The information given for each of the species in this section is a summary of know­


Petals  deciduous, 3.1–5.6 mm long.  Stamens



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Petals 

deciduous, 3.1–5.6 mm long. 



Stamens 

25–57 per flower; filaments red, 15–24 mm 

long; anthers yellow. 

Style 

20–27 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 150–


200 per locule. 

Fruit 

3.7–6.1 mm long, the calyx lobes 

deciduous; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Queensland: upland country in 

north­central Queensland.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in woodland along 

creeks, on creek banks in open forest, open woodland, 

along watercourses, on sandy stony soil, granite pavement, 

and red sandy soil.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from June to 

March, mainly from September to February.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species was domi­

nated by monoterpenes. The principal components were 

a­pinene (4–35%, the majority >25%) and 1,8­cineole 

(48–80%). These were accompanied by lesser amounts of 

limonene (2–6%), linalool (1–4%) and a­terpineol (4–7%). 

Sesquiterpenes were virtually absent from this oil.



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.3–0.4%.

Reference on essential oils: 

Brophy et al. 1998



Melaleuca 

chisholmii

(Cheel) Craven



118

Melaleuc

a ciliosa

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Natu-

ralistes de Moscou 35: 326 (1862)



Derivation:

 ciliosa, from the Latin cilium, a fine hair, in 

reference to the ciliate leaf margin of this species

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.4–1 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent, 

pubescent with scattered and longer pubescent hairs over­

lying these. 



Leaves 

alternate, 4–12 mm long, 2.5–6.5 mm 

wide, 1.5–3 times as long as wide, subsessile; blade glabres­

cent, ciliate (usually a few scattered pubescent hairs are 

present also), obovate, elliptic to narrowly elliptic, narrowly 

obovate or broadly elliptic, in transverse section trans­

versely linear or transversely semielliptic, the base cuneate

the apex obtusely shortly acuminate or acute to rounded, 

the veins longitudinal to longitudinal­pinnate, 3 longitu­

dinal veins, 



oil glands 

moderately dense to dense, distinct, 

more or less in rows or scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate or 

spicate, pseudoterminal and sometimes also upper axillary, 

with 3–15 triads, up to 23 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy, 


1–1.5 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, 0.5–1 mm 

long, scarious in a marginal band 0.1–0.4 mm wide. 

Petals 

caducous, 1.5–2 mm long. 



Stamens 

5–11 per bun­

dle; filaments pale yellow or white, 6.5–10 mm long, the 

bundle claw 2.4–4.7 mm long, 0.3–0.5 times as long as the 

filaments. 

Style 

8–12.5 mm long. 



Ovules 

8–20 per locule. 



Infructescences 

globose to ‘peg­fruited’. 



Fruit 

2–2.5 mm 

long, the calyx lobes weathering; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the lower 

Murchison River district and the Badgingarra–Watheroo–

Mogumber district.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in Banksia woodland, 

low closed heath, mallee heath, on sandy loam, and sand 

over laterite.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from Septem­

ber to January.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of the bulk sample of this 

species contained both mono­ and sesquiterpenes and, 

from the components present, it is thought that there is 

the possibility of different chemotypes being present. The 

principal monoterpenes present in the oil were a­pinene 

(10.2%), linalool (16.5%), b­pinene (7.1%), limonene 

(3.9%), 1,8­cineole (8.9%), E­b­ocimene (4.9%) and 

a­terpineol (3.0%). The principal sesquiterpenes encoun­

tered were E­nerolidol (6.9%), bicyclogermacrene (1.3%), 

cubeban­11­ol (3.2%), globulol (6.2%), viridiflorol (2.9%), 

spathulenol (2.2%) and a­cadinol (1.9%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.1%.



Melaleuca 

ciliosa

Turcz.


119

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a citrina

Publication:

 Le Botaniste Cultivateur, ed. 1, 3: 282 

(1802)


Derivation:

 citrina, from Citrus, a genus of Rutaceae, 

hence the Latin adjective citrinus, in reference to the aro­

matic foliage that apparently reminded Curtis of Citrus

Synonyms:

 Metrosideros citrina Curtis; Callistemon citri-

nus (Curtis) Skeels; Callistemon lanceolatus (Smith) Sweet

Description:

 

Shrub 

1–5 m tall; bark fibrous or 

hard­papery. 

Branchlets 

glabrescent, velutinous or 

sericeous­pubescent overlaid with sparse velutinous 

hairs. 


