The information given for each of the species in this section is a summary of know­



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Publication:

 The Pharmacopoeia of the Royal College 

of Physicians of London (Transl.) 1809 22 (1809), subsp. 

cajuputi; Novon 7: 113 (1997), subsp. cumingiana; Novon 

7: 113, fig. 1A–D (1997), subsp. platyphylla



Derivation:

 cajuputi, from cajuput, an English name 

of the oil distilled from the foliage of this species, itself 

probably a corruption of the Indonesian name for the 

plant, kayu putih; cumingiana, in honour of Hugh Cuming 

(1791–1865), an English traveller and naturalist who made 

major botanical, zoological and conchological collections 

in the Malesian region; platyphylla, from the Greek platys, 

broad, wide, flat, level, phyllon, leaf



Description:

 

Tree or shrub 

2–35(–46) m tall; bark 

papery, grey, brownish, pink­tan or whitish. 



Branchlets 

gla­


brescent, sericeous­pubescent hairs on young growth, 

weathering to pubescent to puberulous hairs on older 

growth. 

Leaves 

alternate, 40–140 mm long, 7.5–60 mm 

wide, 1.3–9.7 times as long as wide, long­ or short­pet­

iolate; blade glabrescent, sericeous, narrowly elliptic, 

very narrowly elliptic, elliptic or oblong, in transverse 

section transversely linear, the base attenuate, the apex 

narrowly acute, acute, obtuse or rarely acuminate, the 

veins longitudinal, 5–9, 



oil glands 

moderately dense, 

obscure, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

spicate, pseudotermi­

nal and often also upper axillary, rarely interstitial, with 

8–20 triads, up to 28 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy or 

glabrous, 1.5–1.8 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy or 

glabrous, 0.9–1.5 mm long, scarious in a marginal band 

0.15–0.5 mm wide. 



Petals 

deciduous, 1.7–2.5 mm long. 



Stamens 

(6–)8–12(–15) per bundle; filaments white, 

cream or greenish­yellow, 9–10.5 mm long, the bundle 

claw 1–3.5 mm long, 0.1–0.4 times as long as the fila­

ments. 

Style 

7.8–11.2 mm long. 



Ovules 

35–55 per locule. 



Fruit 

2–2.8 mm long, the calyx lobes deciduous; cotyledons 

obvolute or subobvolute (almost planoconvex).

Natural occurrence:

 subsp. cajuputi: Western Aus­

tralia, Northern Territory; also Indonesia, East Timor: 

the Dampier Peninsula – Calder River – Fitzroy Crossing 

district in Western Australia and the northern portion of 

the Northern Territory. subsp. cumingiana: Myanmar, 

Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra, western 



Melaleuca 

cajuputi

Powell


7. Species ac

counts


 —

Melaleuc



a c

ajuputi

105


7. Species ac

counts — 



Melaleuc

a c

ajuputi 

(c

on



tinued

)

Java, south­western Kalimantan). subsp. platyphylla: 



Queensland; also Indonesia, Papua New Guinea: from the 

Torres Strait islands south to the Cairns district in Queens­

land; southern Papua province, Indonesia, and southern 

Papua New Guinea.



Ecology:

 subsp. cajuputi: Recorded as occurring in 

woodland, vine forest, gallery forest, savannah forest, on 

cracking black clay, black peaty sand, and clay loam. subsp. 

cumingiana: Recorded as occurring in coastal swamp for­

est. subsp. platyphylla: Recorded as occurring in swamp 

forest, mixed open forest, swamp woodland, tall savannah, 

sedgeland, on sandy soil, and clay pans.



Flowering time:

 subsp. cajuputi: Recorded as flowering 

from March to November. subsp. cumingiana: Recorded as 

flowering from February to December. subsp. platyphylla: 

Recorded as flowering from January to May, August to 

September.

Essential oils:

 subsp. cajuputi: This subspecies 

appears to exist as one chemotype, with major amounts 

of 1,8­cineole, although several samples of a type contain­

ing E­nerolidol have also been identified. The oil of this 

subspecies contained 1,8­cineole (15–60%), limonene 

(1–5%), viridiflorene (0.5–7%), a­terpineol (1–7%), glob­

ulol (0.2–8.0%), viridiflorol (0.2–10.0%), spathulenol 

(0.4–30.0%) and b­caryophyllene (1–4%). The nerolidol 

samples contained E­nerolidol (93–95%) as the major 

component. subsp. cumingiana: Although M. cajuputi 

subsp. cajuputi is the basis of the cajuput oil industry in 

Indonesia and South East Asia, it is notable that samples 

of subsp. cumingiana from this region contained very little 

1,8­cineole. A sample from Vietnam contained g­ter­

pinene (19%), terpinolene (20%), b­caryophyllene (19%), 

a­humulene (9%), a­pinene (3%) and b­pinene (3%) as 

major components. subsp. platyphylla: The leaf oil of this 

subspecies of M. cajuputi was found to exist in two 

chemotypes, one of which was completely terpenoid in 

character while the other one contained significant 

amounts of a b­triketone and aromatic compounds. 

