The information given for each of the species in this section is a summary of know­



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Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in September 

and October.



Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species was over­

whelmingly monoterpenoid in character with linalool 

as the principal component. The two main components 

were linalool (55.3%) and a­pinene (30.7%). These were 

accompanied by lesser amounts of b­pinene (1.6%), 

myrcene (1.4%) and a­terpineol (0.7%); isoamyl isobu­

tyrate (1.8%) was also present. The principal sesquiterpene 

identified was spathulenol (1.2%). There were lesser 

amounts of E­nerolidol (1.0%), globulol (0.6%) and vir­

idiflorol (0.5%). But, in reality, sesquiterpenes accounted 

for <5% of the oil.

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.5%.



Notes:

 This is another of the M. scabra group that should 

be trialled for ornamental purposes in Mediterranean 

climates. The linalool content of this species could make it 

useful for oil production if the oil yield could be increased.

Melaleuca 

bisulcata

F. Muell.



90

Melaleuc

a blaeriif

olia

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Natu-

ralistes de Moscou 20: 165 (1847)



Derivation:

 blaeriifolia, from Blaeria, a genus of 

Ericaceae, and the Latin folium, leaf, in reference to the 

similarity between the foliage of this species and that of a 

species of Blaeria

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.8–2 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabrous 

to glabrescent, puberulous when hairy. 

Leaves 

usually 


alternate or sometimes alternate and ternate, 1.8–6.6 mm 

long, 0.8–2.5 mm wide, 1.5–3.5 times as long as wide, sub­

sessile to short­petiolate; blade glabrescent, puberulous, 

ovate, narrowly ovate, ovate­oblong or narrowly trian­

gular, in transverse section depressed angular­obovate, 

semicircular, transversely linear, strongly depressed obtri­

angular or obtriangular, the base rounded to truncate

the apex acute to obtuse, the veins longitudinal, 3 or 1, 



oil glands 

sparse to moderately dense, distinct to obscure, 

scattered. 

Inflorescences 

spicate or capitate, lateral, with 

10–30 monads, up to 18 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

glabrous, 

1–1.7 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, 0.8–1.1 mm 

long, scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.2 mm wide. 

Petals 

deciduous, 1.7–2.3 mm long. 



Stamens 

3–5 per 


bundle; filaments green or yellow, 6.5–7.7 mm long, the 

bundle claw 1.6–2 mm long, 0.2–0.3 times as long as the 

filaments. 

Style 

8.5–9 mm long. 



Ovules 

25–30 per locule. 



Fruit 

4–5.5 mm long, with sepaline teeth; cotyledons 

obvolute to subobvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Manjimup district eastwards to the Pallinup River district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occuring in low heathland and 

shrublands, on gravelly sandy loam, peaty sandy clay over 

quartzite, and the edge of a granite slope.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from August 

to October.



Essential oils:

 This species produced a principally 

monoterpenoid oil. The principal monoterpenes encoun­

tered were a­pinene (10.2%) and 1,8­cineole (35%). These 

were accompanied by lesser amounts of b­pinene (2.2%), 

limonene (5.6%), E­b­ocimene (8.5%), linalool (3.8%) and 

a­terpineol (2.2%). The main sesquiterpenes encountered 

were bicyclogermacrene (6.5%), globulol (3.5%), viridiflo­

rol (1.6%), b­caryophyllene (2%) and E,E­farnesol (1.4%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.5%.

Melaleuca 

blaeriifolia

Turcz.


91

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a boeoph

ylla

Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian System-

atic Botany 12: 863 (1999)

Derivation:

 boeophylla, from the Greek boeos, strap, and 

phyllon, leaf, in reference to the distinctive leaf shape of 

this species

Description:

 

Shrub 

to 2 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, 

sericeous to sericeous­pubescent and/or pubescent. 

Leaves 

alternate, 9.5–25 mm long, 1.2–1.7 mm wide, 

6–10 times as long as wide, subsessile to sessile; blade gla­

brescent, sericeous to sericeous­pubescent and/or pubescent, 

linear­obovate, very narrowly obovate or linear, in transverse 

section transversely semielliptic, transversely narrowly ellip­

tic or transversely narrowly oblong, the base parallel (blade 

width equals petiole width) or truncate, the apex rounded to 

obtuse, the veins longitudinal, 3, 

oil glands 

moderately 

dense, distinct, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, pseudoter­

minal or upper to median axillary, with 6–10 triads, up to 

20 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 1–1.8 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, 0.5–0.8 mm long, scarious in 

a marginal band, 0.1–0.2 mm wide. 

