Fall Foray-Penitentiary Glen By Jerry Pepera 9 am Sat., Sept 30 till Noon Sunday, Oct. 1. Where: Lake MetroParks Chapin Forest – Pine Lodge, Kirtland, OH (See directions below)
Dates: Saturday, Sept 30th - Sunday, October 1st
Friday Night (Early Arrivals):
8PM - 10PM Meet at Kirtland City Tavern, 10015 Chillicothe Road (also known as Rte 306)
Kirtland, OH 44094
Phone 440 256-8935
The tavern is a small light brown brick building just north of Rte 6 (Chardon rd). on Rte 306. They have a good variety of appetizers, salads, and entree's. Of course, they serve alcohol. The tavern is just around the corner from
the Chapin Forest campsite. Depending on how busy they are, we may locate ourselves
out back by the patio.
9:00 Registration + Coffee/ Donuts
10:00 Forays Depart
- Group A Chapin Forest
- Group B Penitentiary Glen
11:45 Forays return
12:00-1:00 Lunch (Bring a potluck covered dish to pass)
1:00 - 3:30 Public Introductory Program + hike - (Jerry + Lake MetroPark Naturalist)
1:00 Afternoon Forays Depart - Holden Arboretum
3:30 Afternoon Forays return
4:30 - 5:30 Technical Program - The Genus Amanita,
5:30 Review Collections / Tablewalk - Walt and others 6:30 Dinner at Kirtland City Tavern
9:00 AM view collections/ answer questions and Impromptu mushroom tasting
12 Noon Clean up/ depart
We have a group camping permit for Chapin Forest. If you intend to camp, please call Jennifer Harvey at 440 256-2106 and give her your license
plate number. This will be forwarded to the registration department so that park security will be aware of our presence. See Jerry at the foray for a list of rules/ regulations for the campsite. There is room to pitch a tent or park an RV. There are heated bathrooms with running water. No other camping hookups are available. There is no fee for camping.
Please note that the Pavillion has also been reserved for our use and has a fireplace and a supply of firewood.
Local Hotels (All Located at I-90, Exit #193 and Rte 306.) :
8370 Broadmoor Rd, Mentor, OH 44060, Rte 306, North of I90.
Days Inn 4145 SR 306, Willoughby, OH 44094
Red Roof Inn
4166 SR 306, Willoughby, OH 44094
Directions to Chapin Forest:
From the South:
I-71 North to I-271 North to
I-90 East, Exit at Rte. 91 (Also known as SOM Center Rd.)
then Left (South) on Rte 91/ SOM Ctr. 1 mile
Left (East) on Rte 6 (Chardon Rd) 5 miles
Left on Hobart Road. 1 mile
Note: Hobart is easy to miss! If you cross Rte 306 (Chillicothe rd) you have gone too far!
Turn right into Chapin Forest parking lot.
From the North:
I-90 to Rte 306 South. Take Rte 306 south 6 miles through Kirtland to Rte 6 (Chardon Rd)
(Note: Ignore Chapin Forest entrance on rte 306. It dead ends on the other side of park.)
Turn right (West) on Rte 6 to Hobart Road (1 mile).
Turn Right on Hobart Rd. 1 mile
Turn right into Chapin Forest parking lot.
Mini-Foray Aug. 19 at West Creek (This is an announcement in the recent Emerald Necklace Newsletter.) As OMS members you will be an expert to those Non-OMS folks who turn out for this.
“Join Naturalist Debra Shankland and other interested visitors on a fungus foray in our newest reservation. Learn the features that help in mushroom identification, and find out what kinds of late summer fungi inhabit the woods and fields there. There are lots of oaks and some old chestnut stumps. This latest park consists of a gravel parking lot, restrooms, 3 picnic tables, and some trails (no shelter). The parking lot is located on the south side of West Ridgewood in Parma, between State (OH St. Rte. 94) and Broadview (OH Ste. Rte. 176) Roads. For more directions, call 440/ 734-6660 or 216/ 206-1000, or see below.
10 am-Noon WCR
Terrain: on & off trail, hills
From south or north, exit I-77 at Rockside Rd., go west on Rockside to Broadview Rd (SR 176). Left (south) to West Ridgewood Drive. Right (west) on W. Ridgewood Dr. to a large sign on your left, (south side of rd.) Cleveland Metroparks West Creek Reservation. Parking lot will be near the road.