Chemotype I contained platyphyllol (1­acetyl­4­meth­

oxy­3,3,5­trimethylcyclohex­2,5­dione) (22–80%), 

together with cajeputol (1­acetyl­6­hydroxy­2,4­dimeth­

oxy­3,5­dimethylbenzene) (3–57%) as principal 

components. These were accompanied by small amounts 

of other terpenes, mainly sesquiterpenes. This chemotype 

came from the Bensbach River area in Papua New Guinea 

(PNG). Chemotype II, which came from other areas in 

PNG and northern Cape York, Queensland, contained 

significant amounts of a­pinene (12–70%) and lesser 

amounts of 1,8­cineole (0.1–10.0%), g­terpinene (1–10%), 

p­cymene (0.1–7.0%), b­caryophyllene (4–11%), 

a­humulene (3–8%) and caryophyllene oxide (2–10%).



Oil yield:

 subsp. cajuputi: The oil yield (fresh weight, 

w/w) was 0.4–1.2%. subsp. cumingiana: The oil yield (fresh 

weight, w/w) was 0.3–0.5%. subsp. platyphylla: The oil 

yield (fresh weight, w/w) for chemotype I was 0.2–0.6% 

and for chemotype II was 0.1–1.2%.

References on essential oils:

 Brophy et al. 1988; 

Brophy and Doran 1996

Notes:

 The three subspecies are distinguished as follows: 



subsp. cajuputi: Leaves 2.8–9.7 times as long as wide, 7.5–

26 mm wide; stamens 7–10 per bundle, the bundle claw 

1–1.6 mm long. subsp. cumingiana: Leaves 2.2–2.9 times 

as long as wide; stamens 7–9 per bundle, the bundle claw 

2.1–3 mm long. subsp. platyphylla: Leaves 1.3–6.5 times 

as long as wide, 15–50 mm wide; stamens 8–13 per bundle, 

the bundle claw 1.1–3.5 mm long.

Although M. cajuputi subsp. cajuputi is used locally in 

Australia by Aborigines as a medicinal plant, it has not 

entered into commerce in Australia. In Indonesia, on the 

other hand, selected forms of M. cajuputi subsp. cajuputi 

are the source of cajuput oil, widely used as a liniment 

and inhalant. Natural stands are managed to optimise oil 

production, and plantations have been established. Within 

the geographical range of subsp. cumingiana, subsp. caju-

puti has been widely cultivated in plantations and this may 

cause some difficulty with the identification of specimens. 

It is possible that some morphologically intermediate 

plants may be of hybrid origin. The oil from subsp. cajuputi 

is sold as cajuput oil in Asian countries. Chemotype I of 

subsp. platyphylla may have insecticidal properties because 

of the presence of the known insecticide platyphyllol.

The species is useful as an ornamental tree for urban use 

in the tropics. The bark has been used for caulking boats 

in Indonesia.


106

Melaleuc

a c

alcic

ola

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 in Craven, Lepschi & Cowley, Nuytsia 20: 

28 (2010)

Derivation:

 calcicola, from the pharmaceutical Latin 

calcium, calcium, hence lime, and the Latin ­cola, dweller, 

in reference to the occurrence of this taxon on limestone



Synonym: 

Melaleuca apodocephala subsp. calcicola Bar­

low ex Craven

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.2–4 m tall. 



Branchlets 

soon 


glabrescent (the lanuginulose hairs ephemeral). 

Leaves 

alternate, 4–11.5 mm long, 0.7–1.7 mm wide, 

5–12 times as long as wide, subsessile to short­petiolate; 

blade soon glabrescent (the lanuginulose­puberulous to 

lanuginulose hairs ephemeral), linear, linear­obovate, 

linear­ovate, very narrowly obovate or very narrowly 

ovate, in transverse section transversely narrowly elliptic, 

transversely elliptic, subcircular or flattened transversely 

semielliptic, the base broadly attenuate or narrowly cune­

ate, the apex obtusely shortly acuminate, acuminate, 

narrowly acute, acute or rounded, the veins longitudi­

nal, 3, 


oil glands 

sparse, obscure, more or less in rows. 



Inflorescences 

capitate, lateral or pseudoterminal and 

then approaching interstitial, with 1–15 monads, up to 

12 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

glabrescent, 1–2 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrescent or glabrous, 0.6–

1.2 mm long, herbaceous to (or almost to) the margin. 