Petals 

caducous, 1.7–

2.5 mm long. 

Stamens 

9–11 per bundle; filaments pink, 

6–8 mm long, the bundle claw 1.2–2.2 mm long, 0.2–

0.3 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

8–10 mm long. 



Ovules 

10–20 per locule. 



Infructescences 

globose. 



Fruit 

2.5–3 mm long, with poorly developed sepaline teeth 

or the calyx lobes weathering away; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the Kalbarri 

district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in woodland on sand 

plain.


Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in November.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species was domi­

nated by monoterpenes. The principal components were 

b­pinene (30–43%), a­pinene (5–8%) and 1,8­cineole 

(10–20%). There were also lesser amounts of trans­pino­

carveol (2–7%), a­terpineol (3–6%), limonene (1–2%), 

a­phellandrene (1–2%), myrtenal (1–4%) and pinocam­

phone (1–3%). Sesquiterpenes, though numerous, did 

not contribute much to the oil. The principal components 

were globulol (1–4%), spathulenol (2–4%) and a­, b­, and 

g­eudesmol (each 0.3–2.0%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.5–0.6%.

Melaleuca 

boeophylla

Craven


92

Melaleuc

a bor

ealis

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic 

Botany 12: 863 (1999)



Derivation:

 borealis, from the Latin borealis, northern, 

in reference to the distribution of this species being to the 

north of the related M. nodosa



Description:

 

Shrub or tree 

1–8 m tall; bark papery. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, sericeous. 



Leaves 

alternate, 

18–52 mm long, 0.5–0.8 mm wide, 20–75 times as long as 

wide, subsessile to short­petiolate; blade glabrescent, seri­

ceous with some sericeous­pubescent to pubescent hairs 

also, linear, in transverse section transversely elliptic to 

subcircular, the base narrowly cuneate to attenuate or paral­

lel (blade width equals petiole width), the apex narrowly 

acuminate or acuminate to narrowly acute, the veins longi­

tudinal, 3, 



oil glands 

moderately dense or dense, obscure, 

scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, pseudoterminal and 

sometimes also upper axillary, with 3–8 triads, up to 17 mm 

wide. 


Hypanthium 

glabrous or glabrescent, 0.8–1.1 mm 

long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, 0.2–0.6 mm long, scari­

ous throughout or scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.2 mm 

wide. 


Petals 

caducous, 1–1.3 mm long. 



Stamens 

4–7 per 


bundle; filaments pale yellow or white, 3–8 mm long, the 

bundle claw 0.9–3.3 mm long, 0.2–0.5 times as long as the 

filaments. 

Style 

5.5–6.5 mm long. 



Ovules 

10–15 per locule. 



Infructescences 

globose. 



Fruit 

1.5–2 mm long, the calyx 

lobes weathering away; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Queensland: the Lakeland 

Downs district south to the Valley of Lagoons district.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in shrubland, vine­

forest country, heath, eucalypt–mixed woodland and 

monsoonal scrub on red basaltic soils, yellow­chocolate 

soils, siltstone with laterite, rhyolite, and a gravelly ridge.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in November.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species contained 

significantly more monoterpenes than sesquiterpenes. The 

principal component was 1,8­cineole (50–57%) and this 

was accompanied by a­pinene (7–15%), limonene (5–8%) 

and a­terpineol (6–8%). No other monoterpene came 

above 1%. The principal sesquiterpenes in this oil were 

g­eudesmol (1–7%), a­eudesmol (1–6%) and b­eudesmol 

(3–8%), as well as a­cadinol (2.3%) in the bulk collection.



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (dry weight, w/w) was 2.5–2.8%.

Melaleuca 

borealis

Craven


93

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a br

ach

yandr

a

Publication:

 Novon 16: 471 (2006)

Derivation:

 brachyandra, from the Greek brachy­, short, 

and ­andrus, male (hence stamen), in reference to the 

length of the stamens



Synonym:

 Callistemon brachyandrus Lindl.



