The information given for each of the species in this section is a summary of know­



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Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in heathy woodland

dense heath with some mallee, low closed heath, on sand 

plain, sand over granite and laterite, and sand over clay.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from January 

to December.



Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species contained 

both mono­ and sesquiterpenes in approximately equal 

amounts. The principal monoterpenes were 1,8­cineole 

(19–33%) and a­pinene (9–15%). These were accompanied 

by lesser amounts of limonene (0.6–2.0%) and a­terpineol 

(2–4%). The principal sesquiterpenes identified in the oil 

were spathulenol (9–15%), globulol (5–8%), viridiflo­

rol (5–9%), bicyclogermacrene (1–3%) and b­elemene 

(0.7–2.0%). There was a considerable number of sesquit­

erpenes, comprising about 20% of the oil, that have not 

been identified.

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3–0.5%.

Notes:

 This species should be trialled as an ornamental 

in regions with a Mediterranean climate as the brightly 

coloured flowers contrast well with the silvery grey foliage.



Melaleuca 

aspalathoides

Schauer


83

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a atr

oviridis

Publication:

 in Craven, Lepschi, Broadhurst & Byrne, 

Australian Systematic Botany 17: 259 (2004)



Derivation:

 atroviridis, from the Latin ater, black and 

viridis, green, in reference to the commonly dark green 

foliage of this species



Description:

 

Tree or shrub 

to 12 m tall; bark papery, 

flaking. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, sericeous or sericeous­

pubescent. 

Leaves 

spreading­ascending, 22–56 mm long, 

0.6–1.4 mm wide, 28–55 times as long as wide, petiole 

0.2–0.6 mm long; blade glabrescent, sericeous or sericeous­

pubescent, linear, in transverse section circular, subcircular, 

transversely narrowly elliptic or depressed obovate, in lateral 

view incurved or straight, the base very narrowly cuneate 

or parallel, the apex narrowly acute, narrowly acuminate 

or aristate, 

oil glands 

scattered. 



Inflorescences 

spicate, with 

5–27 triads. 

Hypanthium 

0.8–1 mm long, 0.9–1.4 mm 

wide. 

Calyx lobes 

5 (rarely 4), distinct or connate, abaxi­

ally glabrous, 0.2–0.5 mm long. 

Petals 

caducous, broadly 

obovate, 1.3–1.6 mm long. 

Stamens 

7–11 per bundle, the 

filaments yellow, lemon or cream, 2–3.7 mm long, the 

bundle claw 1.8–3 mm long, 0.6–1.0 times as long as the 

filaments. 

Style 

2.5–3.3 mm long. 



Ovules 

9–11 per locule. 



Infructescences 

longer than wide, 5.4–8.5 mm wide, the 

constituent fruits closely packed and not retaining a sig­

nificant separate identity (the fruiting hypanthia closely 

packed for their full length). Seeds 0.5–0.9 mm long, the 

cotyledons planoconvex.



Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Coorow – Perenjori – Lake Moore – Yellowdine district 

southwards to the Beaufort River – Pingrup – Varley 

district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in eucalypt–Melaleuca 

woodland, Melaleuca shrubland, with Eucalyptus sargentii 

and chenopods, with Eucalyptus–Casuarina–Melaleuca 

and samphire, on light brown loamy sand just above sam­

phire flat, red clayey sand over laterite pan, red­brown 

clayey sand over granite, on light brown sandy clay, on grey 

clayey sand on fringe of salt pan, on brown loamy sand in 

broad saline drainage line, skeletal soil over granite, and 

hard­setting grey clay.

Melaleuca 

atroviridis

Craven & Lepschi



Melaleuc

a atr

oviridis

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


84

Melaleuc

a atr

oviridis 

(c

on



tinued

) 



 7

. Species ac

counts

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering usually between 

December and February.



Essential oils:

 The leaf oil from both sprouting and 

non­sprouting forms of this species (see ‘Notes’ below) was 

dominated by monoterpenes. The principal monoterpene 

was 1,8­cineole (34–74%). This was accompanied by 

lesser amounts of a­pinene (4–35%, the majority <24%), 

limonene (2–6%), terpinen­4­ol (0.2–2.0%) and a­terpin­

eol (0.6–5.0%). Sesquiterpenes did not contribute much to 

the leaf oil, with the major compounds being spathulenol 

(0.3–3.0%), globulol (1–3%) and a­, b­ and g­eudesmol 

(from one site, each 0.1–5.0%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yields (fresh weight, w/w) were 

0.3–1.0% for one sample (WOS 2139) and 2.5–3.3% for 

another (WOS 2118).

