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This flora survey of priority woodlands on private lands across the wheat belt of the Northern Agricultural 

Region and the Avon River Basin was conducted with the cooperation of the landholders, as part of the 

Woodland Watch and Healthy Ecosystems projects, funded by the Northern Agricultural Catchment Council 

and the Avon Catchment Council respectively. 

Both projects are delivered by WWF-Australia with regional NRM investment from the Western Australian and 

Australian Governments through the Natural Heritage Trust and 

 National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality programs. 

 

 



 

 

2007 Flora Survey 

of Wheatbelt 

Woodlands 

Encompassing surveys conducted in the Wheatbelt 

zones of the following Bioregions: 

Northern Sandplains, Mallee 

and Avon Wheatbelt

 

 



 

 

DEC Western Australian Herbarium 

 

2007 Flora Survey of Wheatbelt Woodlands 

DEC WA Herbarium and WWF-Australia 

2

Contents 



INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 1 

METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................. 3 

T

EN BY 



T

EN METRE 

Q

UADRATS


............................................................................................ 3 

R

ANDOM 



S

TRATIFIED 

C

OLLECTION



....................................................................................... 3 

O

VERALL 



A

SSESSMENT

......................................................................................................... 3 

RESULTS................................................................................................................................ 4 

C

OLLECTIONS OF NOTE



.......................................................................................................... 4 

C

OLLECTIONS OF 



G

EOGRAPHICAL 

S

IGNIFICANCE



.................................................................. 6 

C

UMULATIVE 



F

INDINGS


........................................................................................................ 8 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................................. 10 

REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................... 10 

MAP OF SURVEY SITES................................................................................................... 11 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 



 

Published 11 February 2009 

© Western Australian Herbarium 

Department of Environment and Conservation 

Locked Bag 104 Bentley Delivery Centre Western Australia 6983 


Introduction 

Launched in 2000 by WWF-Australia, Woodland Watch commenced as a woodlands conservation 

project in the central Avon wheatbelt. From there it has grown to cover the much of the wheatbelt 

areas of the Northern Agricultural Region [NAR] and the Avon River Basin [ARB]. 

 

From the project’s inception the Western Australian Herbarium (Department of Environment and 



Conservation) has collaborated with WWF providing professional flora survey, vouchering and 

data management services. 

 

Initially the project received funding primarily through the Natural Heritage Trust. Since 2003 the 



project has been running in two regional NRM areas - the Northern Agricultural Region and the 

Avon River Basin – and has been supported through the regional investment processes of the 

Northern Agricultural Catchment Council and the Avon Catchment Councils respectively. 

 

In 2005 WWF successfully tendered for the delivery of a continuation of these projects in these 



two NRM regions: 

1.  Woodland Watch for the Northern Agricultural Catchment Council [NACC] 

2.  Healthy Ecosystems for the Avon Catchment Council [ACC] 

 

One of the major historic and current objectives of the initiative has been to carry out floristic 



surveys of selected priority remnant eucalypt woodlands of the wheatbelt of Southwest Australia – 

on private farmlands and other lands not within the conservation estate. The project area covers 

the Avon Wheatbelt bioregion, as well as parts of the Geraldton Sandplains and Mallee bioregions. 

It is situated in the South West Botanical Province of Western Australia and corresponds roughly 

to WWF’s Global 200 Southwest Australian Ecoregion, which encompasses an area of 93,520 

square kms, of which 93% has been cleared, predominantly for agriculture (Beard 1990). 

 

Four woodland types considered by WWF-Australia to be amongst the most threatened eucalypt 



woodland communities of the NAR and ARB wheatbelt areas were selected for the conservation 

and extension project: those dominated by Salmon Gum 



(Eucalyptus salmonophloia),

 Gimlet 


(E. 

salubris),

 York Gum 



(E. loxophleba)

 and Red Morrel 



(E. longicornis). 

Broader priority-setting 

analyses of additional threatened ecosystems/communities are currently underway within both the 

NACC and ACC NRM regions. 

 

The primary aims of the project continue to be to identify woodlands (and other priority 



ecosystems) of high conservation value in the NAR and ARB wheatbelt areas, to assist private 

landowners and rural communities to better manage and conserve these remnant woodlands, and 

to help landholders to better understand the major threats to these woodlands and their 

management needs. These include consideration of such impacts as over-clearing and grazing, 

which have contributed to the secondary problems of salinity, rising water tables, and soil 

compaction. 

