The information given for each of the species in this section is a summary of know­


Recorded as flowering from August  to November. Essential oils



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 Recorded as flowering from August 

to November.



Essential oils:

 This species produced a sesquit­

erpenoid oil. The principal sesquiterpenes found in 

the oil were g­eudesmol (12.1%), a­eudesmol (8.7%), 

b­eudesmol (11.2%), globulol (10.7%) and bicyclogerma­

crene (10.2%). There were lesser amounts of viridiflorene 

(4.0%), cubeban­11­ol (4.6%), allo­aromadendrene (1.6%) 

and spathulenol (1.7%). The principal monoterpene was 

a­pinene (2.9%). No other monoterpene was present at 

greater than 0.4%.

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.

Melaleuca 

bracteosa

Turcz.


97

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a br

evif

olia

Publication:

 Bulletin de la classe physico-mathématique 

de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg 

10: 342 (1852)



Derivation:

 brevifolia, from the Latin brevis, short, and 

folium, leaf, in reference to the short leaves

Description:

 

Shrub or tree 

0.5–4 m tall. 



Branchlets 

soon glabrescent (the lanuginulose hairs 

ephemeral). 

Leaves 

alternate or rarely ternate, 2.4–8 mm 

long, 0.7–1.5 mm wide, 2.5–7 times as long as wide, 

subsessile or short­petiolate; blade soon glabrescent 

(the lanuginulose hairs ephemeral), narrowly obovate, 

narrowly elliptic, very narrowly obovate or very nar­

rowly elliptic, in transverse section flattened transversely 

semielliptic, the base narrowly cuneate, the apex acute 

to obtuse, the veins longitudinal, 3, 

oil glands 

moder­


ately dense, distinct to obscure, more or less in rows. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, lateral, with 1–6 monads, up to 

18 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

glabrous, 1.8–2 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy or glabrous, 0.6–0.9 mm long, 

herbaceous to the margin. 

Petals 

deciduous, 1.3–1.6 mm 

long. 

Stamens 

10–12 per bundle; filaments white or 

cream, 5.2–6.3 mm long, the bundle claw 1–2 mm long, 

0.09–0.3 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

6.8–9.2 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

20–30 per locule. 



Fruit 

3.3–4.2 mm long, the 

calyx lobes weathering away; cotyledons planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia, South 

Australia, Victoria: southern Western Australia, southern 

South Australia and western Victoria.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in sparse shrubland, 

open eucalypt woodland, disturbed heath, open heath, 

Melaleuca thicket, on gravelly light brown loam on edge 

of clay pan, sandy peaty creek lines, and white sand over 

schist and quartzite.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from January 

to December.



Essential oils:

  The leaf oil was predominantly 

monoterpenoid in nature. The principal components 

were a­pinene (12–28%), b­pinene (8–16%), limonene 

(5–14%) and 1,8­cineole (13–25%). There were lesser 

amounts of terpinen­4­ol (0.3–2.0%) and a­terpineol 

(1–4%). Sesquiterpenes, while plentiful in number, did not 

contribute much to the oil. The principal members were 

aromadendrene (1–4%), allo­aromadendrene (0.5–1.0%), 

viridiflorene (0.4–2.0%), bicyclogermacrene (0.6–3.0%), 

globulol (1–7%), viridiflorol (0.6–4.0%) and spathulenol 

(5–12%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (dry weight, w/w) was 0.2%.

Melaleuca 

brevifolia

Turcz.


98

Melaleuc

a br

evisepala

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 in Craven & Dawson, Adansonia, sér. 3, 

20: 193 (1998)



Derivation:

 brevisepala, from the Latin brevis, short, and 

sepalum, sepal, in reference to the short calyx lobes

Synonym: 

Callistemon brevisepalus J.W.Dawson



Description:

 

Shrub 

to 4 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, 

pubescent. 

Leaves 

12–23 mm long, 3–5 mm wide, short­

petiolate; blade glabrescent, pubescent, elliptic to narrowly 

obovate, the base attenuate, the apex acute to rounded, 

the veins longitudinal, 3–5. 

Inflorescences 

pseudo­


terminal and in distal leaf axils. 

Hypanthium 

1.9–2 mm 

long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy, 0.3–0.5(–1) mm long. 



Petals 

2.2–2.6 mm long. 