Reference on essential oils:

 Brophy et al. 2006b



Notes:

 Melaleuca atroviridis commonly is found on 

the margins of saline country low in the landscape in 

south­western Western Australia. This may be an artefact 

caused by secondary salinity, reflecting the species’ greater 

tolerance to salt than the other species in the original veg­

etation. The species is not restricted to such saline habitats 

and also occurs in winter­wet, freshwater habitats, and on 

well­drained sites high in the landscape. It seems the low 

landscape populations are ‘seeders’, not re­sprouting from 

the base of the plant after events such as fire or brush­

cutting but recruiting new plants from seed stored on the 

killed individuals. Populations occurring higher in the 

landscape, whether on sand plains or low hills, appear to be 

‘sprouters’, with cut plants regrowing from the base. Geoff 

Cockerton (pers. comm.) reports that both seeding and 

sprouting forms are included in a large plantation of this 

species in Western Australia that has been established for 

brushwood production for making fencing.


85

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a barlo

wii

Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic 

Botany 12: 861 (1999)



Derivation:

 barlowii, in honour of Bryan Alwyn Barlow 

(1933–), a specialist in Old World Loranthaceae and the 

initiator of Melaleuca studies in Canberra, Australia



Description:

 

Shrub 

0.4–2.6 m tall. 



Branchlets 

soon 


glabrescent (the sericeous to sericeous­pubescent 

hairs ephemeral). 



Leaves 

alternate, 19.5–41 mm long, 

3–8.5 mm wide, 4–10 times as long as wide, subsessile to 

short­petiolate; blade glabrescent (the sericeous to rarely 

sericeous­pubescent hairs ephemeral), narrowly ovate, 

narrowly elliptic, very narrowly ovate or very narrowly 

elliptic, in transverse section transversely linear or shal­

lowly lunate, the base attenuate to narrowly cuneate, the 

apex acuminate, the veins pinnate, longitudinal­pinnate 

or longitudinal (when longitudinal, the veins 3 – c. 5), 



oil glands 

dense to moderately dense, distinct to obscure, 

scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate or shortly spicate, 

pseudoterminal and sometimes also upper axillary, with 

10–15 triads, up to 30 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 1.5–

1.8 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, 0.4–0.7 mm 

long, scarious in a marginal band 0.2–0.3 mm wide. 

Petals 

deciduous, 1.6–2.7 mm long. 



Stamens 

9–11 per 

bundle; filaments mauve to purple, 7.3–11 mm long, the 

bundle claw 2–3.8 mm long, 0.3–0.4 times as long as the 

filaments. 

Style 

8–12 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 10–15 per locule. 



Infructescences 

globose. 



Fruit 

3.5–4 mm long, the calyx 

lobes weathering; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

  Western Australia: the 

Mullewa–Perenjori district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in Acacia–Melaleuca 

shrubland, low open shrubland, disturbed mallee–Acacia–

Melaleuca woodland, in heath dominated by Allocasuarina 

and melaleucas, on lateritic light red sand plain, on lateritic 

yellow soil, and on hard, gravelly sandy clay loam.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in November 

and December.



Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species contained a 

majority of monoterpenes. The principal monoterpenes 

encountered were b­pinene (20.1%), 1,8­cineole (19.3%) 

and a­pinene (9.5%). These were accompanied by lesser 

amounts of limonene (2.6%) and a­terpineol (4.0%). The 

principal sesquiterpenes were globulol (5.5%), viridiflorol 

(4.1%), bicyclogermacrene (2.8%), b­caryophyllene (1.1%), 

cubeban­11­ol (2.1%) and a­cadinol (1.8%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.1%.

Melaleuca 

barlowii

Craven


86

Melaleuc

a basic

ephala

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Flora Australiensis 3: 133 (1867)

Derivation:

 basicephala, from the latinised Greek basis, 

base, and ­cephalus, headed, in reference to the inflores­

cences usually being at the base of lateral shoots



Description:

 

Shrub 

to 0.6 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabrous. 



Leaves 

decussate, 8–12.5 mm long, 1.8–2.5 mm wide, 

4–6 times as long as wide, short­petiolate to subsessile; 

blade glabrous, narrowly elliptic or narrowly obovate, 

in transverse section transversely linear, the base nar­

rowly cuneate or attenuate, the apex narrowly acute to 

acute, the veins longitudinal, 3, 

oil glands 

moderately 

dense, distinct, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, usually 

proximal on secondary shoots or rarely a lateral cluster, 

interstitial or pseudoterminal, with 2–10 monads, up to 

10 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

glabrous, 0.8–1.1 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, c. 0.8 mm long, herba­

ceous to the margin. 