Leaves 

alternate, 26–99 mm long, 4–25 mm wide, 

3.5–16 times as long as wide, long­ or short­petiolate; 

blade glabrescent, sericeous or lanuginose, narrowly 

elliptic, narrowly obovate, elliptic or very narrowly ellip­

tic, in transverse section transversely linear, sublunate, 

obsublunate or broadly v­shaped, the base very narrowly 

attenuate, very narrowly cuneate or attenuate, the apex 

narrowly acute, acute or very shortly acuminate, the veins 

pinnate, 7–26, 



oil glands 

dense to sparse, distinct, scattered. 



Inflorescences 

spicate, pseudoterminal and sometimes also 

upper axillary, with (10–)20–80 monads, 45–70 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy, glabrescent or glabrous, 3.8–5.4 mm 

long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially hairy (sometimes on the margin 

only), 1.3–2.3 mm long, scarious in a marginal band 0.5–

0.6 mm wide or herbaceous to the margin. 



Petals 

deciduous, 

3.9–5.8 mm long. 

Stamens 

30–45 per flower; filaments red 

or mauve, 17–25 mm long; anthers purple. 

Style 

23–31 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

c. 170–300 per locule. 



Fruit 

4.4–7 mm long, 

the calyx lobes deciduous; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 New South Wales, Victoria: 

north­eastern New South Wales to eastern­coastal Victoria, 

often extending inland to the lower eastern slopes of the 

Great Dividing Range and also in the Blue Mountains of 

New South Wales.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in swampy areas, damp 

heathy slopes, fringing low open forest, closed heath, tall 

heath, swampy hillsides, cyperaceous swamps, open forest, 

wet heath, swamp forest, open flat in sclerophyll forest, tall 

eucalypt forest, at the base of volcanic cliffs, on sand, clay, 

sandy peaty soil, sandy loam, and sandstone.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in March and 

April, June and July, and from September to January.

Essential oils:

 This species produced an oil that was 

dominated by 1,8­cineole (68–72%). Other monoter­

penes present included limonene (8–10%), a­terpineol 

(7–9%), terpinene­4­ol (0.5–2.0%) and myrcene (1–3%). 

Sesquiterpenes, while numerous, accounted for less than 

5% of the oil, with the main members being spathulenol 

(0.6–2.0%), E,E­farnesol (0.3%), d­cadinene (0.2–0.5%) 

and b­caryophyllene (1–2%).



Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.1–0.2%.

Reference on essential oils: 

Brophy et al. 1998, as 

Callistemon citrinus

Notes:

 This species should not be confused with 

M. citrina Turcz., a lemon yellow–flowered species from 

the southern part of south­western Western Australia. 

Melaleuca citrina Turcz. is now called M. lutea.

A hardy and adaptable species, M. citrina (Curtis) Dum.­

Cours. is widely cultivated for its showy flowers, and there 

are many named selections available in horticulture. In the 

wild, it may hybridise with other species and the result­

ing progeny can give rise to apparently genetically stable, 

morphologically intermediate entities. Apomixis may play 

a role in the development of such entities but additional 

research is required to demonstrate the processes involved.

Melaleuca 

citrina

(Curtis) Dum.-Cours.



120

Melaleuc

a citr

olens

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 Brunonia 9: 168, figs 1g–i, 2c (1987)

Derivation:

 citrolens, from Citrus, a genus of Rutaceae, 

and the Latin olens, smelling, odorous, apparently in refer­

ence to the aromatic foliage of this species



Description:

 

Tree or shrub 

2.5–10 m tall; bark papery, 

grey or white. 

Branchlets 

glabrescent, sericeous­lanug­

inulose (variable, sometimes either the longer sericeous 

or the shorter lanuginulose (to minutely sericeous) 

hairs predominating). 

Leaves 

alternate, 24–90 mm long, 

2.5–9 mm wide, 5–30 times as long as wide, short­pet­

iolate to subsessile; blade glabrescent to hairy, the hairs 

as on the branchlets, narrowly obovate, linear­obovate, 

narrowly elliptic or linear­elliptic, in transverse section 

transversely linear or oblunate, the base attenuate, the 

apex narrowly acute, rounded or acuminate, the veins 

longitudinal, 5, 

oil glands 

dense, distinct to obscure, 

scattered. 

Inflorescences 

capitate, lateral or sometimes 

pseudoterminal, with 1–15 monads, 7–15 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy, 1.1–1.5 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxi­


ally hairy or rarely glabrous, 0.7–0.9 mm long, scarious 

in a marginal band 0–1 mm wide. 



Petals 

caducous or 

rarely deciduous, 1.1–1.4 mm long. 

Stamens 

7–11 per 

bundle; filaments cream to white, 2.5–5.9 mm long, the 

bundle claw 1.6–2.6 mm long, 0.4–0.6 times as long as 

the filaments. 

Style 

6.1–7.7 mm long. 



