Theme : introducing science



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SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN RAJA PEREMPUAN,IPOH

SCHEME OF WORK SCIENCE ( FORM 4 ) 2010

THEME : INTRODUCING SCIENCE

LEARNING AREA : 1. SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION




Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary

1

(4.1.10-8.1.10)





Orientation Form 4


2

(11.1.10-15.1.10)


1.1


Analyzing method of scientific investigation

A student is able to:




  • explain the steps in scientific investigation,

  • carry out a scientific investigation,

  • write a report on a scientific investigation,

  • explain the importance of scientific investigation.

Carry out a scientific investigation, e.g. investigate how surface area affects the rate of cooling.

Students will:

a) identify the problem,

b) identify the variables,

c) make a hypothesis,

d) plan the investigation to:

i. determine the apparatus and materials

needed,

ii.determine the procedure of the



investigation, the method of data

collection and data analysis.

e) carry out the investigation,

f) collect data,

g) analyse and interpret data,

h) make conclusions,

i) write a report.
Discuss the importance of scientific investigation method in acquiring scientific knowledge.




analyse – menganalisis apparatus – radas

conduct – jalankan

conclusion – kesimpulan

determine – tentukan

hypothesis – hipotesis

identify – kenal pasti

interpret – tafsirkan

investigate – siasat

material – bahan

observe – memerhati

planning – merancang

Procedure – prosedur,tatacara

steps – langkah-langkah

variables – pemboleh ubah



Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary

2

(11.1.10-15.1.10)


1.2


Realizing the need to practice scientific attitudes and noble values when carrying out scientific investigations

A student is able to:




  • identify scientific attitudes and noble values practiced by scientists,

  • explain the need to practice scientific attitudes and noble values when carrying out a scientific investigation,

  • practice scientific attitudes and noble values when carrying out a scientific investigation

View a video or a computer simulation then gather and interpret data on the scientific attitudes and noble values practiced by scientists.


Discuss the need to practice scientific attitudes and noble values when carrying out scientific investigations.





noble values – nilai murni


practice – mengamalkan
scientific attitudes – sikap saintifik

THEME: MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE

LEARNING AREA: 1. BODY COORDINATION




Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary

3

(18.1.10-22.1.10)


2.1


Understanding body coordination

A student is able to:



  • describe what body coordination is,

  • identify the body systems that control and regulate coordination,

  • state the importance of body coordination.

Carry out activities to observe and discuss body coordination.


Examine models, view charts or videos to identify the body systems which control coordination,i.e. the nervous system and the endocrine system.
Discuss the importance of body coordination in daily activities.





body coordination – koordinasi badan


endocrine system – sistem endokrin
nervous system – sistem saraf


Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary

3

(18.1.10-22.1.10)



2.2


Understanding the human nervous system

A student is able to:

  • identify the component parts of the human nervous system.

  • state the function of each component part of the nervous system,

  • state what a neuron is,

  • identify the parts of the neuron,

  • state the function of

each parts of the neuron.

  • identify the different types of neuron

  • state the function of each type of neuron,

  • compare and contrast the different types of neuron


Observe models, view charts or videos and identify the human nervous system which consist of:

a) central nervous system :

brain and spinal cord,

b) peripheral nervous system:

cranial and spinal nerves and their branches which link the receptors and effectors with the central nervous system


Discuss the function of each

component part of the nervous system


View videos, charts or examine models and discuss the following:

a) neuron as the basic unit of the nervous

system,

b) parts of neuron namely cell body, axon, dendron and myelin sheath



c) function of various parts of a neuron,

d) types of neuron namely the sensory neuron, motor neuron, and the relay neuron,

e) functions of various types of neurons,

Draw a labeled diagram of the sensory neuron, the motor neuron, and the relay neuron.

Carry out the activity to compare and contrast the different types of neurons and present the similarities and differences in a graphic organizer.




axon – akson


cell body – badan sel
central nervous system – sistem saraf pusat
motor neuron – neuron motor
myelin seath – salut mielin
peripheral nervous system – sistem saraf perifri
relay neuron – neuron perantaraan
sensory neuron – neuron deria



Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary

4

(25.1.10-29.1.10)



2.3


Analyzing nervous coordination

A student is able to:



  • state what receptors and effectors are,

  • state the functions of receptors and effectors,

  • explain with examples what a reflex action is,

  • describe a reflex arc,

  • illustrate the path taken by an impulse in the reflex arc.

