Threatened flora of the



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Threatened flora of the 
Western Central Wheatbelt
Prepared by Joel Collins
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Department of
Environment and 
Conservation
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Our environment, our future

Contents
For
ewor

7
Intr
oduction 
8
Flora
conservation
rankings
11
Species
name
Common
name
Family
Status
Page
Acacia aphylla 
Leafless r
ock wattle 
Mimosaceae
V
ulnerable
12
Acacia ataxiphylla 
subsp.
magna
Large-fruited T
ammin wattle 
Mimosaceae
Endanger
ed
14
Acacia brachypoda 
W
ester
n wheatbelt wattle 
Mimosaceae
V
ulnerable
16
Acacia caesariata
Y
elbeni wattle 
Mimosaceae
V
ulnerable
18
Acacia chapmanii 
subsp.
australis
Chapman’
s wattle 
Mimosaceae
Endanger
ed
20
Acacia cochlocarpa 
subsp.
 cochlocarpa 
Spiral-fruited wattle 
Mimosaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
22
Acacia cochlocarpa
 subsp.
 velutinosa 
V
elvety spiral pod wattle 
Mimosaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
24
Acacia denticulosa 
Sandpaper wattle 
Mimosaceae
V
ulnerable
26
Acacia pharangites 
W
ongan gully wattle 
Mimosaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
28
Acacia pygmaea 
Dwarf r
ock wattle 
Mimosaceae
Endanger
ed
30
Acacia subflexuosa
 subsp.
 capillata 
Hairy-stemmed zig-zag wattle 
Mimosaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
32
Acacia vassalii 
V
assal’
s wattle 
Mimosaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
34
Acacia volubilis 
Tangled wattle 
Mimosaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
36

Species
name
Common
name
Family
Status
Page
Allocasuarina fibrosa 
W
oolly sheoak
Casuarinaceae
V
ulnerable
38
Banksia cuneata 
Matchstick banksia
Pr
oteaceae
Endanger
ed
40
Banksia mimica 
Summer honeypot
Pr
oteaceae
V
ulnerable
42
Banksia serratuloides
 subsp. 
serratuloides
Souther
n serrate banksia
Pr
oteaceae
V
ulnerable
44
Caladenia drakeoides 
Hinged dragon or
chid
Or
chidaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
46
Calectasia pignattiana 
Stilted tinsel flower
Dasypogonaceae
V
ulnerable
48
Conospermum densiflorum 
subsp.
unicephalatum
One-headed smokebush
Pr
oteaceae
Endanger
ed
50
Conostylis wonganensis 
W
ongan conostylis
Haemodoraceae
Endanger
ed
52
Cyphanthera odgersii 
subsp.
occidentalis
W
ester
n woolly cyphanthera
Solanaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
54
Darwinia acerosa 
Fine-leaved darwinia
Myrtaceae
Endanger
ed
56
Darwinia carnea 
Mogumber bell
Myrtaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
58
Daviesia cunderdin 
Cunder
din daviesia
Papilionaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
60
Daviesia dielsii 
Diels’ daviesia
Papilionaceae
Endanger
ed
62
Daviesia euphorbioides 
W
ongan cactus
Papilionaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
64
Eleocharis keigher
yi 
Keighery’
s eleocharis
Cyperaceae
V
ulnerable
66
Eremophila pinnatifida 
Pinnate-leaf er
emophila
Myoporaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
68
Eremophila resinosa 
Resinous er
emophila
Myoporaceae
Endanger
ed
70

4
Contents
Species
name
Common
name
Family
Status
Page
Eremophila ternifolia 
W
ongan er
emophila
Myoporaceae
V
ulnerable
72
Eremophila vernicosa 
Resinous poverty bush
Myoporaceae
V
ulnerable
74
Eremophila viscida 
V
a
rnish bush
Myoporaceae
Endanger
ed
76
Eucalyptus pruiniramis 
Midlands gum
Myrtaceae
Endanger
ed
78
Eucalyptus recta 
W
ongan mallet
Myrtaceae
V
ulnerable
80
Eucalyptus synandra 
Jingymia mallee
Myrtaceae
V
ulnerable
82
Frankenia conferta 
Silky frankenia
Frankeniaceae
V
ulnerable
84
Frankenia par
vula 
Short-leaved frankenia
Frankeniaceae
Endanger
ed
86
Gastrolobium glaucum 
Spike poison
Papilionaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
88
Gastrolobium hamulosum 
Hook-point poison
Papilionaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
90
Glyceria drummondii 
Nangetty grass
Poaceae
Endanger
ed
92
Goodenia arthrotricha
Goodeniaceae
Endanger
ed
94
Grevillea bracteosa 
subsp.
bracteosa
Bracted gr
evillea
Pr
oteaceae
Endanger
ed
96
Grevillea christineae 
Christine’
s gr
evillea
Pr
oteaceae
Endanger
ed
98
Grevillea dr
yandroides 
subsp.
 dr
yandroides 
Phalanx gr
evillea
Pr
oteaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
100
Grevillea dr
yandroides 
subsp.
hirsuta
Hairy phalanx gr
evillea
Pr
oteaceae
V
ulnerable
102
Grevillea pythara 
Pythara gr
evillea
Pr
oteaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
104