Stamens 

10–12 per flower, occa­

sionally some may be fused; filaments yellow, 18–20 mm 

long. 


Style 

22–25 mm long. 



Fruit 

3 mm long.



Natural occurrence:

 New Caledonia: known only 

from a few localities in the north­west of Grande Terre.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in luxuriant maquis on 

lateritic colluvial, sometimes eroded, soil on ultramafic 

substrates.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in February, 

July and August.



Essential oils:

 This species gave a predominantly 

sesquiterpenoid leaf oil. The principal sesquiterpenes 

identified were b­caryophyllene (26.8%), caryophyllene 

oxide (7.8%), d­cadinene (2.3%), globulol (5%), viridi­

florol (3.1%), spathulenol (3.4%), a­cadinol (5.8%) and 

T­muurolol (3.2%). A significant number of oxygenated 

sesquiterpenes, totalling approximately 10% of the oil, 

were not identified. The principal monoterpenes were 

a­terpineol (2.2%), linalool (1.6%) and limonene (1.3%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.03%.



Reference on essential oils: 

Hnawia et al. 2012.



Melaleuca 

brevisepala

(J.W.Dawson) Craven & J.W.Dawson



99

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a br

omelioide

s

Publication:

 Australian Systematic Botany 1: 112, fig. 

8d–e (1988)



Derivation:

 bromelioides, from Bromelia, a genus of Bro­

meliaceae, and the Greek ­oides, resembling, in reference 

to a perceived resemblance of the inflorescence bracts to 

the bromeliad growth form

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.3–3 m tall. 



Branchlets 

hairy to 

glabrescent, lanuginulose or lanuginulose­puberulous. 

Leaves 

alternate (subternate leaves occur sometimes but 

only in part), 7–13 mm long, 0.6–1.4 mm wide, 7–16 times 

as long as wide, short­petiolate to subsessile; blade hairy 

to glabrescent, lanuginose­pubescent to lanuginose, lin­

ear, linear­ovate or linear­elliptic, in transverse section 

sublunate, transversely elliptic, circular or transversely 

semielliptic, the base cuneate or attenuate, the apex 

acuminate to narrowly acute, the veins longitudinal, 1–3, 

oil glands 

sparse to moderately dense, distinct to obscure, 

scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, pseudoterminal, with 

2–10 monads, up to 20 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy, 


2–2.4 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy, 1.2–1.4 mm 

long, herbaceous to the margin. 

Petals 

deciduous, 1.6–

2.2 mm long. 

Stamens 

10–14 per bundle; filaments white 

or cream, 5.7–7.8 mm long, the bundle claw 1–1.4 mm 

long, 0.2–0.3 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

8–8.4 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

35–40 per locule. 



Fruit 

4.25–5 mm long, with 

sepaline teeth; cotyledons flattened planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Lake King district eastwards to the Scaddan and Condin­

gup districts.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in mallee, eucalypt 

woodland, open eucalypt forest, scrubland, on sandy loam, 

sandy soil with laterite, clay loam, quartz gravel, and sand.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in September 

and October.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species was domi­

nated by monoterpenes. The principal component was 

1,8­cineole (54.1%). This was accompanied by lesser 

amounts of a­pinene (7.7%), limonene (5.2%), b­pinene 

(1.1%), p­cymene (1.8%), terpinen­4­ol (3.7%) and 

a­terpineol (4.6%). The principal sesquiterpenes encoun­

tered were globulol (3.1%), spathulenol (4.4%) and 

allo­aromadendrene (0.9%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.5%.

Melaleuca 

bromelioides

Barlow


100

Melaleuc

a br

ongniartii

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Vierteljahrsschrifft der Naturforschenden 

Geschellschaft in Zürich 78, Beibl. 19: 318 (1933)



Derivation:

 brongniartii, in honour of Adolphe Théo­

dore de Brongniart (1801–1876), a French botanist who 

studied the flora of New Caledonia



Description:

 

Shrub 

to 2 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, 

pubescent. 

Leaves 

20–40 mm long; blade glabrescent, 

the hairs appressed, narrowly elliptic to linear, the 

base attenuate, the apex acute, the veins longitudinal, 

3–5. 

Inflorescences 

subspheroidal, pseudoterminal. 



Hypanthium 

1.4–1.8 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

c. 2 mm long. 



Petals 

1.4–1.8 mm long. 