Description:

 

Shrub or tree 

1.5–8 m tall; bark hard. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, sericeous or (lanuginose) seri­

ceous­pubescent overlaid with longer pubescent hairs. 

Leaves 

alternate, 18–61 mm long, 0.5–1.7 mm wide, 

24–48 times as long as wide, subsessile or sessile; blade 

glabrescent, sericeous­pubescent, sericeous­pubescent 

overlaid with long sericeous­pubescent hairs or sericeous, 

linear, in transverse section subreniform, broadly subreni­

form or very broadly obovate to depressed obovate, the 

base narrowly cuneate, the apex narrowly acuminate, the 

veins longitudinal, 3, 

oil glands 

moderately dense, obscure 

or distinct, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

spicate, effectively 

pseudoterminal, with 7–36 monads, 22–35 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy or glabrescent, 2.2–3.4 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy or glabrescent, 1–1.8 mm long, 

scarious in a marginal band 0.3–0.7 mm wide. 

Petals 

deciduous, 2.8–4.9 mm long. 



Stamens 

50–84 per 

flower; filaments red, 4.8–12 mm long; anthers yellow. 

Style 

9–12.4 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 150 per locule. 



Fruit 

3.7–6 mm long, the calyx lobes deciduous; cotyle­

dons flattened planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 South Australia, New South 

Wales, Victoria: the lower Murray River area of South 

Australia, widespread in western New South Wales and in 

the Murray River area of north­western Victoria.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in river flats, open 

shrubland on flat riverine flood plain, among rocks along 

creek bed, and on sand.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from Septem­

ber to January.

Essential oils:

 There was virtually no oil produced 

by this species. The very small amount of oil available for 

analysis was sesquiterpenoid but no identifications were 

made. Phytol was also detected.



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was only a 

trace amount.



Reference on essential oils: 

Brophy et al. 1998, as 

Callistemon brachyandrus

Notes:

 Despite the prickly nature of the leaves, this spe­

cies is well suited as an ornamental shrub in areas with a 

dry temperate climate as the flowers are very showy.



Melaleuca 

brachyandra

(Lindl.) Craven



94

Melaleuc

a br

act

eat

a

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae 1: 15 

(1858)


Derivation:

 bracteata, from the Latin, bractea, bract, in 

reference to the inflorescence bracts

Description:

 

Tree or shrub 

1–22 m tall; bark hard­

fibrous, grey to black. 

Branchlets 

glabrescent to hairy, 

puberulous to pubescent. 

Leaves 

alternate, 3.4–22 mm 

long, 0.8–4.5 mm wide, 1.5–16 times as long as wide, ses­

sile; blade glabrescent to hairy, pubescent or puberulous, 

narrowly ovate, very narrowly ovate, narrowly elliptic, 

subulate or ovate, in transverse section transversely lin­

ear, sublunate or transversely narrowly elliptic, the base 

cuneate, the apex narrowly acute or acuminate, the veins 

longitudinal, 3–11, 

oil glands 

moderately dense, distinct to 

obscure, more or less in rows. 

Inflorescences 

spicate, pseu­

doterminal or occasionally interstitial, with 6–16 monads 

or triads (sometimes monads and triads occur in the same 

inflorescence), up to 20 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy or 

rarely glabrescent, 1.7–2 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially 

hairy or rarely glabrous, costate, 0.9–1.7 mm long, scarious 

in a marginal band up to c. 1 mm wide. 



Petals 

caducous, 

1.8–1.9 mm long. 

Stamens 

15–28 per bundle; filaments 

white, creamy­white to cream or greenish, 6–8.3 mm long, 

the bundle claw 2.4–4.4 mm long, 0.4–0.6 times as long 

as the filaments. 

Style 

6.3–8.7 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 30 per 

locule. 

Fruit 

1.5–2 mm long, the calyx lobes relatively per­

sistent (at length weathering away); cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia, Northern 

Territory, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales: 

from the Pilbara and Kimberley regions of Western Aus­

tralia, east and southwards to the central and southern 

parts of the Northern Territory, north­western South 

Australia, northern and south­eastern Queensland and 

north­eastern New South Wales.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in open forest, decidu­

ous vine forest, Melaleuca woodland, mixed scrub, riverine 

woodland, on basalt plain, reddish­brown loam over tra­

chyte, sandy soil, and limestone creek bed.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from March 

to December.



