The organs of speech



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Phonetics методичка
111, Masala, Ўсиимликни аниқлаш учун тавсиянома, Ўзбекистон, roziboyev (1), 1654572748 (1)



THE ORGANS OF SPEECH

The human speaking apparatus consists of the following main parts which participate in the formation of speech sounds.



  1. The upper and the lower lips;

  2. The upper and the lower teeth;

  3. The palate (or the roof of the mouth). It consists of the following parts: a) the alveoli (or the teeth-ridge – the part behind the upper teeth); b) the hard palate (the part behind the alveoli); c) the soft palate (the back of the palate); d) the uvula (the end of the soft palate).

  4. The tongue. It is divided into the following parts: a) the tip of the tongue;

b) the blade of the tongue

(the part opposite the alveoli); c) the front of the tongue

(the part situated opposite the hard palate); d) the back of the tongue (the part situated opposite the soft palate);

e) the root of the tongue.


  1. The wind pipe

(or the trachea).

  1. The pharynx.

  2. The larynx.

  3. The vocal chords (stretched horizontally across the larynx). The space between the chords is called the glottis.

  4. The upper and lower jaws.

  5. The mouth and nasal cavities.

Speech sounds in English are produced when we exhale. The flow of air passes through the wind pipe from the lungs into the larynx. There are two vocal chords in the larynx which are tense when brought together or lax when drawn apart. When they are tense, the flow of air passing through the narrowed glottis causes the vocal chords to vibrate and produce voice (thus vowels and voiced consonants are formed). When the vocal chords are lax, the flow of air passes through the glottis freely and does not cause the vocal chords to vibrate (thus voiceless consonants are produced). From the larynx the air passes into the pharynx. Then, if the soft palate is raised, the air passes out through the mouth cavity. If the soft palate is lowered, the air passes out through the nasal cavity.

The organs of speech which are movable and take an active part in the formation of sounds are called active. They are: the vocal chords, the tongue, the soft palate with the uvula, the lips, and the lower jaw. The most movable organ of speech is the tongue. The immovable organs of speech are called passive. They are: the upper jaw, the alveoli, the hard palate, and the teeth.



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