5
Species
name
Common
name
Family
Status
Page
Guichenotia seorsiflora 
Ster
culiaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
106
Gyrostemon reticulatus 
Net-veined gyr
ostemon
Gyr
ostemonaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
108
Hakea aculeata 
Column hakea
Pr
oteaceae
Endanger
ed
110
Haloragis platycarpa 
Br
oad-fruited haloragis
Haloragaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
112
Hemiandra rutilans
Colourful snakebush
Lamiaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
114
Jacksonia pungens 
Pungent jacksonia
Papilionaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
116
Jacksonia quairading 
Quairading stinkwood
Papilionaceae
Endanger
ed
118
Lechenaultia laricina 
Scarlet leschenaultia
Goodeniaceae
V
ulnerable
120
Lysiosepalum abollatum 
W
oolly lysiosepalum
Ster
culiaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
122
Melaleuca sciotostyla 
W
ongan melaleuca
Myrtaceae
Endanger
ed
124
Microcor
ys eremophiloides 
W
ongan micr
ocorys
Lamiaceae
V
ulnerable
126
Philotheca wonganensis 
W
ongan philotheca
Rutaceae
Endanger
ed
128
Pityrodia axillaris 
Native foxglove
Lamiaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
130
Pityrodia scabra 
Wyalkatchem foxglove
Lamiaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
132
Ptilotus fasciculatus 
Fitzgerald’
s mulla-mulla
Amaranthaceae
Endanger
ed
134
Rhagodia acicularis 
W
ongan rhagodia
Chenopodiaceae
V
ulnerable
136
Roycea pycnophylloides 
Saltmat
Chenopodiaceae
V
ulnerable
138

6
Contents
Species
name
Common
name
Family
Status
Page
Spirogardnera rubescens 
Spiral bush
Santalaceae
Endanger
ed
140
Stylidium coroniforme 
subsp.
 coroniforme 
W
ongan triggerplant
Stylidiaceae
Endanger
ed
142
Thomasia glabripetala 
Sandplain thomasia
Ster
culiaceae
V
ulnerable
144
Thomasia montana 
Hill thomasia
Ster
culiaceae
V
ulnerable
146
Thomasia
 sp Gr
een Hills (S. Paust 1322) 
Gr
een hill thomasia
Ster
culiaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
148
V
erticordia hughanii 
Hughan’
s featherflower
Myrtaceae
Endanger
ed
150
V
erticordia staminosa 
subsp.
 staminosa 
W
ongan featherflower
Myrtaceae
Critically Endanger
ed
152
Glossary
154
Bibliography
157

7
Foreword
The South West Botanical Province of 
Western Australia is internationally 
renowned as an area of high biodiversity 
significance. This is rightly so, as it is not 
only rich in its floral diversity with some 
5,710 native plant species found there, 
but more than 70 per cent of the species 
are also endemic – that is they occur 
nowhere else in the world. 
Many of the plants found in this area 
are narrowly distributed, sometimes in 
very small localised populations. This 
makes them particularly vulnerable to 
land clearance and other threatening 
processes, and has resulted in a number 
of species being placed under significant 
threat of future extinction. In the Western 
Australian wheatbelt, for instance, about 
90 per cent of natural vegetation has 
been cleared for agriculture leaving much 
of the remaining vegetation surviving 
in often small fragmented remnants 
– roadsides, small reserves and private 
property. Plants surviving in these areas 
are further threatened by salinity, erosion, 
fire, additional habitat loss and invasion of 
exotic weeds. A recent biological survey of 
the Western Australian Agricultural Zone 
(which includes the wheatbelt) revealed 
that approximately 450 plant species are 
at risk of extinction.  
A key factor in the development of 
public opinion and the design of effective 
management schemes to conserve and 
protect these threatened species lies in 
the production of accurate information to 
tell the story. What is threatened? Where 
is it found? This book does just that in 
providing much-needed biological and 
ecological information on each of the 
70 threatened flora species found in the 
Western Central Wheatbelt.
The book should assist greatly in the 
identification of these plants when they are 
encountered in the field. I can see that it 
would be used by a great variety of people 
– managers, landowners, conservation 
biologists, students and interested 
members of the public. The book will assist 
in the conservation and management of 
existing populations and may result in the 
discovery of new populations of these 
highly threatened plants.
I congratulate the authors on their 
achievement and hope that you, the 
reader, find the book to be a valuable 
reference in the discovery, identification and 
management of these rare plant species. 
Andrew Brown
Coordinator-Threatened Flora 
Department of Environment and 
Conservation, Western Australia