Petals 

deciduous, 1.4–2.2 mm 

long. 

Stamens 

17–23 per bundle; filaments pinkish­

purple or mauve­pink, 3.5–4.8 mm long, the bundle 

claw 0.8–1.5 mm long, 0.5 times as long as the fila­

ments. 

Style 

c. 5.5 mm long. 



Ovules 

30–40 per locule. 



Fruit 

3 mm long, with sepaline teeth or the calyx lobes 

weathering away; cotyledons planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Augusta district to the Northcliffe district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in dense freshwater 

swamps, in drainage line on flat, in Leptocarpus sedgeland, 

on sandy clay, and brown clay loam.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from Novem­

ber to February.



Essential oils:

 This species presented a monoterpe­

noid oil, with the principal component being 1,8–cineole 

(65.4%). This was accompanied by lesser amounts of 

a­pinene (2.4%), limonene (3.5%), a­terpineol (1.3%), 

b­pinene (0.9%) and myrtenol (0.9%). Sesquiterpenes did 

not contribute greatly to the oil, with the principal mem­

bers being b­caryophyllene (3.3%), viridiflorene (1.5%), 

spathulenol (1.8%) and viridiflorol (0.9%),



Oil yield:

 The analysis was performed on 0.2 g of an 

8­year­old air­dried herbarium sample and as a result there 

is no oil yield given.



Melaleuca 

basicephala

Benth.


87

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a be

ar

dii

Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic 

Botany 12: 862 (1999)



Derivation:

 beardii, in honour of John Stanley Beard 

(1916–2011), a phytogeographer of the Western Australian 

flora


Description:

 

Shrub 

1–2.5 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, 

pubescent or rarely the hairs lanuginose­pubescent to more 

or less lanuginose. 



Leaves 

alternate, 4.8–10.5 mm long, 0.6–

0.8 mm wide, 6–13 times as long as wide, subsessile; blade 

glabrescent, with short pubescent hairs overlaid by sparser 

(and much longer) pubescent hairs, linear­obovate or linear, 

in transverse section transversely elliptic, depressed obo­

vate or subcircular, the base narrowly cuneate, rounded, 

attenuate or parallel (blade width equals petiole width), 

the apex rounded to obtuse, the veins longitudinal, 3, 

oil glands 

moderately dense, distinct or obscure, scattered 

to more or less in rows. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, pseudoter­

minal and sometimes also upper axillary, with 3–6 triads, 

up to 25 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 2–2.5 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy (rarely subglabrous), 

1–2.5 mm long, herbaceous to the margin or scarious in 

a marginal band 0.2–0.5 mm wide or scarious throughout. 



Petals 

deciduous, 2.3–3.5 mm long. 



Stamens 

8–13 per bun­

dle; filaments pink, purple or magenta, 9.5–11 mm long, the 

bundle claw 2.7–6.3 mm long, 0.3–0.6 times as long as the 

filaments. 

Style 

10–13.5 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 15 per locule. 



Infructescences 

peg­fruited. 



Fruit 

3–5 mm long, the calyx 

lobes weathering away; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the Arrino–

Gunyidi district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in heathland, open 

scrubland, on sand plain.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from October 

to December.



Essential oils:

 The oil from this species was domi­

nated by monoterpenes. The principal monoterpenes 

were a­pinene (54–60%) and 1,8­cineole (4–15%). These 

were accompanied by lesser amounts of b­pinene (2–3%), 

limonene (0.9–2.0%), p­cymene (1–5%) and a­terpineol 

(1–2%). The principal sesquiterpenes were globulol 

(3–5%), viridiflorol (2–4%), spathulenol (1–3%), bicyclo­

germacrene (4–6%) and viridiflorene (1–2%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3–0.5%.

Notes:

 This species is not known to be in cultivation but 

it should be trialled as an ornamental shrub in regions with 

Mediterranean climates for it is one of the taller growing of 

the M. scabra group of species and has particularly brightly 

coloured flowers.



Melaleuca 

beardii

Craven


88

Melaleuc

a bic

on

vex

a

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Austrobaileya 2: 74 (1984)



Derivation:

 biconvexa, from the Latin bi­, two, and 

convexus, convex, in reference to the biconvex shape of 

the leaves in transverse section

Description:

 

Tree or shrub 

3–8 m tall; bark fibrous to 

papery. 

