of Physicians of London (Transl.) 1809 22 (1809), subsp.
cajuputi; Novon 7: 113 (1997), subsp. cumingiana; Novon
7: 113, fig. 1A–D (1997), subsp. platyphylla
of the oil distilled from the foliage of this species, itself
probably a corruption of the Indonesian name for the
plant, kayu putih; cumingiana, in honour of Hugh Cuming
(1791–1865), an English traveller and naturalist who made
major botanical, zoological and conchological collections
in the Malesian region; platyphylla, from the Greek platys,
broad, wide, flat, level, phyllon, leaf
Tree or shrub
2–35(–46) m tall; bark
papery, grey, brownish, pinktan or whitish.
weathering to pubescent to puberulous hairs on older
alternate, 40–140 mm long, 7.5–60 mm
wide, 1.3–9.7 times as long as wide, long or shortpet
iolate; blade glabrescent, sericeous, narrowly elliptic,
very narrowly elliptic, elliptic or oblong, in transverse
section transversely linear, the base attenuate, the apex
narrowly acute, acute, obtuse or rarely acuminate, the
veins longitudinal, 5–9,
nal and often also upper axillary, rarely interstitial, with
8–20 triads, up to 28 mm wide.
glabrous, 1.5–1.8 mm long.
abaxially hairy or
glabrous, 0.9–1.5 mm long, scarious in a marginal band
0.15–0.5 mm wide.
deciduous, 1.7–2.5 mm long.
(6–)8–12(–15) per bundle; filaments white,
cream or greenishyellow, 9–10.5 mm long, the bundle
claw 1–3.5 mm long, 0.1–0.4 times as long as the fila
7.8–11.2 mm long.
35–55 per locule.
2–2.8 mm long, the calyx lobes deciduous; cotyledons
obvolute or subobvolute (almost planoconvex).
subsp. cajuputi: Western Aus
tralia, Northern Territory; also Indonesia, East Timor:
the Dampier Peninsula – Calder River – Fitzroy Crossing
district in Western Australia and the northern portion of
the Northern Territory. subsp. cumingiana: Myanmar,
Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra, western
Java, southwestern Kalimantan). subsp. platyphylla:
Torres Strait islands south to the Cairns district in Queens
land; southern Papua province, Indonesia, and southern
Papua New Guinea.
woodland, vine forest, gallery forest, savannah forest, on
cracking black clay, black peaty sand, and clay loam. subsp.
cumingiana: Recorded as occurring in coastal swamp for
est. subsp. platyphylla: Recorded as occurring in swamp
forest, mixed open forest, swamp woodland, tall savannah,
sedgeland, on sandy soil, and clay pans.
from March to November. subsp. cumingiana: Recorded as
flowering from February to December. subsp. platyphylla:
Recorded as flowering from January to May, August to
subsp. cajuputi: This subspecies
appears to exist as one chemotype, with major amounts
of 1,8cineole, although several samples of a type contain
ing Enerolidol have also been identified. The oil of this
subspecies contained 1,8cineole (15–60%), limonene
(1–5%), viridiflorene (0.5–7%), aterpineol (1–7%), glob
ulol (0.2–8.0%), viridiflorol (0.2–10.0%), spathulenol
(0.4–30.0%) and bcaryophyllene (1–4%). The nerolidol
samples contained Enerolidol (93–95%) as the major
component. subsp. cumingiana: Although M. cajuputi
subsp. cajuputi is the basis of the cajuput oil industry in
Indonesia and South East Asia, it is notable that samples
of subsp. cumingiana from this region contained very little
1,8cineole. A sample from Vietnam contained gter
pinene (19%), terpinolene (20%), bcaryophyllene (19%),
ahumulene (9%), apinene (3%) and bpinene (3%) as
major components. subsp. platyphylla: The leaf oil of this
subspecies of M. cajuputi was found to exist in two
chemotypes, one of which was completely terpenoid in
character while the other one contained significant
amounts of a btriketone and aromatic compounds.
Chemotype I contained platyphyllol (1acetyl4meth
together with cajeputol (1acetyl6hydroxy2,4dimeth
oxy3,5dimethylbenzene) (3–57%) as principal
components. These were accompanied by small amounts
of other terpenes, mainly sesquiterpenes. This chemotype
came from the Bensbach River area in Papua New Guinea
(PNG). Chemotype II, which came from other areas in
PNG and northern Cape York, Queensland, contained
significant amounts of apinene (12–70%) and lesser
amounts of 1,8cineole (0.1–10.0%), gterpinene (1–10%),
pcymene (0.1–7.0%), bcaryophyllene (4–11%),
ahumulene (3–8%) and caryophyllene oxide (2–10%).
w/w) was 0.4–1.2%. subsp. cumingiana: The oil yield (fresh
weight, w/w) was 0.3–0.5%. subsp. platyphylla: The oil
yield (fresh weight, w/w) for chemotype I was 0.2–0.6%
and for chemotype II was 0.1–1.2%.