8
Introduction
This book serves as a field guide to the 
70 plant species currently listed as 
declared rare flora (DRF) within the 
Western Central Wheatbelt region. The 
area covered in this book includes the 
shires of Cunderdin, Tammin, Dowerin, 
Wyalkatchem, Goomalling, Wongan-
Ballidu, Victoria Plains, Dalwallinu, Koorda, 
Quairading and parts of the shires of 
Northam, York and Beverley, an area of 
approximately 2.9 million hectares. This 
area is botanically rich and has a high level 
of endemic species, highlighted with 
29 DRF species (or 41 per cent) of the 
70 species covered in this book being 
only found in this region. 
While the Western Australian wheatbelt is 
renowned for its prosperous agricultural 
sector, it’s the remaining natural 
vegetation that has helped place the 
State’s south-west on the global stage for 
biodiversity significance. This recognition 
is partially due to the exceptionally high 
concentration of endemic species, many 
of which are under significant threat of 
future extinction. The most threatened of 
these species are offered special legislative 
protection as DRF and, according to 
their rarity in the wild and associated 
level of threats, are ranked as Critically 
Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or 
Presumed Extinct. 
Information presented in this book is 
designed to improve the identification, 
knowledge, understanding and long-
term protection and conservation 
of rare flora in the Western Central 
Wheatbelt. Each species profile includes 
images of herbarium specimens lodged 
at the Western Australian Herbarium, 
photographs of flowers and plants in their 
natural habitat, plant descriptions which 
include key physical characteristics that 
will assist in identification, species habitat, 
distribution, flowering and seed maturity 
information and how to distinguish from 
similar species.   
Species distributions are described 
in reference to IBRA (Interim 
Bioregionalisation of Australia) regions. 
These regions share similar geology, 
landform, vegetation and climate 
characteristics and influence the 
distribution of flora species. The Avon 
Wheatbelt IBRA region dominates the 
area covered in this book; however, many 
species are distributed across several 
IBRA regions. 
The DRF profiled in this book are 
distributed in areas of remnant natural 
vegetation across the highly modified 
agricultural zone. Within this zone, 
vegetation has been extensively cleared 
and is now highly fragmented with 
poor connectivity between remnants. 
For example 83.5 per cent of the Avon 
Wheatbelt IBRA region has now been 
cleared for agriculture (Shepherd et 
al. 2002). These factors, along with 
rising salinity, altered hydrology, 
weed competition, accidental human 
destruction, grazing, fungal pathogens 
(dieback) and competing land-uses, have 
threatened the long-term survival of many 
DRF. Altered fire regimes also pose a threat 
to many of these species as infrequent 
fires impair their ability to regenerate and 
overly frequent fires kill plants before 
they reach maturity and are able to set 
seed. To counteract these threats a suite 
of recovery actions are implemented by 
the Department of Environment and 
Conservation (DEC), in conjunction with 
the wider community. Recovery actions 
include monitoring of known populations, 
surveys for new populations, weed and 

9
Figure 1: IBRA regions relevant to the south-west of Western Australia, 
showing the Declared Rare Flora study area
pest control, seed collection, recruitment 
burns, translocations, fencing, habitat 
restoration, education and publicity and 
regional herbarium activities.
To achieve these recovery actions DEC 
coordinates Rare Flora and Communities 
Recovery Teams. The recovery teams meet 
biannually and are made up of a number 
of key stakeholders including community 
groups, landholders, DEC volunteers, 

10
Natural Resource Management officers, 
Catchment Councils, Botanic Gardens 
and Parks Authority, representatives 
from Main Roads, WestNet Rail, 
Water Corporation, local government 
authorities and interested community 
members. The recovery team provides 
opportunity for members to discuss DRF 
management issues, provide advice, share 
local knowledge and generally become 
more involved in rare flora conservation. 
Several community groups and DEC 
volunteers are regularly involved in rare 
flora conservation work, which includes 
conducting surveys and reporting new 
populations of threatened flora. Groups 
such as the Wongan-Ballidu Bushcare 
Group, Wildflower Society of Western 
Australia (Avon Branch) and the York 
River Conservation Society are actively 
involved in the Rare Flora Recovery Team. 
This involvement, for example, has seen 
the Wongan-Ballidu Bushcare Group 
recently develop a Regional Herbarium, 
which houses specimens collected in the 
Wongan Hills region. Duplicate specimens 
from Wongan Hills are also lodged at the 
Regional Herbarium at the DEC Northam 
office. This valuable partnership has been 
critical in the process of building the 
botanical knowledge of the region. 
The Avon Catchment Council (ACC), 
through support from the Government 
of Australia and the Western Australian 
Government, has provided funding for 
this publication, which forms part of the 
project ‘Back from the Edge: Saving Native 
Species Most at Risk’. This program is 
aimed at developing a strategic approach 
for managing threatened species and 
communities and to carry out urgent 
recovery actions within the Avon River 
Basin. The Back from the Edge program 
is funded with investment from the 
State and Australian governments 
through the National Heritage Trust and 
National Action Plan for Salinity and 
Water Quality. A core objective of the 
ACC’s Back from the Edge program is to 
engage local communities in the effective 
implementation of recovery actions for 
threatened flora conservation projects.
Further information on threatened 
and poorly known flora species in the 
wheatbelt can be sought in other recent 
publications, which include ‘Threatened, 
poorly known and other flora of Wongan-
Ballidu’ and ‘Threatened and poorly 
known flora of the Yilgarn Region’.  
   