Discuss the following:

a) meaning of receptors and effectors,

b) functions of receptors and effectors.


Carry out activities to demonstrate the reactions of sensory organs to various stimuli.
Carry out activities and discuss reflex actions such as knee-jerk and reaction to touching a sharp or hot object.
View computer stimulations or charts showing the path taken by an impulse in a reflex arc.
Draw a diagram to show the path taken by an impulse in a reflex arc



reflex action- tindakan refleks


reflex arc – arka refleks

2.4


Understanding the role of proprioceptors

in maintaining balance and coordination



A student is able to:




  • explain what proprioceptors are,

  • explain the importance of proprioceptors


Carry out the following activities to show the importance of proprioceptors:

a) stacking objects with both eyes

closed,


b) maintaining balance of the body.
View charts, videos or computer stimulations and discuss the following:

a) proprioceptors and their functions,

b) the importance of proprioceptors in

maintaining balance and

coordination.




porprioceptors – reseptor regang





Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary

5

(1.2.10-5.2.10)


2.5


Understanding the human brain and its complexity

A student is able to:

  • identify the main parts of the human brain,

  • state the functions of each main part of the human brain,

  • explain what voluntary action is,

  • give examples of voluntary action,

  • explain what involuntary action

  • explain the effects of injuries to specific parts of the human brain.




Examine models, view videos or computer simulations to identify the structure of the human brain, i.e. the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. Discuss the functions of the various parts of the brain.

Draw and label the main parts of the human

brain.

Carry out activities and discuss the following:



a) voluntary actions such as writing and

dancing,


b) involuntary actions such as dilation and construction of the pupil and the beating of the heart.

Discuss the effects of injuries to specific parts of the human brain






construction – penguncupan
dilation – pembesaran
heart beat – degupan jantung
involuntary actions – tindakan luar kawalan
voluntary actions – tindakan terkawal

6

(8.2.10-12.2.10)


2.6


Understanding hormonal coordination in the body

A student is able to:



  • describe what a hormone is,

  • describe what endocrine glands are,

  • identify the main endocrine glands and their respective locations in the body,

  • state the functions of hormones secreted by the endocrine glands,

  • describe the effects of hormonal imbalance on health.

Carry out games such as “match and win” or puzzles to identify the following:

a) hormones and the main endocrine glands, i.e. the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovary, and testis,

b) the hormones secreted by each of the main endocrine glands,

c) functions of the hormones secreted by each of the main endocrine glands.
Draw a labeled diagram to show the location of the main endocrine glands in the

human endocrine system.


Discuss the effects of hormonal imbalance on health and present the information in a graphic organizer.

Only adrenaline, insulin, thyroxine oastrogen, progesterone, and testosterone are required.


adrenal gland – kelenjar adrenal


ovary – ovari
pancreas – pancreas
pituitary gland – kelenjar pituitary
testes – testis
thyroid gland – kelenjar tiroid


Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary

7

(15.2.10-19.2.10)


2.7


Analyzing coordination between the nervous system and the endocrine system

A student is able to:




  • compare and contrast nervous coordination with hormonal coordination,

  • explain with examples the coordination between the nervous system and the endocrine system in response to a specific stimulus,

  • explain the importance of coordination between the nervous system and the endocrine system in response to a specific stimulus.

Carry out an activity to compare and contrast nervous coordination with hormonal coordination and present the similarities and differences in a graphic organizer.


Simulate “fright and flight” situations or relate an incident to discuss the following:

a) coordination between the nervous system and the endocrine system in producing a response to a stimulus,


b) the importance of coordination between the nervous system and the endocrine system in ensuring a smooth and appropriate response to a specific stimulus.



response – gerak balas


stimulus - rangsangan

2.8


Evaluating the effects of drug abuse on body coordination and health.

A student is able to:




  • define what drugs are,

  • list examples of drugs,

  • explain what drugs abuse is,

  • describe the effects of drugs abuse on body coordination,

  • describe the effects of drug abuse on health.