Ovules 

12–18 per 

locule. 

Fruit 

1.5–2.3 mm long, the calyx lobes persistent 

or deciduous; cotyledons obvolute to almost planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Northern Territory, Queens­

land: from north­eastern Northern Territory eastwards to 

Cape York Peninsula in Queensland.

Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in mixed woodland, 

open forest, Melaleuca woodland, vine thickets, seasonal 

swamps, stony ridges, on sandy soils, laterite, and clay soils.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from Decem­

ber to February, and from April to June.

Essential oils:

 Despite its name, M. citrolens appeared 

to have many non lemon­scented varieties. It is, in fact, 

a very variable species, chemically speaking. While it 

may not be strictly true to call every form a chemotype, 

at least six chemical forms were discerned in which one 

compound predominated or was significant. These six 

forms were: (a) 1,8­cineole (33–56%), terpinolene (5–30%) 

and a­terpineol (5–8%); (b) 1,8­cineole (8–32%), terpi­

nolene (13–20%) and piperitenone (9–16%); (c) citronellal 

(10–24%), 1,8­cineole (20–30%) and isopulegol (15–25%); 

(d) methyl citronellate (9–31%) and citronellol (21–47%); 

(e) methyl cinnamate (19–24%), neral (12–23%) and gera­

nial (14–23%); and (f) neral (8–32%), geranial (10–45%); 

citronellic acid (2–16%), spathulenol (5–9%) and 1,8­cin­

eole (15–20%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yields varied from 3–6% (w/w, dry 

weight) for form (b) down to 2–4% (w/w, dry weight) for 

the others.

References on essential oils:

 Brophy and Clarkson 

1989; Brophy and Doran 1996; Brophy 1999



Melaleuca 

citrolens

Barlow


121

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a clarksonii

Publication:

 in Craven & Barlow, Novon 7: 114, fig. 

1E–H (1997)



Derivation:

 clarksonii, in honour of John Richard 

Clarkson (1950–), a botanist in northern Queensland, 

Australia, and a co­collector of the type specimens of this 

species

Description:

 

Tree 

3–10 m tall; bark fibrous and hard, 

sometimes papery. 

Branchlets 

hairy to glabrescent, 

minutely sericeous. 

Leaves 

alternate, 30–110 mm long, 

7–30 mm wide, 3.3–9 times as long as wide, long­petiolate; 

blade hairy to glabrescent, minutely sericeous, narrowly 

elliptic, elliptic, narrowly obovate or obovate, in trans­

verse section transversely linear or oblunate, the base 

attenuate, the apex acuminate to narrowly acute, the veins 

longitudinal, 5–9, 



oil glands 

dense, obscure, scattered. 



Inflorescences 

spicate, pseudoterminal, with 9–15 triads, 

up to 18 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

glabrous (rarely with 

very few scattered puberulous hairs), 1.4–1.8 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxially glabrous, 0.7–1.2 mm long, scarious 

in a marginal band 0.1–0.2 mm wide. 

Petals 

decidu­


ous, 1.5–2.5 mm long. 

Stamens 

6–9 per bundle (rarely 

a filament is inserted at the very base of a bundle claw, 

seemingly between the bundles); filaments creamy­

white, 6–7 mm long, the bundle claw 1.5–3 mm long, 

0.3–0.4 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

8–8.5 mm 

long. 

Ovules 

c. 20–30 per locule. 



Fruit 

2–3.5 mm long, 

the calyx lobes deciduous; cotyledons obvolute.

Natural occurrence:

 Queensland: Cape York Penin­

sula.


Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in low open Melaleuca 

forest, open forest/woodland, seasonal swamps, on silty 

clay loam, and cracking clay pans.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in May.



Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species contained 

significant amounts of both mono­ and sesquiterpenes. 

The principal monoterpenes were 1,8­cineole (4–12%), 

a­pinene (1–5%) and a­terpineol (5–10%). The princi­

pal sesquiterpenes were globulol (16–23%), viridiflorol 

(9–13%), spathulenol (2–5%), b­caryophyllene (4–8%) 

and bicyclogermacrene (2–6%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (dry weight, w/w) was 0.6–1.0%.

Reference on essential oils: 

Brophy and Doran 1996



Melaleuca 

clarksonii

Barlow


122

Melaleuc

a cla

vif

olia

 —

 7



. Species ac

counts


Publication:

 in Craven & Lepschi, Australian Systematic 

Botany 12: 868 (1999)

Derivation:

 clavifolia, from the Latin clava, club, and 

folium, leaf, in reference to a common leaf shape in this 

species

Description:

 

Shrub 

0.3–1 m tall. 