Introduction

Under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950, the Minister for the Environment may declare 
species of flora as ‘rare flora’ if they are considered to be in danger of extinction, rare 
or otherwise in need of special protection. Such species are listed as declared rare flora 
but are also commonly referred to as threatened flora. These species receive special 
management attention (Florabase 2009). Nominations for listing as declared rare flora are 
submitted to and are reviewed by the Western Australian Threatened Species Scientific 
Committee, which is appointed by the Minister for the Environment with administrative 
support provided by the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC). To achieve 
declared rare flora status it must be proven to the committee that the species has been 
adequately surveyed over a number of flowering seasons and in the wild is either extinct, 
i.e., there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died, or meets criteria for 
listing as threatened in the current version of IUCN Red List Categories (prepared by the 
International Union of Conservation of Nature Species Survival Commission). Any person 
may nominate a species for listing, de-listing or a change of list category. Once reviewed 
by the committee, recommendations are submitted to the Minister for the Environment for 
consideration and adoption.
The IUCN Red List for threatened species has adopted a system of defining conservation 
categories for flora and fauna according to their specific level of risk. Declared Rare Flora in 
Western Australia is ranked into threat categories using IUCN criteria. These categories are 
as follows:
Presumed Extinct (X)
A species is presumed extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and or expected habitat, at 
appropriate times, throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys 
should be over a time frame appropriate to the species’ life cycle and life form. 
Critically Endangered (CR)
When a plant is considered to be facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Endangered (EN)
When a plant is considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.
Vulnerable (VU)
When a plant is considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.   
If you think you have seen any of these plants in this publication or would like further 
information, please call DEC Northam Office on (08) 9622 8940.
Flora conservation 
rankings used in this book
11

12
Derivation of name
Derived from the Greek a (without) and 
phyllon (leaf), referring to the absence 
of leaves. 
Authority and type collection
Named by Bruce Maslin in 1971 from 
specimens he collected from the Helena 
River Valley near Mundaring in August 
1970.
Description
Habit: Erect intricately branched pungent 
shrub to 2 m high. 
Stems: Bluish-grey, round in cross-section, 
hairless with ribs few and obscure. 
Leaves: Reduced to small deciduous scales 
found along the stems.
Flowers: Bright yellow globe-shaped 
flowers are 6 to 7 mm in diameter and 
solitary at each node. The hairless flower 
stalks are 7 to 10 mm long. 
Fruit: Purplish-grey pods are linear, 3 to 
9 cm long and 3 to 4 mm wide. Seeds 
are black and shiny, oblong and 4 to 
4.5 mm long.  
Distribution and habitat
Scattered occurrences in the Mundaring 
and Northam areas in the Avon-Wheatbelt, 
Jarrah Forest and Swan Coastal Plain IBRA 
regions. It grows in brown sandy loam 
on granite outcrops, sometimes in rock 
crevices on sheet granite, with fringing 
woodland and shrubland with Eucalyptus
wandoo, E. marginata, Corymbia 
calophylla, Allocasuarina huegeliana, Acacia 
acuminata, A. lasiocalyx, Banksia sessilis
and Borya nitens.
Flowering period
July to October. 
Seed maturity
November to December.
Similar species
Acacia wiseana is superficially similar in 
appearance but has green branchlets that are 
ribbed and larger pods (6 to 12 mm wide).
Leafless rock wattle
Acacia aphylla
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Vulnerable 
Distribution map

13
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Flower, 
C - Fruit and seed, D - Flower, E - Flower and leaf
B
E
C
D
Joel Collins
Andr
ew Br
own
Andr
ew Br
own
Andr
ew Crawfor
d
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium

14
Derivation of name
Derived from the Greek ataxia (disorder, 
confusion) and phyllon (leaf), referring to 
the disordered way in which the phyllodes 
are displayed and from the Latin magnus
(large), referring to the larger flower heads 
of this subspecies.
Authority and type collection
Named by Bruce Maslin from specimens 
collected south of Tammin by Ray Cranfield 
in 1980.
Description
Habit: Low spreading shrub to 
approximately 0.3 m high. 
Stems: Ascending to erect stems are 
flattened or angled at their extremities and 
covered in matted hairs. 
Leaves: Phyllodes are somewhat coarse, 
mostly 4 to 6 cm long, occasionally 2 to 3 
cm long and 1.6 to 2 mm wide. 
Flowers: Yellow flowers are 7 to 9 mm in 
diameter, globe-shaped on hairy stalks 4 to 
7 mm long. 
Fruit: Reddish-brown pods are narrowly 
oblong, curved with longitudinal lines or 
channels on the surface. The pods are also 
covered in stiff hairs. 
Distribution and habitat
Scattered occurrences in the Goomalling, 
Dowerin, Cunderdin and Tammin areas 
in the Avon Wheatbelt IBRA region. It 
grows in brown or grey sandy loam over 
laterite or in yellow sand in woodland, 
mallee, mixed shrubland and heath with 
Eucalyptus macrocarpa, E. pyriformis, 
Banksia prionotes, Actinostrobus arenarius, 
Xylomelum angustifolium, Allocasuarina 
campestris and Leptospermum erubescens.
Flowering period
June to July.
Seed maturity
November.
Similar species
Acacia ataxiphylla subsp. ataxiphylla, is 
superficially similar in appearance but has 
smaller flowers about 5 mm across, long 
slender flower stalks about 8 to 12 mm 
long and a summer flowering period. Some 
forms of Acacia stenoptera are also similar.
Large-fruited Tammin wattle
Acacia ataxiphylla subsp. magna 
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Endangered 
Distribution map