Invite a representative from Agensi Dadah Kebangsaan (ADK), Polis Di Raja Malaysia (PDRM), Persatuan Mencegah Dadah Malaysia (PEMADAM) or other appropriate institutions to give a talk or exhibition on drugs, drugs abuse and the effects of drugs abuse on body

coordination and health.
Students make presentations on drug abuse through public speaking, exhibiting folio or multimedia PowerPoint presentation.





drug abuse – penyalahgunaan dadah




Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary

8

(22.2.10-26.2.10)


2.9


Analyzing the effects of excessive consumptions of alcohol on body coordination and health

A student is able to:



  • lists example of alcoholic drinks,

  • describe the effects of excessive consumption of alcohol on body coordination,

  • describe the effects of excessive consumption of alcohol on health,

  • justify the importance of avoiding excessive consumption of alcohol.

Gather information from books, newspapers, magazines, or internet and discuss the following:

a) examples of alcoholic drinks,

b) effects of excessive consumptions of alcohol on body coordination

(effect on reaction times) and health.

c) the importance of avoiding excessive consumption of alcohol.


Present and exhibit the collected information.




alcoholic drinks – minuman beralkohol


excessive consumptions – pengambilan berlebihan
reaction time – masa tindak balas

2.10


Realizing the importance of sound and healthy mind

A student is able to:




  • state what mind is,

  • identify factors that affect the mind,

  • explain how substance abuse that can affect the mind,

  • justify the importance of a healthy and sound mind

Gather information from books, magazines, newspapers and internet and discuss the following:

a) the meaning of mind,

b) factors that affect the mind, which include hormone imbalance, excessive consumptions of alcohol, drug abuse, mental stress and brain injury,

c) how hormone imbalance, excessive consumptions of alcohol and drug abuse can affect the mind,

d) the importance of a healthy and sound mind.





hormonal imbalance – ketidakseimbangan hormon


mind – minda
mental stress – tekanan mental
healthy and sound mind – minda yang sihat dan baik

THEME: MAINTENANCE AND CONTINUITY OF LIFE

LEARING AREA: 2. HEREDITY AND VARIATION


Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary

9

(8.3.10-11.3.10)


3.1


Understanding cell division

A student will be able to:



chromosomes,

  • state what meiosis is,

  • state what mitosis is,

  • describe the process of meiosis,

  • describe the process of mitosis,

  • compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis,

  • explain the importance of mitosis and meiosis



View videos, computer stimulations or charts to study the following:

a) gene, DNA and chromosome

b) mitosis and meiosis.


Simulate the process of mitosis and meiosis.
Carry out activity to compare and contrast mitosis with meiosis and present the similarities and differences in a graphic organizer.
Discuss the importance of mitosis and meiosis.

Name of the phase of mitosis and meiosis are not required.


Only a brief discussion is

required for the following:

a) separation and polarization of chromosomes,

b) functions of spindle fibres and centromeres,

c) formation of new cell.

cell division – pembahagian cell


centromeres – sentromer
chromosomes – kromosom

deoxyribonucleic acid – asid deoksiribonukleik


gene – gen
polarization – pengutuban
spindle fibres – gentian spindle/gelendung


10

USBF 1 (8.3.10 – 12.3.10)

CUTI PERTENGAHAN PENGGAL 1

(13.3.10 - 21.3.10)

11

(22.3.10-26.3.10)




3.2

Understanding the principles and mechanism of inheritance



A student is able:

  • explain what dominant genes and recessive genes are,

  • identify dominant traits and recessive traits in human,

  • illustrate the mechanism of inheritance of traits using schematic diagram,

  • predict the genotype and phenotype ratios of a monohybrid cross.

Observe and identify dominant and recessive traits among students and their family members.

Discuss the following:

a) dominant genes and dominant traits,

b) recessive genes and recessive traits.

View videos or computer simulations on genetic experiments carried out by Gregor Mendel to study the mechanism of trait inheritance.




dominant – dominan

genotype – genotip

inheritance – pewarisan

Mendel’s law – hukum Mendel

monohybrid cross – kacukan monohibrid

phenotype – fenotip

recessive traits – sifat resesif


Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary










Use schematic diagrams to illustrate monohybrid crosses and predict the following using the Mendel’s law.

a) genotype ratio to the ‘first filial’ or F1 generation and the ‘second filial’ or F2 generation,

b) phenotype ratio of the ‘first filial’ or F1 generation and the ‘second filial’ or F2 generation.