References on essential oils:
Brophy et al. 1988;
Brophy and Doran 1996
The three subspecies are distinguished as follows:
26 mm wide; stamens 7–10 per bundle, the bundle claw
1–1.6 mm long. subsp. cumingiana: Leaves 2.2–2.9 times
as long as wide; stamens 7–9 per bundle, the bundle claw
2.1–3 mm long. subsp. platyphylla: Leaves 1.3–6.5 times
as long as wide, 15–50 mm wide; stamens 8–13 per bundle,
the bundle claw 1.1–3.5 mm long.
Although M. cajuputi subsp. cajuputi is used locally in
Australia by Aborigines as a medicinal plant, it has not
entered into commerce in Australia. In Indonesia, on the
other hand, selected forms of M. cajuputi subsp. cajuputi
are the source of cajuput oil, widely used as a liniment
and inhalant. Natural stands are managed to optimise oil
production, and plantations have been established. Within
the geographical range of subsp. cumingiana, subsp. caju-
puti has been widely cultivated in plantations and this may
cause some difficulty with the identification of specimens.
It is possible that some morphologically intermediate
plants may be of hybrid origin. The oil from subsp. cajuputi
is sold as cajuput oil in Asian countries. Chemotype I of
subsp. platyphylla may have insecticidal properties because
of the presence of the known insecticide platyphyllol.
The species is useful as an ornamental tree for urban use
in the tropics. The bark has been used for caulking boats
in Craven, Lepschi & Cowley, Nuytsia 20:
calcicola, from the pharmaceutical Latin
calcium, calcium, hence lime, and the Latin cola, dweller,
in reference to the occurrence of this taxon on limestone
Melaleuca apodocephala subsp. calcicola Bar
low ex Craven
0.2–4 m tall.
alternate, 4–11.5 mm long, 0.7–1.7 mm wide,
5–12 times as long as wide, subsessile to shortpetiolate;
blade soon glabrescent (the lanuginulosepuberulous to
lanuginulose hairs ephemeral), linear, linearobovate,
linearovate, very narrowly obovate or very narrowly
ovate, in transverse section transversely narrowly elliptic,
transversely elliptic, subcircular or flattened transversely
semielliptic, the base broadly attenuate or narrowly cune
ate, the apex obtusely shortly acuminate, acuminate,
narrowly acute, acute or rounded, the veins longitudi
sparse, obscure, more or less in rows.
capitate, lateral or pseudoterminal and
then approaching interstitial, with 1–15 monads, up to
12 mm wide.
glabrescent, 1–2 mm long.
abaxially glabrescent or glabrous, 0.6–
1.2 mm long, herbaceous to (or almost to) the margin.
deciduous, 1.2–2.3 mm long.
bundle; filaments white or creamywhite, 1.5–5.5 mm long,
the bundle claw 1–1.5 mm long, 0.1–0.4 times as long as
4–6 mm long.
15–40 per loc
3–5.5 mm long, with sepaline teeth; cotyledons
Western Australia: from the
Scaddan district eastwards to the western edge of the
Recorded as occurring in mallee with Mela-
leuca understorey, low eucalypt forest, on limestone cliffs,
loam, and rocky clay.
oil, with sesquiterpenes contributing little to the overall
oil. The principal monoterpene was terpinen4ol (33%).
This was accompanied by lesser amounts of aterpinene
(5.2%), gterpinene (8.8%), pcymene (9.8%), aterpineol
(3.5%), apinene and athujene (both 2.6%). The principal
sesquiterpene encountered was spathulenol (7.1%) and this
was accompanied by globulol (1.9%), viridiflorol (0.6%),
bicyclogermacrene and cubeban11ol (both 0.4%). Methyl
eugenol (0.1%) was also detected.
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.
The terpinen4ol content of the oil is reasonably
high but unless the yield can be significantly increased the
species is not likely to be of economic interest.
(Barlow ex Craven) Craven & Lepschi
7. Species ac
calothamnoides, from Calothamnus, a genus
of Myrtaceae, and the Greek oides, resembling, in refer
ence to a perceived similarity between this species and a
species of Calothamnus
0.8–3 m tall.
long, 0.5–0.9 mm wide, 10–20 times as long as wide,
shortpetiolate to subsessile; blade glabrescent, lanuginose
sericeous, linear, narrowly oblong or linearobovate, in
transverse section transversely semielliptic, subcircular or
depressed obovate, the base attenuate, the apex acute to
dense to sparse, distinct to
spicate, lateral on second
ary shoots and then interstitial or pseudoterminal, with
40–60 monads, up to 40 mm wide.
abaxially hairy, 1.2–1.6 mm
long, herbaceous to the margin.
2.2 mm long.
4–5 per bundle; filaments greenish
and tipped with orange or yellow/orange, becoming red
at maturity, 15–17 mm long, the bundle claw 2.4–3.5 mm
long, 0.2 times as long as the filaments.
c. 17 mm
50–85 per locule.
4–5 mm long, the
calyx lobes weathering away or replaced by sepaline teeth
(the lobes then often obsolete and persisting on the sepal
ine teeth); cotyledons planoconvex.