From West or east, on I 480, exit at State Road (SR 94), go south on SR 94 to West Ridgewood Drive. Left onto Ridgewood and look for the Cle Metroparks sign on your right. We hope to see some of you there. It is in Parma, by the way.
Fall Mini- Foray-Groves Woods By Pete & Pauline Munk Sunday Sept. 10. The Fall Mini-Foray will be held at Groves Woods, a Cleveland Museum of Natural History preserve in northeast Trumbull County. Gather at 12:30 pm with the hike promptly at 1 pm. It is located off OH Rt. 87. Coming from the west Girdle Road will be the first intersection after the country line. Turn left (north) on to Girdle Road and travel approximately 2-3 miles. A path into the woods will be across from 9859 Girdle Road. Parking will be along sided the road. Look for the yellow Foray signs. Restroom facilities are primitive. 155 acres for us to roam. (Bring whistles and GP instruments!) Contact Pete and Pauline Munk with any questions at (440) 236-9222.
9 am, Sat. July 8. Sign-In, Coffee, Donuts, etc., Dennis Rose, Camp Mgr., will welcome guests, & discuss Camp facilities, rules and boundaries.
Dennis cultivates shitake commercially and along with a few other group members, will be available to talk about growing techniques and experiences. Jerry Pepera, OMS Chairman, will comment on collecting and displaying fungal finds.
10 am to noon. Proceed into the wild to collect, return to display the bounty.
LACTARIUS, SKIMMING THE CREAM By Walt Sturgeon The genus Lactarius can be a good one for beginners to concentrate on. This genus contains mushrooms with milk . That is to say they exude latex when cut or broken. While this is not the only genus that lactates, it is the most prominent and one which contains some distinctive edibles. The good news is that there are no known deadly poisonous species and the not recommended species taste bad. The bad news is that they are underappreciated, mostly because they benefit from recipes a bit more complex that simply frying in butter.
The milk mushrooms are in the same family as the brittle gills in the genus Russula. Both tend to be rather squat, and are found under trees with which they form mycorrhiza. Their cells tend to be nearly round, making the fruiting bodies brittle. Their stipes break like a piece of chalk. With some notable exceptions they are not as brightly colored as their Russula cousins. Their gills are not as crumbly as the Russula genus and they have a more solid, clean appearance. The latex can be obvious or merely a damp stain on the flesh depending on the species and the environmental conditions. Tasting the latex and observing color changes of the latex and flesh are helpful in identification.
In Ohio the species most commonly consumed is the Bradley, Lactarius volemus. It is most common in July and August often associated with oak trees. It has abundant white to cream colored latex which is sticky and stains the gills brown. It will also stain fingers. The cap ranges from yellow orange to orange brown. The stipe is similar in color but paler. The gills are whitish and close. A fishy odor is present but it disappears on cooking. Sometimes the cap is wrinkled and it intergrades with Lactarius corrugis which is also edible. Lactarius corrugis usually has a darker cap and always has darker gills. It also is most abundant under oak trees. Another edible look alike is Lactarius hygrophoroides which looks like a Bradley but with subdistant gills. It will occur under oak but often fruits in sandy soil along streams under yellow birch and hemlock. Note that all of these have abundant mild tasting latex. Lactarius luteolus is a pale cream to white species with abundant, mild tasting milk and a fishy odor. All four are firm rather coarse textured mushrooms which are good in casseroles.
Perhaps the most striking milk mushroom in Ohio is the blue to bluish silver Lactarius indigo. It has sparse blue milk, usually visible as a stain on the flesh. Eventually the stains become greenish. Look for it under oaks and pines. It is an edible species and one of the very few blue foods that is not a fruit.
In Europe Lactarius deliciosus is known as an excellent edible with mushroom festivals in Spain featuring this species. It is rare in Ohio. A look alike that occurs here under conifers is Lactarius deterrimus. It is also edible but not especially good. It has somewhat bitter tasting flesh. Both species have orange caps and mild, scanty, orange latex. Both stain green. Many guides incorrectly identified Lactarius deterrimus as being its more delectable cousin.