Petals 

deciduous, 1.2–2.3 mm long. 



Stamens 

12–23 per 

bundle; filaments white or creamy­white, 1.5–5.5 mm long, 

the bundle claw 1–1.5 mm long, 0.1–0.4 times as long as 

the filaments. 

Style 

4–6 mm long. 



Ovules 

15–40 per loc­

ule. 

Fruit 

3–5.5 mm long, with sepaline teeth; cotyledons 

subobvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Scaddan district eastwards to the western edge of the 

Nullarbor Plain.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in mallee with Mela-

leuca understorey, low eucalypt forest, on limestone cliffs, 

loam, and rocky clay.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in November.

Essential oils:

 This species produced a monoterpenoid 

oil, with sesquiterpenes contributing little to the overall 

oil. The principal monoterpene was terpinen­4­ol (33%). 

This was accompanied by lesser amounts of a­terpinene 

(5.2%), g­terpinene (8.8%), p­cymene (9.8%), a­terpineol 

(3.5%), a­pinene and a­thujene (both 2.6%). The principal 

sesquiterpene encountered was spathulenol (7.1%) and this 

was accompanied by globulol (1.9%), viridiflorol (0.6%), 

bicyclogermacrene and cubeban­11­ol (both 0.4%). Methyl 

eugenol (0.1%) was also detected.



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3%.



Note: 

The terpinen­4­ol content of the oil is reasonably 

high but unless the yield can be significantly increased the 

species is not likely to be of economic interest.



Melaleuca 

calcicola

(Barlow ex Craven) Craven & Lepschi



107

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a c

alo

thamnoide

s

Publication:

 Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae 3: 114 

(1862)


Derivation:

 calothamnoides, from Calothamnus, a genus 

of Myrtaceae, and the Greek ­oides, resembling, in refer­

ence to a perceived similarity between this species and a 

species of Calothamnus

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.8–3 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabres­


cent, lanuginose­sericeous. Leaves alternate, 7.5–13.5 mm 

long, 0.5–0.9 mm wide, 10–20 times as long as wide

short­petiolate to subsessile; blade glabrescent, lanuginose­

sericeous, linear, narrowly oblong or linear­obovate, in 

transverse section transversely semielliptic, subcircular or 

depressed obovate, the base attenuate, the apex acute to 

rounded, 1­veined, 

oil glands 

dense to sparse, distinct to 

obscure, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

spicate, lateral on second­

ary shoots and then interstitial or pseudoterminal, with 

40–60 monads, up to 40 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 


1.9–2.3 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy, 1.2–1.6 mm 

long, herbaceous to the margin. 

Petals 

deciduous, 1.9–

2.2 mm long. 

Stamens 

4–5 per bundle; filaments greenish 

and tipped with orange or yellow/orange, becoming red 

at maturity, 15–17 mm long, the bundle claw 2.4–3.5 mm 

long, 0.2 times as long as the filaments. 

Style 

c. 17 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

50–85 per locule. 



Fruit 

4–5 mm long, the 

calyx lobes weathering away or replaced by sepaline teeth 

(the lobes then often obsolete and persisting on the sepal­

ine teeth); cotyledons planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the lower 

Murchison River district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in heathland, dense 

shrubland, on sand, sand over sandstone, and creek beds.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from July to 

October.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species was dominated 

by monoterpenes. The principal component was 1,8­cin­

eole (74.2%). This was accompanied by lesser amounts of 

a­pinene (1.0%), limonene (3.1%), terpinen­4­ol (1.0%) 

and a­terpineol (7.8%). Sesquiterpenes contributed very 

little to the oil, with the principal members being globulol 

(0.9%), viridiflorol (0.8%), epiglobulol (0.8%) and an 

unknown sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (1.2%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was <0.1%.

Notes:

 Although the species naturally occurs in a region 

characterised by having a dry Mediterranean climate, it has 

proved adaptable in other climates and has been reported 

as being successful in subtropical regions (Elliot and Jones 

1993; Wrigley and Fagg 1993).



Melaleuca 

calothamnoides

F.Muell.


108

Melaleuc

a c

al

ycina

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 in Aiton, Hortus Kewensis, ed. 2, 4: 416 

(1812)


Derivation:

 calycina, from the Greek kalyx, calyx



Description:

 

Tree or shrub 

0.6–3 m tall; bark corky. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, pubescent. 



Leaves 

decussate, 

5–12 mm long, 2.9–6.8 mm wide, 1.2–2.5 times as long 

as wide, short­petiolate or subsessile; blade glabrescent, 

pubescent, ovate, broadly ovate or narrowly ovate, in 

transverse section lunate or sublunate, the base rounded, 

truncate, cuneate or subcordate, the apex acuminate 

or acute, the veins longitudinal, 5–7, 



oil glands 

dense, 


obscure to distinct, scattered. 

