whelmingly monoterpenoid in character with linalool
as the principal component. The two main components
were linalool (55.3%) and apinene (30.7%). These were
accompanied by lesser amounts of bpinene (1.6%),
myrcene (1.4%) and aterpineol (0.7%); isoamyl isobu
tyrate (1.8%) was also present. The principal sesquiterpene
identified was spathulenol (1.2%). There were lesser
amounts of Enerolidol (1.0%), globulol (0.6%) and vir
idiflorol (0.5%). But, in reality, sesquiterpenes accounted
for <5% of the oil.
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.5%.
This is another of the M. scabra group that should
be trialled for ornamental purposes in Mediterranean
climates. The linalool content of this species could make it
useful for oil production if the oil yield could be increased.
ralistes de Moscou 20: 165 (1847)
blaeriifolia, from Blaeria, a genus of
Ericaceae, and the Latin folium, leaf, in reference to the
similarity between the foliage of this species and that of a
species of Blaeria
0.8–2 m tall.
to glabrescent, puberulous when hairy.
long, 0.8–2.5 mm wide, 1.5–3.5 times as long as wide, sub
sessile to shortpetiolate; blade glabrescent, puberulous,
ovate, narrowly ovate, ovateoblong or narrowly trian
gular, in transverse section depressed angularobovate,
semicircular, transversely linear, strongly depressed obtri
angular or obtriangular, the base rounded to truncate,
the apex acute to obtuse, the veins longitudinal, 3 or 1,
sparse to moderately dense, distinct to obscure,
spicate or capitate, lateral, with
10–30 monads, up to 18 mm wide.
1–1.7 mm long.
abaxially glabrous, 0.8–1.1 mm
long, scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.2 mm wide.
deciduous, 1.7–2.3 mm long.
bundle claw 1.6–2 mm long, 0.2–0.3 times as long as the
8.5–9 mm long.
25–30 per locule.
4–5.5 mm long, with sepaline teeth; cotyledons
obvolute to subobvolute.
Western Australia: from the
Manjimup district eastwards to the Pallinup River district.
shrublands, on gravelly sandy loam, peaty sandy clay over
quartzite, and the edge of a granite slope.
Recorded as flowering from August
monoterpenoid oil. The principal monoterpenes encoun
tered were apinene (10.2%) and 1,8cineole (35%). These
were accompanied by lesser amounts of bpinene (2.2%),
limonene (5.6%), Ebocimene (8.5%), linalool (3.8%) and
aterpineol (2.2%). The main sesquiterpenes encountered
were bicyclogermacrene (6.5%), globulol (3.5%), viridiflo
rol (1.6%), bcaryophyllene (2%) and E,Efarnesol (1.4%).
7. Species ac
in Craven & Lepschi, Australian System-
atic Botany 12: 863 (1999)
boeophylla, from the Greek boeos, strap, and
phyllon, leaf, in reference to the distinctive leaf shape of
to 2 m tall.
sericeous to sericeouspubescent and/or pubescent.
alternate, 9.5–25 mm long, 1.2–1.7 mm wide,
6–10 times as long as wide, subsessile to sessile; blade gla
brescent, sericeous to sericeouspubescent and/or pubescent,
linearobovate, very narrowly obovate or linear, in transverse
section transversely semielliptic, transversely narrowly ellip
tic or transversely narrowly oblong, the base parallel (blade
width equals petiole width) or truncate, the apex rounded to
obtuse, the veins longitudinal, 3,
dense, distinct, scattered.
minal or upper to median axillary, with 6–10 triads, up to
20 mm wide.
hairy, 1–1.8 mm long.
abaxially glabrous, 0.5–0.8 mm long, scarious in
a marginal band, 0.1–0.2 mm wide.
2.5 mm long.
9–11 per bundle; filaments pink,
6–8 mm long, the bundle claw 1.2–2.2 mm long, 0.2–
0.3 times as long as the filaments.
8–10 mm long.
10–20 per locule.
2.5–3 mm long, with poorly developed sepaline teeth
or the calyx lobes weathering away; cotyledons obvolute.
Western Australia: the Kalbarri
nated by monoterpenes. The principal components were
bpinene (30–43%), apinene (5–8%) and 1,8cineole
(10–20%). There were also lesser amounts of transpino
carveol (2–7%), aterpineol (3–6%), limonene (1–2%),
aphellandrene (1–2%), myrtenal (1–4%) and pinocam
phone (1–3%). Sesquiterpenes, though numerous, did
not contribute much to the oil. The principal components
were globulol (1–4%), spathulenol (2–4%) and a, b, and
geudesmol (each 0.3–2.0%).