Western Australia: the lower
Murchison River district.
shrubland, on sand, sand over sandstone, and creek beds.
Recorded as flowering from July to
The leaf oil of this species was dominated
by monoterpenes. The principal component was 1,8cin
eole (74.2%). This was accompanied by lesser amounts of
apinene (1.0%), limonene (3.1%), terpinen4ol (1.0%)
and aterpineol (7.8%). Sesquiterpenes contributed very
little to the oil, with the principal members being globulol
(0.9%), viridiflorol (0.8%), epiglobulol (0.8%) and an
unknown sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (1.2%).
Although the species naturally occurs in a region
characterised by having a dry Mediterranean climate, it has
proved adaptable in other climates and has been reported
as being successful in subtropical regions (Elliot and Jones
1993; Wrigley and Fagg 1993).
calycina, from the Greek kalyx, calyx
0.6–3 m tall; bark corky.
5–12 mm long, 2.9–6.8 mm wide, 1.2–2.5 times as long
as wide, shortpetiolate or subsessile; blade glabrescent,
pubescent, ovate, broadly ovate or narrowly ovate, in
transverse section lunate or sublunate, the base rounded,
truncate, cuneate or subcordate, the apex acuminate
or acute, the veins longitudinal, 5–7,
pseudoterminal, with 1–2 monads, up to 20 mm wide.
hairy, 2.5–3 mm long.
hairy or glabrescent, 3.2–4 mm long, herbaceous
to the margin.
deciduous, 4.4–4.6 mm long.
22–25 per bundle; filaments white or cream,
7.4–8.4 mm long, the bundle claw c. 2.5 mm long,
0.3 times as long as the filaments.
80–105 per locule.
5–5.9 mm long, with
sepaline teeth; cotyledons planoconvex.
Western Australia: from the
Stirling Range eastwards to the Cape Arid district.
lee, open shrubland, on lateritic clay, grey loam, weathered
granite, and sand plain.
The leaf oil obtained from this spe
cies contained a mixture mainly of monoterpenes and
acylphloroglucinol derivatives. The principal monoter
penes identified in the oil were apinene (19.7%),
1,8cineole (7.8%), terpinen4ol (3.1%) and aterpineol
(2.2%). Sesquiterpenes were not prominent in the oil,
with the principal contributors being globulol (3.3%),
viridiflorol (1.3%) and spathulenol (3.9%), no other
sesquiterpene being more than 0.5%. Three aromatic
compounds were detected in the oil, suspected of
(31.1%), 2,4,6trimethoxyisobutryophenone (1.3%) and
2,4dimethoxy(3 or 5)methyl6hydroxyisobutyrophe
Botany 12: 866 (1999)
calyptroides, from the Greek kalypto, cover,
conceal, hence calyptra, and oides, resembling, in reference
to the cap formed by the coherent and caducous petals
0.3–1.5 m tall.
glabrescent, sericeous to minutely sericeous and seri
ceouspubescent (often with some sericeouslanuginulose
to lanuginulosepuberulous and lanuginulose hairs also).
alternate, 5.5–28 mm long, 0.7–1.7 mm wide,
5–30 times as long as wide, sessile to subsessile; blade
hairy to glabrescent, the hairs as on the branchlets, linear,
linearobovate or very narrowly obovate, in transverse
section transversely elliptic to subcircular or depressed
obovate, the base truncate, parallel (blade width equals
petiole width) to narrowly cuneate, the apex acuminate,
acute or obtuse to rounded, the veins longitudinal, 3,
moderately dense or dense, distinct to obscure,
capitate, pseudoterminal and
sometimes also upper axillary, with 1–2 triads or up to
9 monads, up to 30 mm wide.
abaxially hairy or rarely gla
brescent, 0.6–1.8 mm long, herbaceous to the margin or
scarious in a marginal band 0.2–0.4 mm wide.
(6–)8–15 per bundle;
filaments pink, mauve, purple or magenta, 7.5–16.5 mm
long, the bundle claw 1.8–7 mm long, 0.2–0.5 times as long
as the filaments.
9–15.5 mm long.
3.5–6 mm long,
the calyx lobes weathering away or replaced by weakly
developed sepaline teeth; cotyledons obvolute.
Watheroo–Morawa district south to the Merredin–Hyden–
Recorded as occurring in heath, tall shrubland,
mallee shrubland, open scrub, on sand plain, clayey sand,
sand over laterite, loamy sand, and lateritic loam.
The oil from this species contained
significant amounts of both mono and sesquiterpenes.
The principal monoterpenes were 1,8cineole (13–50%),
apinene (6–11%), linalool (1–12%) and aterpineol
(3–5%). The main sesquiterpenes identified were glob
ulol (3–13%), viridiflorol (4–13%), spathulenol (4–8%),
beudesmol (1–6%) and cubeban11ol (1–6%).
The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.2–0.7%.
This member of the M. scabra group warrants trial
as a small ornamental shrub for regions with a dry Medi
terranean climate as its flowers are very brightly coloured.