15
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Flower, 
C - Fruit, D - Habit, E - Habitat
B
E
C
D
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium

16
Derivation of name
Derived from the Greek brachys (short) and 
podos (foot), referring to the very short 
inflorescence stalks.
Authority and type collection
Named by Bruce Maslin in 1990 from 
specimens he collected north of Brookton 
in 1976.
Description
Habit: Dense rounded resinous shrub to 
1.5 to 3 m high. 
Stems: Hairless stems contain broad 
flat yellow or green longitudinal bands 
between narrower, brownish, resinous ribs 
at the ends. 
Leaves: Phyllodes are smooth, 2 to 5 cm 
long and 7 to 14 mm wide, circular to flat 
in cross-section and straight to slightly 
incurved. When flat, the phyllodes have 
1 nerve on each face. New shoots are 
resinous. 
Flowers: Golden flower heads are globe-
shaped; arranged 2 per axil and are 
resinous. Flower stalks are 2 to 3mm long 
Fruit: Pods are curved and/or wavy to 
coiled and are 7 to 8 mm wide. Pods are 
resinous, thinly leathery and hairless. Seeds 
are oblong and 4 mm long.
Distribution and habitat
Scattered occurrences in the Beverley and 
York areas, with a disjunct population near 
Katanning, in the Avon Wheatbelt and 
Jarrah Forest IBRA regions. It grows in grey 
or brown sandy clay near seasonal flooded 
areas and slightly saline flats in woodland 
and shrubland with Eucalyptus wandoo, 
E. loxophleba subsp. loxophleba, 
E. astringens, Casuarina obesa, 
Allocasuarina huegeliana, Callistemon 
phoeniceus, Acacia acuminata, 
A. leptospermoides, Hakea marginata, 
H. varia and Melaleuca lateriflora.
Flowering period
May to July. 
Seed maturity
November to December.
Similar species
Some other members of the Acacia
wilhelmiana group are similar in 
appearance but have longer flower stalks 
and multi-flowered heads. 
Western wheatbelt wattle
Acacia brachypoda
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Vulnerable 
Distribution map

17
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Flower, 
C - Fruit and seed, D - Flower, E - Habit
B
E
C
D
Lorraine Duf
fy
Lorraine Duf
fy
Joel Collins
Thr
eatened Flora Seed Centr
e
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium
JMC132

18
Derivation of name
Derived from the Latin caesariatus, (with 
long hair; covered with hair) referring to 
the covering of matted hairs on the stems 
and leaves. 
Authority and type collection
Named by Richard Cowan and Bruce 
Maslin in 1990 from specimens collected 
between Kununoppin and Wyalkatchem 
by Bruce Maslin in 1973. 
Description
Habit: Flat-topped or rounded, dense 
spreading shrub to 0.6 to 1.3 m high. 
Stems: Slightly ribbed and covered in 
matted hairs. Stipules are 1.5 to 4 mm 
long and persistent. New shoots are 
covered in densely matted white hairs. 
Leaves: Sharply pointed phyllodes are dull 
green to grey-green, 2 to 4.5 cm long and 
2 to 8 (-10) mm wide, narrowly lance-
shaped to straight or shallowly incurved. 
Covered in matted hairs, the phyllodes 
have 3 to 5 longitudinal veins on each 
face. A narrow-phyllode variant occurs 
with phyllodes 2 to 3 mm wide. 
Flowers: Light golden flower heads are 
globular, 2 mm in diameter and arranged 
2 per axil. Flower stems are mostly 2 to 4 
mm long and covered in matted hairs. 
Fruit: Pods are irregularly curved, wavy or 
coiled to 2.5 cm long and 2 to 3 mm wide. 
Pods have a paper-like texture and have 
dense covering of short stiff hairs. Glossy 
black seeds are longitudinal, oval, elliptic 
or oblong in shape and 2.5 to 3 mm long 
and 2 to 3 mm wide.
Distribution and habitat
Scattered occurrences in the Kununoppin 
and Bungulla area, with early collections 
made near Corrigin and Lake Grace in the 
Avon Wheatbelt and Mallee IBRA regions. It 
grows in white or brown gritty loam or clay 
in woodland and mallee with Eucalyptus
erythronema, E. loxophleba, Acacia 
mackeyana and Melaleuca coronicarpa.
Flowering period
August to September. 
Seed maturity
November to December.
Similar species
Acacia torticarpa is similar in appearance but 
has 6 raised nerves and flower stalks that are 
absent or very short. Acacia consobrina is 
also similar but has phyllodes with numerous 
net-like veins between the nerves. Acacia 
sclerophylla var. pilosa is similar to the narrow 
phyllode variant of A. caesariata but has 
sparse hairs on the new shoots, phyllodes 1 to 
2 mm wide and stipules 0.5 to 1 mm long. 
Yelbeni wattle
Acacia caesariata
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Vulnerable 
Distribution map