12

(29.3.10-



2.4.10)

3.3


Understanding sex determination and the occurrence of twins in human beings

A student is able to:




  • explain what sex chromosomes are,

  • explain how sex is determined,

  • explain the formation of identical and non identical twins,

  • compare and contrast identical with non identical twins,

  • explain what siamese twins are.

View computer simulations, videos or charts and discuss the following:

a) sex chromosomes,

b) determination of sex,

c) the occurrence of identical and non-

identical twins,

d) the occurrence of siamese twins.
Use schematic diagram to illustrate the following :

a) how sex is determined,

b) how identical and non- identical twins

are formed.


Carry out an activity to compare and contrast identical twins with non- identical twins and illustrate the similarities and differences in a graphic organizer.
Read and interpret data from books, articles, magazines, or internet on siamese twins.




identical twins – kembar seiras


non - identical twins – kembar tak seiras
sex chromosomes – kromosom seks
seks determination – penentuan seks
siamese twins – kembar siam




Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary

13

(5.4.10-



9.4.10)

3.4


Understanding mutation

A student is able to:



  • state what mutation is,

  • state the types of mutation,

  • list examples of mutation,

  • identify causes of mutation,

  • state the advantages and disadvantages of mutation.

View videos, computer simulations or charts and discuss the following:

a) mutation and types of mutation such as chromosome mutations and gene mutations,

b) consequences of chromosome mutation in human such as Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Thalassemia.

c)consequences of gene mutations in humans such as colour blindness and albinism.
Carry out an activity to test colour blindness among pupils.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mutation.

Change in genes and chromosomes at the molecular level is not required.


albinism – albinisme


colour blindness – buta warna
Klinefelter’s syndrome – sindrom Klinefelter
Down’s syndrome – sindrom Down
Mutation – mutasi
Turner’s syndrome – sindrom Turner

3.5


Evaluating the effects of genetic research on human life.

A student is able to:




  • list the contributions of genetic research in various fields.

  • explain the selective breeding in plants and livestock



Search the internet, read books, magazines, and newspapers for informations on genetic research and discuss the following:

a) genetic research in the field of medicine, such as the discovery of various types of hereditary diseases and the latest techniques for treating.




livestock – ternakan


selective breeding – pembiakbakaan pilihan




Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary

13

(5.4.10-



9.4.10)








  • state the importance of selective breeding in plants and livestock,

  • describe the technology used for selective breeding,

  • present arguments for and against genetic research.

Specific diseases

b) genetic research in the field of agriculture such as genetically modified food (GMF), Human Genome Project and cloning, selective breeding in plants such as paddy, oil palm, papaya, durian, chilli and livestock such as dairy cow and chicken.

Discuss the following:

a) selective breeding in livestock and plants,

b) the importance of selective breeding in plants and livestock,

View videos or computer simulations on the technology used for selective breeding

Debate on genetic research and its effects.







14

(12.4.10-



16.4.10)

3.6


Analyzing variation among living things

A student is able to:




  • state what variation is,

  • list variations in humans

  • classify variation into continuous and discontinuous variation,

  • compare and contrast continuous and discontinuous variation,

  • identify factors that cause variation,

  • explain the importance of variation.

Carry out activities to identify and classify variation among students in a class.

Discuss the following:

a) continuous variation and discontinuous

variation,

b) examples of continuous variation and

discontinuous variation,

c) factors which cause variation,

d) the importance of variation.

Carry out an activity to compare and contrast continuous variation with discontinuous variation and illustrate the similarities and differences in a graphic organizer.

Construct a family tree based on variation among family members such as having straight or curly hair, being right –handed or left-handed, the presence or absence of ear lobes, and the ability to roll the tongue.






continuous variation – variasi selanjar


discontinuous variation – variasi tak selanjar
family tree – salasilah keluarga
left-handed – kidal
variation – variasi




Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes

Vocabulary

14

(12.4.10-



16.4.10)

3.7


Realizing the need to adhere to a code or ethics in genetic research

A student is able to:




  • explain how the misuse of knowledge in the field of genetics can endanger life,

  • describe the importance of establishing and adhering to ethics and morals in scientific research for the benefit of mankind.

Read books, articles, magazines, or search the internet and discuss how misuse of knowledge in the field of genetics can endanger life.


Discuss the importance of establishing and adhering to ethics and morals in scientific research for the benefit of mankind.