Branchlets 

glabrescent 

or rarely glabrous (when present, the hairs pubescent to 

more or less puberulous or sometimes lanuginulose­puber­

ulous to lanuginulose as well, overlaid with sparser and 

much longer pubescent hairs). 



Leaves 

alternate, 3.8–10 mm 

long, 0.5–0.9 mm wide, 6–20 times as long as wide, subses­

sile; blade glabrescent or rarely glabrous (when present, the 

hairs pubescent or rarely more or less sericeous overlaid 

with sparser and much longer pubescent hairs), linear or 

linear­obovate, in transverse section transversely elliptic 

or rarely depressed obovate, the base narrowly cuneate to 

parallel (blade width equals petiole width), the apex obtuse 

to rounded, the veins longitudinal, 3, 



oil glands 

mod­


erately dense, distinct to obscure, more or less in rows. 

Inflorescences 

capitate or shortly spicate, pseudoterminal 

and sometimes also upper axillary, with 4–9 triads, up 

to 23 mm wide. 



Hypanthium 

hairy or rarely glabrous 

(including the ovary), 1.2–1.6 mm long. 

Calyx lobes 

abaxi­


ally hairy, 0.6–1 mm long, scarious throughout or 

rarely scarious in a marginal band 0.2–0.4 mm wide. 



Petals 

deciduous, 1.3–2.2 mm long. 



Stamens 

5–7 per 


bundle; filaments purple, mauve or magenta, 7.5–9.5 mm 

long, the bundle claw 2.5–5 mm long, 0.3–0.5 times as long 

as the filaments. 

Style 

9.5–11.5 mm long. 



Ovules 

15–20 per 

locule. 

Infructescences 

globose. 



Fruit 

2–3 mm long, with 

sepaline teeth (these sometimes weakly developed); coty­

ledons obvolute.



Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: the Coorow 

– Green Head – Moore River district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in low open forest, low 

heath, woodland, on sandy loam.



Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering from October 

to December.

Essential oils:

 The leaf oil of this species was domi­

nated by monoterpenes. The principal components were 

limonene (57.0%), a­pinene (14.2%) b­pinene (9.5%) 

and E­b­ocimene (7.0%). There were lesser amounts 

of myrcene (2.9%), terpinolene (1.1%) and a­terpineol 

(1.2%). Sesquiterpenes were neither prominent in 

number nor plentiful, with the main contributors being 

globulol, viridiflorol, spathulenol and b­eudesmol (all 



<0.5%).

Oil yield:

 The oil yield (fresh weight, w/w) was 0.5%.

Melaleuca 

clavifolia

Craven


123

7. Species ac

counts

 —

Melaleuc



a cliff

ortioide

s

Publication:

 in Diels & Pritzel, Botanische Jahrbücher 

für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 

35: 427 (1904)

Derivation:

 cliffortioides, from Cliffortia, a genus of 

Rosaceae, and the Greek ­oides, resembling, in reference 

to a perceived similarity between this species and a species 

of Cliffortia



Description:

 

Shrub 

0.8–1.6 m tall. 



Branchlets 

hairy, 


puberulous to subvelutinulous. Leaves alternate, 4–9 mm 

long, 1.6–2.5 mm wide, 2.2–5 times as long as wide, 

subsessile to sessile; blade glabrescent, puberulous to 

subvelutinous or sometimes appressed­puberulous with 

pubescent hairs on the margin, narrowly ovate to ovate, in 

transverse section lunate to supervolute­curved, the base 

cuneate to truncate, the apex acuminate to narrowly acute, 

the veins longitudinal, 9–11, 



oil glands 

dense or moderately 

dense, distinct, scattered or in rows. 

Inflorescences 

sub­


capitate, lateral, with 1 monad, up to 12 mm wide. 

Hypanthium 

hairy, 2–2.5 mm long. 



Calyx lobes 

abaxially 

hairy, costate, 0.9–1.3 mm long, herbaceous to the margin or 

scarious in a marginal band up to 1 mm wide. 



Petals 

decid­


uous, 2.2–2.8 mm long. 

Stamens 

8–13 per bundle; filaments 

white or cream, 8.5–10 mm long, the bundle claw 4.6–6 mm 

long, 0.5 times as long as the filaments. 



Style 

c. 13 mm long. 



Ovules 

c. 20–40 per locule. 



Fruit 

4–5 mm long, with sepal­

ine teeth; cotyledons planoconvex.

Natural occurrence:

 Western Australia: from the 

Ravensthorpe district to the Norseman district.



Ecology:

 Recorded as occurring in open eucalypt wood­

land, tall mallee shrubland, on red loamy clay over granite, 

and gravelly sandy loam.

Flowering time:

 Recorded as flowering in September.




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