Botany 12: 863 (1999)
borealis, from the Latin borealis, northern,
in reference to the distribution of this species being to the
north of the related M. nodosa
1–8 m tall; bark papery.
18–52 mm long, 0.5–0.8 mm wide, 20–75 times as long as
wide, subsessile to shortpetiolate; blade glabrescent, seri
ceous with some sericeouspubescent to pubescent hairs
also, linear, in transverse section transversely elliptic to
subcircular, the base narrowly cuneate to attenuate or paral
lel (blade width equals petiole width), the apex narrowly
acuminate or acuminate to narrowly acute, the veins longi
moderately dense or dense, obscure,
capitate, pseudoterminal and
sometimes also upper axillary, with 3–8 triads, up to 17 mm
glabrous or glabrescent, 0.8–1.1 mm
abaxially glabrous, 0.2–0.6 mm long, scari
ous throughout or scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.2 mm
caducous, 1–1.3 mm long.
bundle claw 0.9–3.3 mm long, 0.2–0.5 times as long as the
5.5–6.5 mm long.
10–15 per locule.
1.5–2 mm long, the calyx
lobes weathering away; cotyledons obvolute.
Queensland: the Lakeland
Downs district south to the Valley of Lagoons district.
Recorded as occurring in shrubland, vine
forest country, heath, eucalypt–mixed woodland and
monsoonal scrub on red basaltic soils, yellowchocolate
soils, siltstone with laterite, rhyolite, and a gravelly ridge.
significantly more monoterpenes than sesquiterpenes. The
principal component was 1,8cineole (50–57%) and this
was accompanied by apinene (7–15%), limonene (5–8%)
and aterpineol (6–8%). No other monoterpene came
above 1%. The principal sesquiterpenes in this oil were
geudesmol (1–7%), aeudesmol (1–6%) and beudesmol
(3–8%), as well as acadinol (2.3%) in the bulk collection.
brachyandra, from the Greek brachy, short,
and andrus, male (hence stamen), in reference to the
length of the stamens
Callistemon brachyandrus Lindl.
1.5–8 m tall; bark hard.
glabrescent, sericeous or (lanuginose) seri
ceouspubescent overlaid with longer pubescent hairs.
alternate, 18–61 mm long, 0.5–1.7 mm wide,
24–48 times as long as wide, subsessile or sessile; blade
glabrescent, sericeouspubescent, sericeouspubescent
overlaid with long sericeouspubescent hairs or sericeous,
linear, in transverse section subreniform, broadly subreni
form or very broadly obovate to depressed obovate, the
base narrowly cuneate, the apex narrowly acuminate, the
veins longitudinal, 3,
moderately dense, obscure
or distinct, scattered.
pseudoterminal, with 7–36 monads, 22–35 mm wide.
hairy or glabrescent, 2.2–3.4 mm long.
abaxially hairy or glabrescent, 1–1.8 mm long,
scarious in a marginal band 0.3–0.7 mm wide.
deciduous, 2.8–4.9 mm long.
flower; filaments red, 4.8–12 mm long; anthers yellow.
9–12.4 mm long.
c. 150 per locule.
3.7–6 mm long, the calyx lobes deciduous; cotyle
dons flattened planoconvex.
South Australia, New South
Wales, Victoria: the lower Murray River area of South
Australia, widespread in western New South Wales and in
the Murray River area of northwestern Victoria.
shrubland on flat riverine flood plain, among rocks along
creek bed, and on sand.
Recorded as flowering from Septem
ber to January.
There was virtually no oil produced
by this species. The very small amount of oil available for
analysis was sesquiterpenoid but no identifications were
made. Phytol was also detected.
Brophy et al. 1998, as
Despite the prickly nature of the leaves, this spe
cies is well suited as an ornamental shrub in areas with a
dry temperate climate as the flowers are very showy.
bracteata, from the Latin, bractea, bract, in
reference to the inflorescence bracts
Tree or shrub
1–22 m tall; bark hard
fibrous, grey to black.
glabrescent to hairy,
puberulous to pubescent.
alternate, 3.4–22 mm
long, 0.8–4.5 mm wide, 1.5–16 times as long as wide, ses
sile; blade glabrescent to hairy, pubescent or puberulous,
narrowly ovate, very narrowly ovate, narrowly elliptic,
subulate or ovate, in transverse section transversely lin
ear, sublunate or transversely narrowly elliptic, the base
cuneate, the apex narrowly acute or acuminate, the veins
moderately dense, distinct to
obscure, more or less in rows.
doterminal or occasionally interstitial, with 6–16 monads
or triads (sometimes monads and triads occur in the same
inflorescence), up to 20 mm wide.
rarely glabrescent, 1.7–2 mm long.
hairy or rarely glabrous, costate, 0.9–1.7 mm long, scarious
in a marginal band up to c. 1 mm wide.