Inflorescences 

subcapitate, 

pseudoterminal, with 1–2 monads, up to 20 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy, 2.5–3 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially 

hairy or glabrescent, 3.2–4 mm long, herbaceous 

to the margin. 



Petals 

deciduous, 4.4–4.6 mm long. 



Stamens 

22–25 per bundle; filaments white or cream, 

7.4–8.4 mm long, the bundle claw c. 2.5 mm long, 

0.3 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

9.5–10.5 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

80–105 per locule. 



Fruit 

5–5.9 mm long, with 

sepaline teeth; cotyledons planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Stirling Range eastwards to the Cape Arid district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in heathland, low mal­

lee, open shrubland, on lateritic clay, grey loam, weathered 

granite, and sand plain.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from July to 

October.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil obtained from this spe­

cies contained a mixture mainly of monoterpenes and 

acyl­phloroglucinol derivatives. The principal monoter­

penes identified in the oil were a­pinene (19.7%), 

1,8­cineole (7.8%), terpinen­4­ol (3.1%) and a­terpineol 

(2.2%). Sesquiterpenes were not prominent in the oil, 

with the principal contributors being globulol (3.3%), 

viridiflorol (1.3%) and spathulenol (3.9%), no other 

sesquiterpene being more than 0.5%. Three aromatic 

compounds were detected in the oil, suspected of 

being 2,4­dimethoxy­6­hydroxyisobutyrophenone 

(31.1%), 2,4,6­trimethoxyisobutryophenone (1.3%) and 

2,4­dimethoxy­(3 or 5)­methyl­6­hydroxyisobutyrophe­

none (4.4%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.2%.

Melaleuca 

calycina

R.Br.


109

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a c

al

yptr

oide

s

Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic 

Botany 12: 866 (1999)



Derivation:

 calyptroides, from the Greek kalypto, cover, 

conceal, hence calyptra, and ­oides, resembling, in reference 

to the cap formed by the coherent and caducous petals



Description:

 

Shrub 

0.3–1.5 m tall. 



Branchlets 

hairy to 

glabrescent, sericeous to minutely sericeous and seri­

ceous­pubescent (often with some sericeous­lanuginulose 

to lanuginulose­puberulous and lanuginulose hairs also). 

Leaves 

alternate, 5.5–28 mm long, 0.7–1.7 mm wide, 

5–30 times as long as wide, sessile to subsessile; blade 

hairy to glabrescent, the hairs as on the branchlets, linear, 

linear­obovate or very narrowly obovate, in transverse 

section transversely elliptic to subcircular or depressed 

obovate, the base truncate, parallel (blade width equals 

petiole width) to narrowly cuneate, the apex acuminate, 

acute or obtuse to rounded, the veins longitudinal, 3, 

oil glands 

moderately dense or dense, distinct to obscure, 

scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, pseudoterminal and 

sometimes also upper axillary, with 1–2 triads or up to 

9 monads, up to 30 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 


2.5–4 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy or rarely gla­

brescent, 0.6–1.8 mm long, herbaceous to the margin or 

scarious in a marginal band 0.2–0.4 mm wide. 



Petals 

cadu­


cous, 2–5.5 mm long. 

Stamens 

(6–)8–15 per bundle; 

filaments pink, mauve, purple or magenta, 7.5–16.5 mm 

long, the bundle claw 1.8–7 mm long, 0.2–0.5 times as long 

as the filaments. 

Style 

9–15.5 mm long. 



Ovules 

15–30 per 

locule. 

Infructescences 

peg­fruited. 



Fruit 

3.5–6 mm long, 

the calyx lobes weathering away or replaced by weakly 

developed sepaline teeth; cotyledons obvolute.



Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Watheroo–Morawa district south to the Merredin–Hyden–

Coolgardie district.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in heath, tall shrubland, 

mallee shrubland, open scrub, on sand plain, clayey sand, 

sand over laterite, loamy sand, and lateritic loam.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from July to 

November.

Essential oils:

 The oil from this species contained 

significant amounts of both mono­ and sesquiterpenes. 

The principal monoterpenes were 1,8­cineole (13–50%), 

a­pinene (6–11%), linalool (1–12%) and a­terpineol 

(3–5%). The main sesquiterpenes identified were glob­

ulol (3–13%), viridiflorol (4–13%), spathulenol (4–8%), 

b­eudesmol (1–6%) and cubeban­11­ol (1–6%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.2–0.7%.

Notes:

 This member of the M. scabra group warrants trial 

as a small ornamental shrub for regions with a dry Medi­

terranean climate as its flowers are very brightly coloured.



Melaleuca 

calyptroides

Craven

1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10




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