,
dense, distinct, scattered.
spicate to capitate,
pseudo terminal, with 2–10 monads, up to 17 mm wide.
hairy, 1.3–2 mm long.
glabrous or glabrescent, 0.9–1.1 mm long, herbaceous to
the margin or scarious in a marginal band up to 0.2 mm
deciduous, 2.5–3.3 mm long.
10–20 per bundle; filaments cream to white,
5.8–9 mm long, the bundle claw 1.5–2.3 mm long, 0.2–
0.3 times as long as the filaments.
10–12 mm long.
40–70 per locule.
3–4 mm long, with sepaline
teeth; cotyledons planoconvex.
New South Wales: from the Port
Macquarie district south to the Jervis Bay district.
Recorded as occurring in eucalypt forest, in low
moist areas, on sandy soil on creek banks and on gravelly
Recorded as flowering from August
more sesquiterpenes, both in number and in quantity,
than monoterpenes. The principal sesquiterpenes were
the hydrocarbons aromadendrene (2–4%), alloaro
madendrene (1–3%), viridiflorene (2–5%), bselinene
(2–5%), aselinene (1–4%), dcadinene (0.8–3%), ledol
(1–3%), globulol (3–5%), viridiflorol (17–18%), spathule
nol (1–3%), geudesmol (2–4%), aeudesmol (2–5%) and
beudesmol (4–8%). The main monoterpenes in this oil
were 1,8cineole (8–23%), limonene (1–3%), Ebocimene
(2–4%), linalool (1–4%) and aterpineol (1–5%).
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.4–0.8%.
bisulcata, from the Latin bi, two, and sul-
catus, furrowed, grooved, in reference to the dried leaves
of this species commonly having two longitudinal grooves
0.3–1.3 m tall.
alternate, 4.8–7.2 mm long,
0.9–1.7 mm wide, 3–6 times as long as wide, shortpetiolate
to subsessile; blade glabrescent, pubescent to sericeous
pubescent, very narrowly obovate, narrowly obovate or
very narrowly elliptic, in transverse section transversely
semielliptic or shallowly lunate, the base narrowly cune
ate to attenuate, the apex rounded to obtuse, the veins
moderately dense, distinct to
obscure, more or less in rows.
doterminal, with 1–4 dyads or triads, up to 20 mm wide.
hairy, 2–3.5 mm long.
glabrous, 0.8–2 mm long, scarious.
(rarely caducous), 2–4 mm long.
6–12 per bun
dle; filaments pink, purple or magenta, 7–11.5 mm long,
the bundle claw 2.5–5 mm long, 0.2–0.5 times as long as
10.5–15.5 mm long.
4.8–6.5 mm long,
with sepaline teeth or the calyx lobes (or teeth?) weather
ing away; cotyledons obvolute.
lypt woodland with heath understorey, on sand plain, sand
over laterite, sand over limestone, and rocky outcrops.