 

Conducting flora surveys in these woodland communities is considered an essential activity, to 



highlight their uniqueness and diversity, and to assess and report on their condition. Using this and 

other information, property owners can then be advised on how best to manage and protect their 

remnant vegetation through fencing and other management practices, and conservation support 

schemes such as covenants. Thus, through NACC’s Woodland Watch and ACC’s Healthy 

Ecosystems projects, it is possible to address some of the threats to the woodlands (and other 

priority ecosystems), including salinity. Future monitoring of the sites may provide data on the 

ability and rate at which these threatened ecosystems (communities) can recover from 

disturbance. 



2007 Flora Survey of Wheatbelt Woodlands 

DEC WA Herbarium and WWF-Australia 

1


The role of the WA Herbarium in this project was to survey, identify and voucher all plant 

specimens collected from selected woodland sites. A total of 41 sites were surveyed in the first 

year (2000 – entirely ARB sites), followed by 21 sites in 2001 (entirely ARB sites), 25 sites in 2002 

(entirely ARB sites), 25 sites in 2003 (entirely ARB sites), 35 sites in 2004 (10 NAR sites, the rest 

in ARB), 9 sites in 2005 (entirely NAR sites) and 30 sites in 2006 (10 NAR sites, the rest in ARB). 

In 2007 a further 30 sites were surveyed (10 NAR sites, the rest in ARB) and 998 voucher 



specimens collected. To date this series of projects has sampled 216 discrete sites and collected a 

total of 8,021 voucher specimens, all curated by the DEC WA Herbarium in its facility in 

Kensington, Perth, Western Australia.  

2007 Flora Survey of Wheatbelt Woodlands 

DEC WA Herbarium and WWF-Australia 

2


Methodology  

Sites were surveyed and plants vouchered by Mike Hislop of the WA Herbarium, with the 

assistance of Diane Aynsley, Jenny Borger, Chris Curnow, Mike Griffiths and Helena Mills of 

WWF-Australia. As with previous Woodland Watch surveys, the methodology for each site visited 

in 2007 comprised three parts: 

Ten by Ten metre Quadrats 

10 × 10 metre quadrats were carefully located so as to provide a typical representation of species 

composition within the selected woodland type. As far as possible, all species found were 

collected. However, several sites in 2007 contained sterile grasses which could not be reliably 

identified (sometimes even to genus) in that condition. Each quadrat was permanently marked by 

a steel stake on the north-western corner, from which the coordinates were recorded using a GPS. 



Random Stratified Collection 

This


 

involved a random walk



 

covering the confines of the selected woodland, avoiding adjoining 

habitats to keep the integrity of survey purely to the targeted 

Eucalyptus

 woodland habitat. 



Overall Assessment 

An overall assessment of the condition of each site was made using procedures adopted by the 

Wildflower Society of Western Australia (Trudgen 1991). 

This methodology was considered the most effective to achieve the objectives of the project within 

the time constraints. 

 

Eucalyptus salubris

 [Photo: Richard McLellan/WWF-Australia] 

2007 Flora Survey of Wheatbelt Woodlands 

DEC WA Herbarium and WWF-Australia 

3


Results 

In 2007 a total of 30 sites were surveyed, resulting in 998 collections. 10 of the woodland sites 

surveyed were dominated by 

Eucalyptus salmonophloia

, 4 by 


Eucalyptus loxophleba

, 3 by 


Eucalyptus longicornis

, 3 by 


Eucalyptus salubris

, 6 by 


E. wandoo,

 and the others by other 

woodland types (the dominant species including 

Allocasuarina huegeliana



Calycopeplus 



paucifolius, Banksia prionotes, Casuarina obesa, Eucalyptus macrocarpa, Eucalyptus 

kondininensis, Eucalyptus

 

phaenophylla,  Eucalyptus myriadena 

)

The selected sites varied in 

size and condition, from almost pristine to significantly degraded by many years of grazing. 

One site (Site WW-201, a 



Banksia prionotes 

woodland site W of Goomalling) was found to have 

an exceptionally high numbers of species, producing voucher specimens of 61 species. Site WW-

209,


 

a mallee woodland of 



Eucalyptus macrocarpa

 W of Corrigin, produced 48 species. Sites 200 

(an 

Allocasuarina huegeliana

 and 


Calycopeplus paucifolius

 scrub site SE of Wongan Hills) and 

205 (a

 Eucalyptus loxophleba 

woodland site SE of Doodlakine)



 

each recorded 46 species. The 

smallest collection was recorded for Site WW-189, a

 Eucalyptus salubris 

woodland SE of Latham, 

represented by 13 species.  