Essential oils:

 This species occurred in basically four 

aromatic chemotypes. Chemotype I contained elemicin 

(57%) as the principal component. This was accompa­

nied by lesser amounts of b­caryophyllene (21%) and 

E­isoelemicin (6%). Chemotype II contained E­isoelemicin 

(46%) as the principal component and lesser amounts of 

elemicin (9%), b­caryophyllene (7%), a­phellandrene 

(13%) and a­pinene (5%). Chemotype III contained 

E­methyl isoeugenol (76%) as the principal component, 

with lesser amounts of methyl eugenol (18%) and E­methyl 

cinnamate (3%). Chemotype IV contained methyl eugenol 

(84%) as the major component, with a lesser amount of 

E­methyl cinnamate (9%). It has also been found to occur 

rarely in a non­aromatic form in which major compo­

nents were caryophyllene oxide (4–17%), 1,8­cineole 

(0.2–11.0%), b­pinene (6–18%) and a­pinene (4–12%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.1–1.5% 

for the aromatic chemotypes and 0.1–0.2% for the terpe­

noid samples.

References on essential oils:

 Masunga 1998; Bro­

phy 1999; Brophy et al. 1999



Notes:

 This species has proved to be hardy in many cli­

mates and soil types in Australia. Well suited for shelter 

belts, or for screening purposes in large gardens, it also is 

useful in parks and roadside plantings. A yellow­foliaged 

selection, ‘Revolution Gold’, is a useful landscaping plant 

where colour contrasts are required.

Melaleuca 

bracteata

F.Muell.


7. Species ac

counts


 —

Melaleuc



a br

act

eat

a

95

7. Species ac



counts — 

Melaleuc

a br

act

eat

(c

on



tinued

)

This species could be a useful source of aromatic ethers, 



but the oil yield would have to be increased. As mentioned 

in Chapter 3, M. bracteata would be a potential source of 

betaines for use on agricultural crops.

A new species, related to M. styphelioides, M. brac-

teata and M. squamophloia, was discovered in 2012 in 

the Ravenshoe district, Queensland. This will be named 

M. lophocoracorum. It differs from its three relatives, 

inter alia, in details of the calyx, stamens and essential oil 

chemistry.


96

Melaleuc

a br

act

eosa

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Bulletin de la classe physico-mathématique 

de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg 

10: 340 (1852)

Derivation:

 bracteosa, from the Latin bractea, bract, 

in reference to the persistent bracts associated with the 

flowers of this species

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.3–1.5 m tall. 



Branchlets 

soon 


glabrescent or glabrous (the lanuginulose­puberulous to 

lanuginulose hairs ephemeral). 



Leaves 

alternate or rarely 

ternate, 2.7–9 mm long, 0.9–1.5 mm wide, 2–8 times 

as long as wide, subsessile to short­petiolate; blade gla­

brescent (the lanuginulose to lanuginulose­puberulous 

hairs ephemeral), narrowly obovate, narrowly elliptic or 

narrowly oblong, in transverse section depressed obo­

vate, strongly depressed obtriangular or semicircular, 

the base narrowly cuneate, the apex acute or obtuse, 

the veins longitudinal, 1–3, 



oil glands 

dense, distinct to 

obscure, more or less in rows. 

Inflorescences 

capitate or 

shortly spicate, pseudoterminal or lateral, sometimes 

below the leaves, with 4–20 monads, up to 16 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

glabrous, 1.5–2.1 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abax­


ially glabrous, 0.8–1.1 mm long, scarious in a marginal 

band 0.1–0.15 mm wide. 



Petals 

deciduous, 1.6–2.2 mm 

long. 

Stamens 

3–8 per bundle; filaments white, cream, or 

pale yellow, 4–6.3 mm long, the bundle claw 0.9–2.1 mm 

long, 0.3–0.4 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

5.6–6 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

15–25 per locule. 



Fruit 

2.4–3.2 mm long, 

with very small sepaline teeth; cotyledons planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Cunderdin district south to the Albany district and east­

wards to the Ravensthorpe district.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in low mallee heath, 

open mallee woodland, dense heathland, tall scrubland, 

on sand, shallow clay loam, and laterite soil.

Flowering time:



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