As a general rule, it is wise to avoid eating any Lactarius whose latex is acrid or hot tasting, and any that have white latex which changes to yellow or purple after a few minutes. . A watermelon pink milk mushroom with a silver luster is Lactarius subpurpureus. It has sparse, mild, reddish purple latex which stains the flesh greenish. It is edible. Look for it under hemlock.
There are several common white species which have very acrid milk. Under hardwood trees the peppery milk mushroom, Lactarius piperatus has extremely crowded gills. It has abundant latex which depending on the variety may slowly turn yellow or green. The latter is variety glaucescens which some consider a separate species. It is abundant in Ohio. Another common white milky is Lactarius deceptivus which has a cottony roll of tissue on the cap margin which covers the gills in the button stage. It often fruits under hemlock. Our most common acrid white milk mushrooms with no cottony margin and with sub distant gills is Lactarius subvellereus var. sub distans.
There are two common local species with latex going quickly from white to yellow when exposed to air. In summer under oaks and in mixed woods, Lactarius chrysoreus is often very common. In late summer and fall Lactarius vinaceorufescens makes an appearance under conifers. It soon develops dark reddish stains on all parts. It can be abundant in pine plantations.
In my experience the species with latex turning bright violet are rare in Ohio. Farther north I often see Lactarius uvidus, L. aspideoides and L. representaneus.
A very dark greenish capped milk mushroom is probably Lactarius atroviridis. It occurs with oaks and has peppery milk. A lighter green peppery species is Lactarius turpis which has also been called L. necator and L. sordidus. It occurs with hemlock.
Under oaks, often in lawns is the zonate capped Lactarius psammicola var glaber. It is a yellowish tan mushroom with an enrolled cap margin at first. Its white latex is acrid.
Section Plinthogalus of Lactarius includes numerous species and varieties many of which have brown to black caps. They can be strikingly beautiful with the contrast of the creamy gills and the plush dark cap. Lactarius lignyotus and L. lignyotellus are common under birch and hemlock. No species in this section are known as good edibles.
The various species and varieties can be difficult to separate.
Most difficult to identify macroscopically are what I refer to as the Lactarius subdulcis complex. These are small yan to orange and have scanty white or watery latex.
Overall Lactarius is a good genus to work with. There often have distinct characteristics.
There are many that are a challenge. Several are worth collecting for eating and many are quite attractive.
OMS 2006 SUMMER FORAY AT
IDENTIFIED SPECIES LIST Submitted by Walt Sturgeon.
N.B.: This collection included some from PA and OH sites in addition to those found at Camp Myeerah.
Many of these specimens were brought to Camp Myeerah from other locales in OH and even PA, but somehow got mixed together. Still a pretty impressive list. A complete report on the Foray will come in the next Mushroom Log.
Xanthiconium (Boletus) separans. I find this a lot under oak trees and it makes an excellent edible. It is quite a variable as to color, but usually has lilac colorations, though in age it can fade to pale brown. (To see it in glorious color, check out this issue of the Log on our website.
Magic Mushrooms hit the God Spot.
By Judy Skatssoon, ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) Science Online
Wednesday July 12, 2006.
The active ingredient in hallucinogenic mushrooms produces a spiritual experience that can have lasting positive effects, a trial has shown.
The ingredient, psilocybin, increases wellbeing and satisfaction with life two months after being taken, according to the research by scientists at John Hopkins Medical Institutions, which is published online today in the journal Psychopharmacology.
Psilocybin is a plant (sic) alkaloid that affects the brain’s serotonin system, in particular, the 5-HT2A receptor.
“Under very defined conditions, with careful preparation, you can safely and fairly reliably occasion what’s called a primary mystical experience that may lead to positive changes in a person,” study leader Professor Roland Griffiths says.
Australian professor of psychopharmacology at the University of Sydney, Ian McGregor, says he isn’t surprised that the study confirms the ability of psilocybin to induce a spiritual state.
“Psilocybin and related hallucinogens have been used since ancient times in religious tirutlas and this study is really formalizing---what many people already know,” he says.
But he says the apparent long-term benefit of the drug is “remarkable”.
“To see a positive effect two months later is quite striking,” he says.
However, the study also reports that about a third of the volunteers experienced fear and anxiety after taking the psilocybin and McGregor says it should be avoided by anyone with schizophrenia or other psychotic illnesses.