 

Collections of note 

Noteworthy collections from the 2007 survey can be summarised under the following categories: 



Probable undescribed taxa 

Andersonia  sp. Kulin (J.M. Powell 2588). WW- 213. This informal name refers to a presumably 

unnamed taxon which is closely related to 



A. parvifolia

. It appears to have a restricted distribution 

in the south-eastern wheatbelt. 

Caesia sp. Wongan (K.F. Kenneally 8820). WW-194. Refers to a presumably unnamed taxon, 

which has also been known by the manuscript name 



C. alfordii

 ms. It is fairly widespread from 

north of Geraldton to the central wheatbelt. 

Calandrinia 

 

sp. Blackberry (D.M. Porter 171)

WW- 202. Considered by 



Calandrinia 

authority F. 

Obbens to be an unnamed taxon, it has mostly been confused in the past with 

C



polyandra.

 It is 

widely distributed across the drier parts of the greater south-west although may comprise more 



than one taxa (F. Obbens pers. comm.). 

Lepidosperma  sp. A2 Island Flat (G.J. Keighery 7000). WW- 213. Refers to a presumably 

unnamed taxon related to 



L. viscidum

, a species which is now considered unlikely to occur in 

Western Australia (R. Barrett pers. comm.).

 

Rhagodia sp. Watheroo (R.J. Cranfield & P.S. Spencer 8183). WW-187/189/190. Another 

phrase name referring to a potentially distinct taxon which is somewhat intermediate 

morphologically between 



R.

 

drummondii 

and 

R. acicularis

. It occurs primarily in the northern 

portion of the Avon Wheatbelt.  

2007 Flora Survey of Wheatbelt Woodlands 

DEC WA Herbarium and WWF-Australia 

4


Schoenus sp. smooth culms (K.R. Newbey 7823). WW- 209. Refers to taxon, thought to be 

unnamed, which is close to, but probably distinct from 



Schoenus armeria

.

  



Senna sp. Pallinup River (J.W. Green 4847). WW- 206. This unnamed taxon is currently referred 

to by the above phrase name in the Western Australian Plant Census. It belongs in the S. 

artemisioides complex. It has a widespread distribution from the south-eastern wheatbelt to the 

south coast and then eastwards to beyond Balladonia.    



Spergularia sp. 3 Bullfinch (R.A. Saffrey 905). WW- 208. Considered 

 

by Canberra-based 



taxonomist L.G. Adams, who is revising the genus,

 

to represent an undescribed species related to 



S. rubra

. It is apparently widespread across southern Australia. 



Triglochin

 

sp. B Flora of Australia (P.G. Wilson 4294). WW- 192/196/216. Refers to a taxon, 

probably unnamed, which is close to, but believed to be distinct from



T



calcitrapa

. It is widely 

distributed in southern Western Australia.  

 

Rare and Priority taxa 

Nineteen mostly new populations of Rare and Priority taxa were recorded during this survey: 

 

Taxon  

 

 

           

Status                  Site 

 

●  


Acacia lanuginophylla

   


  

 

 



DRF

   


WW- 211 #1  

●  

Acacia errabunda

  

  



 

 

P3 



 

WW- 210


 

●  


Astroloma recurvum 

ms 


  

  P3 


 WW- 

213 


●  

Bentleya spinescens 

 

   


 

P4 


 

WW- 213 


●  

Blennospora phlegmatocarpa

 

 



 

P3 


 

WW



204

 

●  



Caladenia dundasiae 

 

  P1 


 WW-195 

●  


Eucalyptus arachnaea 

subsp. 


arrecta 

 

 



 P3 

 WW-187 


●  

Eucalyptus

 

mimica 

subsp. 


mimica  

 

P3  


WW- 

212 


●  

Hakea 

chromatropa    

P1  


WW- 

198 


●  

Jacksonia 

rubra 

 

    

P2  


WW- 

201 


●  

Lepidobolus densus

 ms


 

 

 

 P3 


 WW- 

201 


●  

Microcorys 

eremophiloides 

   