19
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Flower, 
C - Fruit, seed and leaf, D - Habitat, E - Habit
B
E
C
D
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Niall Sheehy
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium
JMC491

20
Derivation of name
Named in honour of Charles Chapman, 
who first collected the species, and the 
Latin australis (southern), referring to the 
southern distribution of this subspecies.
Authority and type collection
Named by Richard Cowan and Bruce 
Maslin in 1999 from specimens collected 
north of Wyening by Herbert Demarz 
in 1972.
Description
Habit: Dense intricately branched pungent 
shrub to 0.5 to 2 m high. 
Stems: Hairless stems contain narrow 
non-rigid stipules ± 1 mm long and glands 
4 to 9 mm above the phyllode base. 
Leaves: Sharply pointed phyllodes are 
green to greyish-green 2 to 3 (-5) cm 
long and 0.7 to 1 mm in diameter, 
erect, circular to flat in cross-section and 
shallowly recurved. Phyllodes have 8 
distant raised nerves altogether, 3-nerved 
when flat. 
Flowers: Golden flower heads are globular, 
4 to 5 mm in diameter; 24 to 27 flowered 
and arranged 1 per axil. Hairless flower 
stems are mostly 10 to 15 mm long. 
Fruit: Pods are up to 40 mm long and 
2.5 to 3 mm wide, coiled and hairless.
Distribution and habitat
Scattered occurrences in the Bolgart and 
Wyening areas in the Avon Wheatbelt 
and Jarrah Forest IBRA regions. It grows 
in brown, grey or yellow sand or sandy 
gravel in woodland and shrubland with 
Corymbia calophylla, Eucalyptus wandoo, 
Xanthorrhoea preissii, Banksia armata, 
Leptospermum erubescens and Santalum 
acuminatum.
Flowering period
July to September. 
Seed maturity
November.
Similar species
Acacia chapmanii subsp. chapmanii, is 
superficially similar in appearance but 
has sharply pointed stipules and straight 
phyllodes that are widely spreading to 
downwards-facing and circular in cross-
section. Acacia campylophylla is also similar 
but has generally shorter, strongly recurved 
phyllodes and straight broad pods.   
Chapman’s wattle
Acacia chapmanii subsp. australis 
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Endangered 
Distribution map

21
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Flower, 
C - Flower and leaf, D & E - Habit
B
E
C
D
Jean Hort
Jean Hort
Jean Hort
Joel Collins
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium

22
Derivation of name
Derived from the Latin cochlos (a shell-
fish with a spiral shell) and carpa (fruit), 
referring to the tightly spiralled pods.
Authority and type collection
Named by Carl Meissner in 1855 
from specimens collected between 
the Moore and Murchison rivers by 
James Drummond. 
Description
Habit: Low semi-prostrate spreading shrub 
to 0.7 m high. 
Stems: Slightly zigzagging, hairless with 
non-persistent stipules. 
Leaves: Incurved phyllodes are (3) 4 to 
7.5 cm long and 4 to 6 mm wide, hairless 
with an acute apex. Phyllodes have 5 to 7 
nerves per face with the central nerve an 
equal distance from the margins. 
Flowers: Golden flower heads are obloid 
to short-cylindrical, 7 to 10 mm long when 
dry, 2 per axil and are without stalks. 
Fruit: Pods are hairless, 3 to 4 mm wide 
and tightly spiralled. Seeds are round to 
oblong, 1.5 to 2.5 mm long, glossy and 
mottled.
Distribution and habitat
Scattered occurrences in the Watheroo 
area with a disjunct population north of 
Goomalling in the Avon Wheatbelt and 
Geraldton Sandplains IBRA regions. An 
early collection has also been made west 
of Moora. It grows in brown sand or 
sandy-clay over laterite in shrubland and 
heath with Allocasuarina campestris, Acacia 
acuminata, Gastrolobium appressum (DRF),
Gastrolobium hamulosum (DRF), Hakea sp., 
Melaleuca spand Borya sp.
Flowering period
June to August. 
Seed maturity
November.
Similar species
Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa is 
superficially similar in appearance but has 
phyllodes that are generally less than 40 
mm long, hairy stems, phyllodes and pods 
and almost globular flower heads. Acacia
tetraneura and A. lirellata are also similar 
but have narrower phyllodes with generally 
fewer nerves.
Spiral-fruited wattle
Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. cochlocarpa 
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Critically Endangered
Distribution map