First study of its kind in four decades
In what is described as the first scientifically rigorous study of its kind in 40 years, 36 volunteers were given either psilocybin or a comparator drug methylphenidate hydrochloride.
Subjects were asked to describe their experiences immediately after the session in a set of detailed psychological questionnaires and at a two-month follow up.
More than 60% of subjects (22) described the effects of psilocybin in ways that met criteria for a full mystical experience according to established psychological scales, compared to only 4 of the 36 after the comparator drug.
After two months, two-thirds rated the experience as either the singly most spiritually significant in their lives or rated it among their top five.
The God spot?
Professor John Bradshaw, an Australian neuropsychologist from Monash University, says the brain’s medial temporal lobe is rich in serotonin receptors and has previously been described as the ‘God spot” because it is active in transcendental states.
In a commentary accompanying the article, Professor David Nichols of the Purdue University school of pharmacy says it’s likely that psilocybin triggers the same neurological process that produces religious experiences during fasting, meditation, sleep deprivation or near-death experiences.
He says the current research adds to the emerging field known as neurotheology, or the neurology of religious experience, and could shed light on the “molecular alterations in the brain that underlie religious and mystical experiences”.
Copyrighted 2006 by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
Ed. Note: Psilocybin comes from mushrooms, so calling this chemical a “plant alkaloid” is a bit misleading, but what can you expect from a neuropsycholo- gist? Mycology is not exactly brain science!
While we don’t have psilocybin-containing Psilocybes in Ohio, there are a couple of fairly common local species which contain sufficient quantities of the alkaloid to get one high. I certainly do not recommend trying them; remember, in the above cited experiment, precise dosages of pure psilocybin were administered whereas, what you get from eating psilocybin-containing mushrooms is an unknown dosage of the alkaloid along with a complex soup of other compounds, many extremely bitter! Gymnopilus spectabilis (Laughing Big Jim) is found on stumps in fall, and Panaeolus subalteatus grows on dung, early to mid summer in my experience, though it’s probably around whenever rainfall is sufficient.
Explosive-Eating Fungus By Barry Fox, Newscientist.com, 21 February, 2006, via The Sporeprint, Los Angeles Mycological Society, March, 2006.
Could a fungus counter the explosive power of dynamite? That’s the idea behind a patent filed by Robert Riggs of Texas.
When explosives are used for mining or demolition, some may fail to detonate and get lost in the rubble. Riggs reckons the remedy could be to mix pellets of dormant fungal spores in with the explosive charge before inserting the wick into the explosive package. The dry spores lie dormant, while the explosives are in storage and, if the charge detonates as intended, will get blown to smithereens. But if the explosive fail to detonate, water from the air should migrate down the wick and into the charge. The spores should then germinate and devour the charge, rendering it harmless.
The white-rot fungus Phlebia radiata is particularly fond of high explosives, according to the patent. And the speed at which it gobbles the stuff up depends on the number of pellets added: five pellets per stick for slow degradation or 30 to make it safe after just a few days.
INTERNET MYCOLOGY By Walt Sturgeon
Searching the Web for pictures and descriptions of a tentatively identified mushroom can be an easy way to confirm or reject an identification. Simply type the name in a search engine such as Google. If you do an image search, often many pictures will be shown. The results of such a search will reveal many pictures, some of which are obvious misidentifications or of such poor quality that a determination is impossible. A couple of reliable sites are Mike Wood’s Mykoweb and Michael Kuo’s MushroomExpert.com. Both of these are excellent sites produced by knowledgeable amateurs. Professionally administered sites such as Dr. Tom Volk’s Mushroom of the Month are reliable. Generally speaking sites affiliated with universities and botanical gardens are trustworthy. Beware of photo identifications where the author is unknown to you. Many photos are correctly identified. Many are not. After a few searches, sites that are useful or of interest can be bookmarked for easy access.
Online keys are available for several genera. I use them but I find the entire process of identifying a mushroom in front of a computer to be a bit awkward. But I will do it if I am really interested in identifying a particular species. Some keys that are available include Ray Fatto and Geoff Kibbey’s Russula key on Bart Buyick’s Russulales site and an Armillaria key on Dr Tom Volk’s site. Dr. Greg Mueller has an online Laccaria key. Many regional keys are available online. North Carolina and the Pacific Northwest have several keys posted. Try these as a supplement to your field guides.