DRF  


WW- 

200 


●  

Papistylus grandiflorus

 

   P2 



 WW- 

187 


●  

Phlegmatospermum drummondii   

 

P3 


 

WW- 206, 212 



2007 Flora Survey of Wheatbelt Woodlands 

DEC WA Herbarium and WWF-Australia 

5


●  

Phlegmatospermum eremaeum   

 

P2  


WW- 

206 


●  

Stylidium coroniforme 

subsp. 


amblyphyllum 

P1 


 

WW- 203 #2 

●  

Thomasia 

tenuivestita 

   

P3 


 

WW- 199 #3 

●  

Thysanotus 

tenuis 

 

    

P3 


 

WW- 205, 206 

●  

Triglochin 

stowardii 

    

P3  


WW- 

202 


 

The symbol # after the site number indicates that the species was collected in an adjacent 

vegetation type and so was vouchered separately. The voucher collections for these species are 

as follows: 

#1 M. Hislop & M. Mills MH 3733, #2 M. Hislop & M. Griffiths MH 3731, #3 M. Hislop & M. Griffiths 

MH 3730. 

 

Collections of Geographical Significance 

 

Taxon Site 



Notes 

• 

Acacia blakelyi      

WW- 201 

At southern extremity of its range. 

• 

Acacia errabunda 

WW- 210 


Significant northerly range extension for 

this Priority 3 taxon. 

• 

Caladenia cairnsiana 

 

WW- 203 


The main distribution of this species is 

well to the south. This is one of 3 widely 

separated, apparently disjunct northern 

populations. 

• 

Caladenia 

magniclavata 

WW-197 


The northernmost record of the species 

at Western Australian Herbarium. 

Together with an older collection from 

the same general area it appears to 

represent a disjunct northern population 

node. 


• 

Crassula colligata 

subsp.


 lamprosperma 

WW- 208 


Substantial north-westerly range 

extension. 

• 

Drosera humilis 

WW- 201 


Significant southerly range extension. 

• 

Hakea commutata 

WW- 193 

Together with an older collection from 

the Moora area represents a northern 

outlier for the species. 

• 

Jacksonia acicularis 

WW- 201 


Southerly range extension. 

• 

Lagenophora huegelii 

WW- 196 

At northern extremity of its distribution. 

• 

Maireana 

enchylaenoides 

WW- 197 


Northernmost record of this species for 

Western Australia.  



2007 Flora Survey of Wheatbelt Woodlands 

DEC WA Herbarium and WWF-Australia 

6


• 

Melaleuca 

pauperiflora 

subsp.      



fastigiata 

WW- 189/190 

These 2 collections together represent 

a northern range extension for this 

taxon. 

• 

Phlegmatosperma  



drummondii 

WW- 212 


Easterly range extension for this Priority 

3 species. 

• 

Phlegmatosperma 

eremaea 

WW- 206 


Substantial westerly range extension 

for this Priority 2 taxon. 

• 

Plagiobothrys 

australasicus 

WW- 202 


This locality represents a major 

westerly disjunction for the species. 

See notes in ‘other collections of 

interest’ - detailed taxonomic study is 

required to assess whether this 

collection is a different taxon. 

• 

Schoenus latitans 

WW- 209 


Significant southerly range extension 

for this cryptic species. 

• 

Rhodanthe stricta 

WW- 192 


At south-western extremity of its 

distribution. 



 

Other Collections of Interest: 

Taxon Site 

Notes 

• 

Chenopodium 



desertorum 

subsp. 


microphyllum 

WW- 206/208/211 

 

This rarely collected taxon was represented by less 



than a handful of wheatbelt collection prior to the 

beginning of the Woodland Watch program. It was 

vouchered three times this year, and these 

specimens, together with two earlier Woodland Watch 

collections, have significantly increased our 

knowledge of the distribution of this inconspicuous 

plant.    

• 

Drosera macrantha 

WW-191 

The typical subspecies of 



D



macrantha

 is broadly 

circumscribed and probably comprises several taxa 

(A. Lowrie pers. comm.). The commonly encountered 

variant during Woodland Watch surveys is relatively 

robust, twining and with white flowers, although it is 

more usually seen in early fruit. By contrast this 

collection is notable because of the more slender, 

erect or weakly twining habit and pink flowers at peak 

anthesis. 

• 

Drosera sp. 