Stamens 

5–6 per bundle; fila­

ments white at anthesis but becoming reddish with age, 

6–6.8 mm long. 



Style 

c. 7.6 mm long. 



Fruit 

2 mm long.



Natural occurrence:

 New Caledonia: the southern 

part of Grande Terre.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in maquis along stream 

lines, areas susceptible to inundation, and on eroded or 

hard soils on ultramafic substrates.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from January 

to March.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species contained 

marginally more monoterpenes than sesquiterpenes. 

The principal monoterpenes encountered were a­pinene 

(23.3%), b­pinene (10.3%) and limonene (19.8%). These 

were accompanied by a lesser amount of a­terpineol 

(5.9%). Sesquiterpenes were numerous but present in 

smaller amounts. The principal sesquiterpenes detected 

were globulol (5%), viridiflorol (2.3%), spathulenol 

(3.1%), a­cadinol (3%), epicubenol (2.8%), d­cadinene 

(1.4%) and aromadendrene (1.2%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.2%.



Reference on essential oils: 

Hnawia et al. 2012



Melaleuca 

brongniartii

Daeniker


101

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a br

oph

yi

Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic 

Botany 12: 864 (1999)



Derivation:

 brophyi, in honour of Joseph John Brophy 

(1943–), an expert on the essential oils of plants in the 

Australian region

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.3–3 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, 

sericeous­pubescent to lanuginose­sericeous (often with 

some lanuginose­pubescent, sericeous­lanuginulose or 

lanuginulose hairs also), rarely sericeous. 

Leaves 

alternate, 

4.5–16 mm long, 1–2 mm wide, 2.5–15 times as long as 

wide, subsessile; blade glabrescent, sericeous­pubescent 

to lanuginose­sericeous (with some lanuginose­pubescent 

to lanuginulose­puberulous or lanuginose to lanuginulose 

hairs also), linear, linear­obovate, very narrowly obovate, 

narrowly obovate or very narrowly elliptic to linear­elliptic, 

in transverse section transversely elliptic to transversely 

narrowly elliptic, flattened transversely semielliptic, semi­

circular to transversely semielliptic, depressed obovate or 

quadrate, the base parallel (blade width equals petiole 

width) or attenuate to narrowly cuneate, the apex acumi­

nate or acute, the veins longitudinal, 3, 



oil glands 

dense, 


distinct, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, pseudoter­

minal and often also upper axillary, with 4–12 triads, 

up to 14 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 1–1.2 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous or glabrescent, 0.1–0.5 mm 

long, scarious throughout. 

Petals 

caducous (rarely decidu­

ous), 1–1.5 mm long. 

Stamens 

3–6 per bundle; filaments 

very pale yellow­white or yellow to cream, 3.5–6 mm long, 

the bundle claw 0.7–3 mm long, 0.2–0.5 times as long as 

the filaments. 

Style 

6–7 mm long. 



Ovules 

15–20 per locule. 



Infructescences 

globose. 



Fruit 

1.5–2.5 mm long, the calyx 

lobes weathering away; cotyledons planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the Wick­

epin – Lake King – Borden – Ravensthorpe district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in open eucalypt wood­

land, low Melaleuca shrubland, silty Melaleuca swamp, 

along seasonal stream lines, on sand, sand over laterite, 

sand over clay, and saline clay.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from June to 

November.



Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species was domi­

nated by monoterpenes. The principal monoterpene was 

1,8­cineole (71–74%). This was accompanied by lesser 

amounts of a­pinene (5–6%), limonene (3–5%), myrcene 

(1–2%), b­pinene (2–4%), terpinen­4­ol (1–4%) and 

a­terpineol (4–6%). The major sesquiterpenes in the oil 

were spathulenol (1–2%) and globulol (0.5–0.8%). No 

other sesquiterpene was present in amounts greater than 

0.5%.

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 1.1–2.3%.

Notes:

 This yellow­flowered member of the M. scabra 

group is worth trialling as an ornamental shrub in regions 

with a dry Mediterranean climate but care should be taken 

to obtain a form with good flower colour. At least some 

genotypes may be tolerant of saline soils.