OMS has a Yahoo message board where members can post pictures for identification assistance as well as questions and comments. It is under utilized.
Just as with any other topic, many mushroom books are available from online sellers. Auction sites such as E-Bay are a good way to pick up used and new mushroom books. Occasionally even hard to find monographs and older books are listed for sale. Dried morels and king boletes are always available and in season even fresh mushrooms can be obtained. Expect to pay amply, for the luxury of fresh morels and expedited shipping.
Enjoy your mycological internet use. Even when you have no particular goal, browsing through some of the beautiful mushroom pictures is enjoyable and educational.
A Sex Story By Lawrence Millman. Reprinted from the Boston Mycological Club Bulletin, Vol. 61, # 2, 2006.
Several years ago I found myself in a taxi in Kuching, the largest town on the island of Borneo. The taxi driver, an eagerly voluble Malay man, asked me the question that taxi drivers always ask foreigners in this part of the world: "Want girl?"
Almost as fast as he asked the question, I had my reply ready. "No thanks," I said. "How about boy?" he inquired. "Sorry, no." "Maybe little girl?" "No!" He paused for a while, then said:
"Maybe you want dog? I can arrange." "I want kulat [mushrooms]!" I told him.
He looked at me as if I was a complete pervert, but business is business, so he drove me to Kuching's Central Market. There I saw enormous piles of fruit, vegetables, and -- one of Borneo's gastronomic specialties -- cicadas. Likewise, each vendor had piles of fresh and dried mushrooms laid out in front of him -Agaricus, wood ears,R.ussulas, Boletes, and the so-called Split Gill (Schizophyllum commune), a fungus usually described as "inedible."
As it happens, Schizophyllum is the most popular edible mushroom in Borneo. However, it's not the flavor or lack thereof that locals crave. Rather, they regard its leathery consistency as a sine qua non in their rice dishes. For they believe such dishes achieve culinary perfection only when the ingredients consist of many different textures, including, presumably, the texture of leather. In this, they are not dissimilar to many other Asians.
Here I should add that Schizophyllum is the most promiscuous of all fungi. In the 1950s, Harvard's John Raper determined that it has some 28,000 different genders (many of the more primitive fungi have only two genders). In other words, each Schizophyllum hypha! filament can mate - i.e., combine – with different homokaryotic hyphae of the same species. Such wantonness is doubtless the reason the wood-inhabiting Schizophyllum has been found on every continent except Antarctica.
It's also why I've titled this little vignette "A Sex Story."
Following is the 3rd. and last part of Michael Kuo’s “Mushroom Taxonomy: The Big Picture.” It is mostly on the Tricholomataceae Family, a large “hodge-podge” of agarics which are lumped together more by what they lack (volva, rings, brittle flesh, waxy gills, etc.) than what they have in common.
Aeruginospora, Amparoina, Arrhenia, Arthrosporella, Asproinocybe, Asterophora, Austroclitocybe, Austroomphaliaster, Caesposus, Callistodermatium, Callistosporium, Calocybe, Calyptella, Camarophyllopsis, Cantharellula, Cantharocybe, Catathelasma, Catatrama, Caulorhiza (see C. umbonata), Cellypha, Cheimonophyllum, Chromosera, Chrysomphalina, Clavomphalia, Clitocybe, Clitocybula, Collybia (see C. cirrhata), Conchomyces, Crinipellis (see C. zonata), Cynema, Cyphellocalathus, Cystoderma (see C. granulosum), Delicatula, Dendrocollybia, Dennisiomyces, Dermoloma, Fayodia, Flabellimycena, Floccularia, Gamundia, Haasiella, Hemimycena, Humidicutis, Hydropus, Hygroaster, Hygrocybe, Hygrophorus, Hypsizygus (see H. ulmarius), Lactocollybia, Lempteromyces, Lepista, Leucoinocybe, Leucopaxillus, Leucopholiota, Lulesia, Lyophyllopsis, Lyophyllum (see L. decastes), Macrocybe (see M. titans), Maireina, Megacollybia (see M. platyphylla), Melanoleuca (see M. melaleuca), Metulocyphella, Mycena, Mycenella, Mycoalvimia, Myxomphalia, Neoclitocybe, Neonothopanus, Nothopanus, Omphaliaster, Omphalina (see O. epichysium), Ossicaulis, Palaeocephala, Panellus, Peglerochaete, Pegleromyces, Phaeolepiota, Phaeomycena, Phyllotopsis (see P. nidulans), Physocystidium, Pleurella, Pleurocollybia, Pleurocybella, Porpoloma, Pseudoarmillariella, Pseudobaeospora, Pseudoclitocybe, Pseudohiatula, Pseudohygrophorus, Pseudoomphalina, Resinomycena, Resupinatus, Rhodotus (see R. palmatus), Rickenella (see R. fibula), Rimbachia, Ripartitella, Ripartites, Semiomphalina, Sinotermitomyces, Squamanita, Stanglomyces, Stigmatolemma, Tectella, Tephrocybe, Termitomyces, Tricholoma, Tricholomopsis (see T. decora), Tricholosporum, Trogia, Xeromphalina (see X. kauffmanii)
I have done my best to avoid typing mistakes in the table above, but I ask you to imagine typing Hypsizgus, Syzygospora, Iodowunnea and the like for hours on end with no recourse to a spell-checker. If you find a mistake, please drop me a line; I will appreciate knowing it.