WW- 209 

This collection is close to 



D.

 

parvula 

but differs in 

having a more robust habit, very glandular scapes, 

and in the detail of the stipule character. Further study 

is needed to evaluate the significance of these 

differences but it seems quite possible that this is a 

currently unrecognised taxon.   

• 

Enchylaena spp. 

WW- 214 


The co-occurrence of the two species of 

Enchylaena

 

at this site is unusual and noteworthy. 



• 

Hibbertia stellaris 

WW- 201 


This collection is atypical for the species in having 

shorter than normal leaves and peduncles, and in its 

occurrence on a dry rather than winter wet habitat. 

The potential taxonomic significance of these 



2007 Flora Survey of Wheatbelt Woodlands 

DEC WA Herbarium and WWF-Australia 

7


differences requires investigation. 

• 

Lepidosperma spp. 

WW- 200/203/215/216 

Lepidosperma 

is a large and complex genus of 

perennial sedges currently in the early stages of 

revision by Russell Barrett of Kings Park. Where 

previously relatively few, very broadly circumscribed 

species were recognised, Barrett will adopt much 

narrower taxonomic concepts leading to the addition 

of a great many new taxa for Western Australia. 

These four collections probably all represent unnamed 

but different taxa (R. Barrett pers. comm.).  

• 

Melaleuca 

aspalathoides 

WW- 195 


A noteworthy local variant of what is, as currently 

recognised, a widespread and rather variable species. 

The large flower and fruit size, markedly dimorphic 

indumentum, and strongly tuberculate, ± glabrescent 

leaves are distinctive. 

• 

Melaleuca lanceolata 

WW- 206 

This collection is of the inland variant of the species 

which has previously been referred to by the name 

subsp thaeroides

 but which is now considered 

synonymous with the typical coastal form. It does 

appear however to be morphologically as well as 

geographically distinct and it seems probable that it 

will at some point again be recognised as a separate 

taxon.  

• 

Melaleuca lateriflora 



subspp. 

WW-193 


This is the second co-occurrence of the two subspp of 

M. lateriflora

 detected during Woodland Watch 

surveys. This has been brought to the attention of 

Melaleuca

 specialist Brendan Lepschi, who is now re-

examining the taxonomic status of the two with a view 

to possibly raising subsp 



acutifolia

 to species level 

• 

Melaleuca 

pauperiflora

 

subspp. 

WW- 211 

As with 


M



lateriflora 

above, the presence of the two 

subspecies of 



M. pauperiflora

 at this site, with no 

indication of intergradation, suggests that these two 

taxa might be more appropriately recognised as 

separate species. 

• 

Melaleuca spp. 

WW- 210 

The sympatric occurrence of 7 



Melaleuca 

spp at this 

site is noteworthy. 

• 

Plagiobothrys 



australasicus 

WW- 202 


This collection is rather anomalous in both its habit 

and habitat. Typically the species has a prostrate habit 

and occurs on granitic sites, whereas the plants at this 

locality are erect and growing in an area of primary 

salinity. Additionally the locality represents a major 

westerly disjunction for the species. Detailed 

taxonomic study is required to assess whether a 

second taxon is involved. 

• 

Senna spp. 

WW- 206 


Senna  sp. Pallinup River (J.W. Green 4847) PN – this 

is an informal name currently in use at the Western 

Australian Herbarium to refer to a presumably 

unnamed taxon from the taxonomically very difficult 

S.artemisioides complex. Its co-occurrence at this site 

with another member of that complex (i.e. 



S. 

artemisioides

 subsp 


filifolia

), with no sign of 

intergradation, could well be of significance to any 

future taxonomic resolution of the group. 

• 

Stenopetalum 

WW- 212/216 

These two vouchers represent only the third and 

fourth collections from the Western Australian 



2007 Flora Survey of Wheatbelt Woodlands 

DEC WA Herbarium and WWF-Australia 

8


sphaerocarpum 

wheatbelt of this rarely collected species. 

• 

Stylidium aff. 

caricifolium 

WW- 209 


This is local variant of 

S. caricifolium

 which is under 

consideration for taxonomic recognition at the 

infraspecific level (Juliet Wege pers. comm.). 

• 

Synaphea spinulosa 

subsp. 


spinulosa 

WW- 201 


A distinct narrow leaved variant that is under 

consideration for taxonomic recognition (R. Butcher 

pers. com.). 



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