THEME: MATTER IN NATURE

LEARNING AREA: 1.MATTER AND SUBSTANCE


Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes


Vocabulary

15

(19.4.10-

23.4.10)


4.1

Analyzing changes in the states of matter



A student is able to:
explain the kinetic theory of matter,

relate changes in heat to changes in kinetic energy of the particles in matter,

explain the interconversion of the three states of matter based on the kinetic theory of matter.


Carry out an activity to observe changes in the states of matter when heat is absorbed or released.
View computer simulations or videos and discuss the following:

a) the kinetic theory of matter,

b) changes in kinetic energy of particles in matter during heat change,

c) changes in the state of matter involving the absorption or release of heat,

d) changes in matter during melting, boiling, condensation, freezing, and sublimation based on the kinetic theory of matter.


The kinetic theory of matter should be explained in terms of particle movement.

absorbed – diserap

boiling – pendidihan

condensation – kondensasi

freezing – pembekuan

interconversion – perubahan dari satu keadaan ke keadaan yang lain dan sebaliknya

kinetic energy – tenaga kinetik

kinetic theory of matter – teori kinetik jirim

melting – peleburan

particles in matter – zarah-zarah dalam jirim




Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes


Vocabulary

16

(26.4.10-



30.4.10)


4.2

Understanding the structure of an atom



A student is able to:


  • describe the structure of an atom,

  • identify the subatomic particles,

  • compare and contrast the subatomic particles.

Examine models, view computer simulations and discuss the following:

a) the structure of an atom,

b) the subatomic particles namely proton, electron, and neutron.

Draw a labeled diagram of a model of an atom.

Carry out an activity to compare and contrast the subatomic particles in terms of location, relative mass and charge, illustrate the similarities and differences of subatomic particles in a graphic organizer.





released – dibebaskan
states of matter – keadaan jirim

sublimation – pemejalwapan


charge – cas
relative mass – jisim relatif
subatomic particles – zarah-zarah subatom

4.3

Applying the idea of proton number and nucleon number in atoms of elements



A student is able to:

  • state what proton number is,

  • state what nucleon number is,

  • relate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom to its proton number and nucleon number,

  • deduced the number of protons, electrons and neutrons in atom of different elements,

  • make a generalization on the numbers of protons and electrons in atoms of different elements,

  • state what isotopes are,

  • give examples of isotopes.

Collect and interpret data on the following:

a) proton number,

b) nucleon number,

c) isotopes.

Construct a table to show the relationship between the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom and its proton number and nucleon number.

Discuss and make a generalization that atoms of different elements consist of different numbers of protons and electrons.

Discuss the following:

a) isotopes,

b) examples of isotopes such as isotopes of hydrogen and carbon.


Only elements with proton numbers in the range of 1-10 are required.



isotopes – isotop-isotop
make generalization – membuat pengitlakan
nucleon number – nombor nukleon
proton number – nombor proton





Week

Learning Objectives

Learning Outcomes

Learning Activities

Notes


Vocabulary

17

(3.5.10-



7.5.10)

4.4


Understanding the classification of elements in Periodic Table

A student is able to:




  • describe the arrangement of

elements in the Periodic Table,

  • describe what is meant by groups and periods in the Periodic Table,

  • identify the locations of metals, non-metals, and semimetals in the Periodic Table.

  • state the importance of the Periodic Table

View computer simulations or charts and discuss the following aspects of the Periodic Table:

a) arrangement of elements based on increasing proton number,

b) group as vertical column containing elements with similar chemical properties,

c) period of horizontal row containing elements that change their chemical and physical properties gradually from those reflecting metal to those reflecting non- metal,

d) locations of metals, non -metals and semimetals

Carry out a card game to fill up the missing elements in the Periodic Table. The card contain the following details:

a) proton number,

b) nucleon number,

c) metal, non-metal and semimetal.

Discuss the importance of the Periodic Table in terms of:

a) assisting in an orderly and systematic approach to the study of elements,

b) knowing the properties of the elements,

c) predicting the properties and uses of elements.





card game – permainan kad


chemical properties – sifat kimia
group – kumpulan
horizontal rows – baris mendatar
metals – logam
non-metals – bukan logam
period – kala
Periodic Table – Jadual Berkala
semimetals – separuh logam
verticle columns – turus menegak



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