1.8–1.9 mm long.
15–28 per bundle; filaments
white, creamywhite to cream or greenish, 6–8.3 mm long,
the bundle claw 2.4–4.4 mm long, 0.4–0.6 times as long
as the filaments.
6.3–8.7 mm long.
c. 30 per
1.5–2 mm long, the calyx lobes relatively per
sistent (at length weathering away); cotyledons obvolute.
Western Australia, Northern
Territory, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales:
from the Pilbara and Kimberley regions of Western Aus
tralia, east and southwards to the central and southern
parts of the Northern Territory, northwestern South
Australia, northern and southeastern Queensland and
northeastern New South Wales.
Recorded as occurring in open forest, decidu
ous vine forest, Melaleuca woodland, mixed scrub, riverine
woodland, on basalt plain, reddishbrown loam over tra
chyte, sandy soil, and limestone creek bed.
aromatic chemotypes. Chemotype I contained elemicin
(57%) as the principal component. This was accompa
nied by lesser amounts of bcaryophyllene (21%) and
Eisoelemicin (6%). Chemotype II contained Eisoelemicin
(46%) as the principal component and lesser amounts of
elemicin (9%), bcaryophyllene (7%), aphellandrene
(13%) and apinene (5%). Chemotype III contained
Emethyl isoeugenol (76%) as the principal component,
with lesser amounts of methyl eugenol (18%) and Emethyl
cinnamate (3%). Chemotype IV contained methyl eugenol
(84%) as the major component, with a lesser amount of
Emethyl cinnamate (9%). It has also been found to occur
rarely in a nonaromatic form in which major compo
nents were caryophyllene oxide (4–17%), 1,8cineole
(0.2–11.0%), bpinene (6–18%) and apinene (4–12%).
for the aromatic chemotypes and 0.1–0.2% for the terpe
References on essential oils:
Masunga 1998; Bro
phy 1999; Brophy et al. 1999
This species has proved to be hardy in many cli
mates and soil types in Australia. Well suited for shelter
belts, or for screening purposes in large gardens, it also is
useful in parks and roadside plantings. A yellowfoliaged
selection, ‘Revolution Gold’, is a useful landscaping plant
where colour contrasts are required.
This species could be a useful source of aromatic ethers,
in Chapter 3, M. bracteata would be a potential source of
betaines for use on agricultural crops.
A new species, related to M. styphelioides, M. brac-
teata and M. squamophloia, was discovered in 2012 in
the Ravenshoe district, Queensland. This will be named
M. lophocoracorum. It differs from its three relatives,
inter alia, in details of the calyx, stamens and essential oil
de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg
10: 340 (1852)
bracteosa, from the Latin bractea, bract,
in reference to the persistent bracts associated with the
flowers of this species
0.3–1.5 m tall.
lanuginulose hairs ephemeral).
alternate or rarely
ternate, 2.7–9 mm long, 0.9–1.5 mm wide, 2–8 times
as long as wide, subsessile to shortpetiolate; blade gla
brescent (the lanuginulose to lanuginulosepuberulous
hairs ephemeral), narrowly obovate, narrowly elliptic or
narrowly oblong, in transverse section depressed obo
vate, strongly depressed obtriangular or semicircular,
the base narrowly cuneate, the apex acute or obtuse,
the veins longitudinal, 1–3,
dense, distinct to
shortly spicate, pseudoterminal or lateral, sometimes
below the leaves, with 4–20 monads, up to 16 mm wide.
glabrous, 1.5–2.1 mm long.
band 0.1–0.15 mm wide.
deciduous, 1.6–2.2 mm
3–8 per bundle; filaments white, cream, or
pale yellow, 4–6.3 mm long, the bundle claw 0.9–2.1 mm
long, 0.3–0.4 times as long as the filaments.
15–25 per locule.
2.4–3.2 mm long,
with very small sepaline teeth; cotyledons planoconvex.
Western Australia: from the
Cunderdin district south to the Albany district and east
wards to the Ravensthorpe district.
Recorded as occurring in low mallee heath,
open mallee woodland, dense heathland, tall scrubland,
on sand, shallow clay loam, and laterite soil.