23
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Flower, C - Fruit, 
D - Habit and habitat, E - Flower and leaf
B
E
C
D
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Andr
ew Crawfor
d
Andr
ew Crawfor
d
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium
JMC267

24
Derivation of name
Derived from the Latin velutum (velvet) 
and osa (abounding in), referring to 
the velvety-like hairs on the phyllodes, 
branchlets and pods. 
Authority and type collection
Named by Bruce Maslin and Alex 
Chapman in 1999 from specimens 
collected in the Manmanning area by 
A.S. George in November 1974.
Description
Habit: Low semi-prostate spreading shrub 
to 0.3 to 0.6 m high. 
Stems: Slightly zigzagging and covered in 
short stiff hairs with persistent stipules. 
Leaves: Incurved phyllodes are 2.5 to 4 cm 
long and 3 to 5 mm wide, usually hairy 
on nerves, with an obtuse apex. Phyllodes 
have 3 to 5 (7) nerves with the central 
nerve slightly closer to the upper margin. 
Flowers: Golden flower heads are almost 
globular, 5 to 7 mm long when dry, 2 per 
axil and are without stalks. 
Fruit: Velvety pods are tightly coiled, 3 to 
4 mm wide. Seeds are round to oblong, 
1.5 to 2.5 mm long, glossy and mottled. 
Distribution and habitat
Scattered occurrences in the Manmanning 
and Ejanding area, north of Dowerin in 
the Avon Wheatbelt IBRA region. It grows 
in white or grey sandy clay over laterite, in 
shrubland and heath with Allocasuarina
campestris, Grevillea hookeriana, 
Ecdeiocolea monostachya, Astroloma 
serratifolium, Gastrolobium calycinum and
Borya sp.
Flowering period
June to August. 
Seed maturity
October to November.
Similar species
The typical subspecies, Acacia cochlocarpa 
subsp. cochlocarpa, is superficially similar 
in appearance but has phyllodes that are 
generally greater than 4 cm long, hairless 
branchlets, pods and phyllodes and flower 
heads obloid to short-cylindrical. Acacia
lirellata subsp. compressa is also similar 
but has non-coiled hairless pods, hairless 
branchlets and narrower hairless phyllodes. 
Velvety spiral pod wattle 
Acacia cochlocarpa subsp. velutinosa 
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Critically Endangered
Distribution map

25
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Flower, 
C - Flower and leaf, D - Habit, E - Habitat
B
E
C
D
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium

26
Derivation of name
Derived from the Latin denticulus (small 
tooth) and osus (abounding in), referring 
to the small teeth-like spines along the
leaf margins. 
Authority and type collection
Named by Ferdinand von Mueller in 1876 
from specimens collected near Mount 
Churchman, north of Beacon by J. Young.
Description
Habit: Open erect shrub 1 to 4 m high. 
Stems: Dark reddish bark is warty with 
new shoots resinous. 
Leaves: Dark green phyllodes are round 
to oval, wavy, 5 to 9 cm long and 3.5 to 
7.5 mm wide with a tough sandpaper-like 
feel. Each has 3 to 4 prominent, curved, 
longitudinal, yellowish nerves, net-like 
veins and prominent spines along the 
phyllode margins. 
Flowers: Dense golden flower spikes 
are 2.5 to 8 cm long and 6 to 8 mm in 
diameter. Stout warty flower stalks are 
resinous and 3 to 7 mm long. 
Fruit: Light brown pods are linear, 
wrinkled, up to 7.5 cm long and 3 to 
4.5 mm wide and hairless. Glossy brown-
black oval seeds are 3.5 to 4 mm long.
Distribution and habitat
Scattered occurrences in the Beacon, 
Mukinbudin and Wongan Hills areas, with 
an early collection from near Nungarin in the 
Avon Wheatbelt IBRA region and extending 
into the Coolgardie IBRA region. It grows 
in shallow brown sandy loam over granite, 
sometimes on granite outcrops and rocky 
slopes, in shrubland with Allocasuarina
campestris, A. acutivalvis, Acacia lasiocalyx, 
Exocarpos aphyllus, Kunzea pulchella, 
Calothamnus asper, Melaleuca radula and
Borya sp.
Flowering period
September to October.
Seed maturity
November to December.
Similar species
Unknown.
Sandpaper wattle
Acacia denticulosa 
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Vulnerable
Distribution map

27
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Flower, C - Flower 
and leaf, D - Habitat, E - Habit and habitat
B
E
C
D
Chris Phoebe
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Andr
ew Br
own
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium
JMC534