Use Control/F in your browser to search the name of a genus. If the genus you are searching is not on the page, it may have been renamed, or collapsed into another genus. This often happens; notice for example that the genus Stropharia is not listed in the Strophariaceae (which is named after Stropharia), since it has been found to belong in Psilocybe. It is also possible that a genus not listed in the table has uncertain status according to Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary; I have not included these genera.
See also Cantharellus Clade, Lepiotoid Clade, and Physalacriaceae Clade, pages in our "Taxonomy in Transition" series.
I recommend these sources for further information on the contemporary "big picture" of mushroom taxonomy:
Kirk, P.M. et al., eds. (2001). Ainsworth & Bisby's dictionary of the fungi. London: Biddles. 655 pp.
McLaughlin, D. J., et al. (2001). The Mycota: A comprehensive treatise on fungi as experimental systems for basic and applied research. VII: Systematics and evolution (parts A and B). Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Moncalvo, J. M., et al. (2002). One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 357–400.
Kuo, M. (2003, September). Mushroom taxonomy: The big picture. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/taxonomy.html
Calendar of Events
OMS Events Email Jerry at email@example.com to receive notification of impromptu events. Check your most recent issue of the Mushroom Log for event updates and for more detailed information. Please plan to join us.
August 19---West Creek Fungus Foray in Parma. Registration encouraged. (440)734-6660. See more in this Log.
July-Aug—Impromptu Summer Forays—with Dick Grimm, email Jerry above.
Sun., Sept. 10—1 pm. Miniforay at Grove’s Woods. Pete & Pauline Munk (440)236-9222.
Sept. 30-Oct. 1(Sat.-Sun.)—Fall Foray at Penitentiary Glen in Lake Co., north of Chardon. At Lake Metroparks’ Pine Lodge.
See details in this Log.
Sat. Nov. 11—10th Annual Dick Grimm Banquet in the Sawyer House at Buckeye Lake Yacht Club. Walt Sturgeon, speaker.
Ohio & Regional
Sept. 16—The WPaMC Gary Lincoff Mid-Atlantic Mushroom Foray. See their web site above.
National & More Summer, 2006 Travel Adventures in Mexico. These sound very tempting, being in cooler, higher-elevation areas:
August 6-13 “The Wonderful Oaxaca Foray” see their website: www.mexmush.com Aug. 17-20th—2006NAMA Foray in Hinton, Alberta, Canada. See their website www.namyco.org for details.
Sept.1-4-NEMF at St. Anthony’s Hermitage, about 250 mi. n. of Montreal. See their website: www.nemf.org
Sept. 28-Oct. 1 Wildacres Regional NAMA Foray. Wildacres, North Carolina. Limited to 50, double occupancy. Cost is $200, covers 3 nights lodging and 8 meals beginning the evening of Sept. 28, ending breakfast on Oct. 1. Registration form can be found at the NAMA website, www.namyco.org. For more info contact Allein Stanley at
A relaxing setting for foraying, we did this a few years back. I shouldn’t be pushing it, since it conflicts with our Fall Foray this year!
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2006 Ohio Mushroom Society Volunteers
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vasconcelosD@battelle.org Pete & Pauline Munk
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