Melaleuca 

brophyi

Craven


102

Melaleuc

a buse

ana

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 in Craven & Dawson, Adansonia, sér. 3, 

20: 192 (1998)



Derivation:

 buseana, from the locality Pic Buse, New 

Caledonia

Synonym:

 Callistemon buseanus Guillaumin

Description:

 

Shrub or tree 

to 7 m tall. 



Branchlets 

pubes­


cent. 

Leaves 

15–33 mm long, 4–6 mm wide, short­petiolate; 

blade glabrescent, pubescent, elliptic to narrowly obovate, 

the base attenuate, the apex rounded, the veins longi­

tudinal, 3–5. 

Inflorescences 

spicate, pseudoterminal. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 4–4.2 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

fimbriate, 

0.8–1.2 mm long. 

Petals 

2–2.5 mm long. 



Stamens 

3–4 per 


bundle; filaments yellow to greenish yellow, 10–25 mm 

long. 


Style 

20–25 mm long. 



Fruit 

4.5–6 mm long.



Natural occurrence:

 New Caledonia: the southern 

part of Grande Terre.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in the undergrowth of 

dense rainforest and in maquis on gravelly, colluvial soil 

that may be more or less eroded on ultramafic substrates.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in December, 

May and June.



Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species contained 

more monoterpenes than sesquiterpenes. The principal 

monoterpenes identified in the oil were g­terpinene 

(15.2%), p­cymene (12.8%) and terpinolene (17.5%). These 

were accompanied by lesser amounts of a­pinene (2.3%), 

a­thujene (2.0%), limonene (7.3%), terpinen­4­ol (3.7%) 

and a­terpineol (2.6%). The principal sesquiterpenes iden­

tified were spathulenol (4.6%), globulol (4%), viridiflorol 

(2%) and b­caryophyllene (3%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.1%.



Reference on essential oils: 

Hnawia et al. 2012



Melaleuca 

buseana

(Guillaumin) Craven & J.W.Dawson



103

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a c

aec

a

Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic 

Botany 12: 865 (1999)



Derivation:

 caeca, from the Latin caecus, blind, hence 

hidden, secret, in reference to the fact that relatively few 

collections have been made of this species within a gener­

ally well­botanised region

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.4–1 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, 

sericeous. 

Leaves 

alternate, 8–21.5 mm long, 1–2.5 mm 

wide, 5–17 times as long as wide, sessile to subsessile; 

blade glabrescent, sericeous, very narrowly obovate or 

linear­obovate, in transverse section transversely linear, 

the base narrowly cuneate, truncate or parallel (blade 

width equals petiole width), the apex acuminate or obtuse 

to rounded, the veins longitudinal, 3, 



oil glands 

moderately 

dense, distinct to obscure, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capi­


tate or shortly spicate, pseudoterminal and sometimes 

also upper axillary, with 5–12 triads, up to 15 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 1.3–1.5 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxi­


ally hairy or rarely glabrous, 0.3–0.5 mm long, scarious 

in a marginal band 0.05–0.1 mm wide or herbaceous 

to the margin. 

Petals 

deciduous, 0.9–1.8 mm long. 



Stamens 

4–7 per bundle; filaments purple, pinkish­mauve 

or mauve, 5–7.5 mm long, the bundle claw 0.8–2 mm long, 

0.1–0.3 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

6.5–7.5 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

c. 15–20 per locule. 



Infructescences 

globose. 



Fruit 

2–3.5 mm long, with weakly developed sepaline 

teeth; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the Arrino 

– Gingin Brook district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in heathland, open 

heathland, eucalypt woodland, on loam, and sand over 

laterite.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in September 

and October.

Essential oils:

 This species presented an overwhelm­

ingly monoterpenoid leaf oil. The principal components of 

the oil were 1,8­cineole (51.1%) and a­pinene (27%). These 

were accompanied by lesser amounts of limonene (3.4%), 

a­terpineol (2.6%), b­pinene (1.5%), myrcene (1.9%) and 

b­phellandrene (1.9%). Sesquiterpenes were, of necessity, 

not plentiful. The major members were globulol (1.0%), 

bicyclogermacrene (0.7%), viridiflorol (0.5%) and spathu­

lenol (0.4%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.8%.



Melaleuca 

caeca

Craven


104

Melaleuc

a c

ajuputi

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Taxonomy:

 Three subspecies are recognised in this spe­

cies: subsp. cajuputi, subsp. cumingiana (Turcz.) Barlow 

and subsp. platyphylla Barlow




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