Branchlets 

glabrescent, lanuginulose to lanuginu­

lose­puberulous, or rarely sericeous­lanuginulose overlaid 

with a sparse layer of much longer pubescent hairs. 



Leaves 

decussate, 6.5–18 mm long, 2–4 mm wide, 2–5 times 

as long as wide, subsessile to short­petiolate; blade glabres­

cent, pubescent (to almost sericeous­pubescent) and usually 

with some shorter lanuginose­pubescent to lanuginulose­

puberulous or lanuginulose hairs also, narrowly ovate or 

narrowly elliptic, in transverse section ‘bird­winged’, the 

base rounded or subcordate, the apex shortly acuminate or 

acute, the veins longitudinal, 3, 

oil glands 

moderately 

dense, distinct, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

spicate to capitate, 

pseudo terminal, with 2–10 monads, up to 17 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy, 1.3–2 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially 

glabrous or glabrescent, 0.9–1.1 mm long, herbaceous to 

the margin or scarious in a marginal band up to 0.2 mm 

wide. 

Petals 

deciduous, 2.5–3.3 mm long. 



Stamens 

10–20 per bundle; filaments cream to white, 

5.8–9 mm long, the bundle claw 1.5–2.3 mm long, 0.2–

0.3 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

10–12 mm long. 



Ovules 

40–70 per locule. 



Fruit 

3–4 mm long, with sepaline 

teeth; cotyledons planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 New South Wales: from the Port 

Macquarie district south to the Jervis Bay district.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in eucalypt forest, in low 

moist areas, on sandy soil on creek banks and on gravelly 

sand.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from August 

to October.



Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species contained 

more sesquiterpenes, both in number and in quantity, 

than monoterpenes. The principal sesquiterpenes were 

the hydrocarbons aromadendrene (2–4%), allo­aro­

madendrene (1–3%), viridiflorene (2–5%), b­selinene 

(2–5%), a­selinene (1–4%), d­cadinene (0.8–3%), ledol 

(1–3%), globulol (3–5%), viridiflorol (17–18%), spathule­

nol (1–3%), g­eudesmol (2–4%), a­eudesmol (2–5%) and 

b­eudesmol (4–8%). The main monoterpenes in this oil 

were 1,8­cineole (8–23%), limonene (1–3%), E­b­ocimene 

(2–4%), linalool (1–4%) and a­terpineol (1–5%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.4–0.8%.

Melaleuca 

biconvexa

Byrnes


89

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a bisulc

at

a

Publication:

 Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae 3: 118 

(1862)


Derivation:

 bisulcata, from the Latin bi­, two, and sul-

catus, furrowed, grooved, in reference to the dried leaves 

of this species commonly having two longitudinal grooves



Description:

 

Shrub 

0.3–1.3 m tall. 



Branchlets 

gla­


brescent, pubescent. 

Leaves 

alternate, 4.8–7.2 mm long, 

0.9–1.7 mm wide, 3–6 times as long as wide, short­petiolate 

to subsessile; blade glabrescent, pubescent to sericeous­

pubescent, very narrowly obovate, narrowly obovate or 

very narrowly elliptic, in transverse section transversely 

semielliptic or shallowly lunate, the base narrowly cune­

ate to attenuate, the apex rounded to obtuse, the veins 

longitudinal, 3, 

oil glands 

moderately dense, distinct to 

obscure, more or less in rows. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, pseu­

doterminal, with 1–4 dyads or triads, up to 20 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy, 2–3.5 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially 

glabrous, 0.8–2 mm long, scarious. 

Petals 

deciduous 

(rarely caducous), 2–4 mm long. 

Stamens 

6–12 per bun­

dle; filaments pink, purple or magenta, 7–11.5 mm long, 

the bundle claw 2.5–5 mm long, 0.2–0.5 times as long as 

the filaments. 

Style 

10.5–15.5 mm long. 



Ovules 

10–20 per 

locule. 

Infructescences 

peg­fruited. 



Fruit 

4.8–6.5 mm long, 

with sepaline teeth or the calyx lobes (or teeth?) weather­

ing away; cotyledons obvolute.



Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the Kalbarri 

district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in low heathland, euca­

lypt woodland with heath understorey, on sand plain, sand 

over laterite, sand over limestone, and rocky outcrops.



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