28
Derivation of name
Derived from the Greek pharagx (ravine 
or gully) and ites (connected with or 
belonging to), referring to the species 
gully habitat.
Authority and type collection
Named by Bruce Maslin in 1982 from 
specimens he collected near Wongan Hills 
in 1976.
Description
Habit: Spindly open shrub 3 to 4 m high. 
Stems: Extremities have a whitish-
blue sheen, hairless. Older stems are 
pockmarked with scars of phyllodes that 
have died and fallen off.  
Leaves: Greyish-green phyllodes are circular 
in cross-section, straight to shallowly 
curved, 1.5 to 4 cm long and 1 mm wide. 
Phyllodes are hairless, smooth, have 7 
nerves and end in a sharp point. Phyllodes 
are concentrated toward the end of 
branches.
Flowers: Golden flower heads are oblong 
and 7 to 10 mm long. Flower stalks are 
hairless and up to 10 mm long. 
Fruit: Pods are whitish-blue, linear, 
wrinkled and up to 7 cm long and up to 
4 cm wide. Glossy black longitudinal to 
round seeds are 3 to 4 mm long.
Distribution and habitat
Confined to near Wongan Hills in the 
Avon Wheatbelt IBRA region. It grows in 
red-brown clay with rocky greenstone and 
laterite, on breakaways and lower slopes 
of gullies in shrubland with Allocasuarina
campestris, A. acutivalvis, Calothamnus 
asper, Petrophile shuttleworthiana and
Melaleuca radula.
Flowering period
August to September.
Seed maturity
November to December.
Similar species
Acacia tetanophylla is superficially similar 
in appearance but has non-racemose 
inflorescences, globular heads and much 
smaller bracteoles.
Wongan gully wattle
Acacia pharangites 
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Critically Endangered
Distribution map

29
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Flower, 
C - Fruit and seed, D - Flower, E - Habit and habitat
B
E
C
D
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Thr
eatened Flora Seed Centr
e
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium

30
Derivation of name
Derived from the Greek pygmaeus (dwarf), 
referring to the diminutive habit of the 
mature plant.
Authority and type collection
Named by Bruce Maslin in 1995 from 
specimens collected near Wongan Hills by 
Kevin Kenneally in October 1980.
Description
Habit: Low dwarf shrub 0.3 to 0.5 m high. 
Stems: Prominently ribbed with stipules 
shallowly triangular to 0.5 mm long. 
Leaves: Green phyllodes are 2 to 3 cm 
long and 9 to 13 mm wide, 1-nerved 
or imperfectly 2-nerved with pale red 
marginal nerves turning yellow with age.
Flowers: White flower heads are globular, 
mostly 1-per axil, on flower stalks 4 to 
7 mm long. 
Fruit: Narrow oblong seed pods are up 
to 3 cm long and 3 to 4 mm wide with 
thick margins. Shiny dark brown seeds are 
longitudinal to oval in shape and 4 to 
5 mm long. 
Distribution and habitat
Confined to the Wongan Hills area in 
the Avon Wheatbelt IBRA region. It 
grows in red-brown sandy clay on laterite 
ridges and breakaways in mallee and 
shrubland with Eucalyptus ebbanoensis, 
Allocasuarina campestris, Banksia comosa, 
B. wonganensis, Santalum acuminatum, 
Microcorys eremophiloides (DRF) and
Petrophile shuttleworthiana. 
Flowering period
October to March.
Seed maturity
November to April.
Similar species
Acacia disticha is similar in appearance 
but has longer flower stalks (7 to 11 mm) 
and flattened stems. Acacia obovata and 
A. nervosa are also similar.
Dwarf rock wattle
Acacia pygmaea 
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Endangered
Distribution map

31
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Fruit, 
C - Flower and leaf, D - Habit, E - Habitat
B
E
C
D
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium
JMC442

32
Derivation of name
Derived from the Latin sub (somewhat) 
and flexuosus (zigzag stem, changing 
direction at the nodes) and capillus (hair), 
referring to the slightly zigzag stems that 
are covered in dense hairs. 
Authority and type collection
Named by Richard Cowan and Bruce 
Maslin in 1999 from specimens collected 
south of Cunderdin by Basil Smith in 1982.
Description
Habit: Rounded shrub 0.25 to 1 m high. 
Stems: Covered in dense spreading short 
hairs and slightly zigzagging. 
Leaves: Phyllodes are 3 to 7 cm long and 
1 to 1.5 mm wide, circular in cross-section, 
shallowly to strongly curved with a sharply 
pointed curved tip. Each phyllode has 
about 8 nerves with sparse to moderately 
dense spreading hairs. 
Flowers: Golden flower heads are globular, 
3.5 to 4 mm in diameter, 2 per axil, on 
stalks 3 to 6 mm long. Flower stalks are 
covered in dense spreading short hairs. 
Fruit: Pods are linear, slightly curved to 
8 cm long and 2 to 2.5 mm wide. Dull 
brown seeds are longitudinal to round in 
shape and 2.5 mm long.
Distribution and habitat
Known only from a single population south 
of Cunderdin in the Avon Wheatbelt IBRA 
region. It grows in grey, yellow or brown sand 
over laterite in shrubland and heath with
Allocasuarina campestris, Leptospermum 
erubescens, Eremaea pauciflora, Calothamnus 
quadrifidus, Gastrolobium calycinum and
Hakea incrassata.
Flowering period
July to August. 
Seed maturity
November.
Similar species
Acacia subflexuosa subsp. subflexuosa, is 
superficially similar in appearance but has 
branchlets and flower stalks covered with 
sparse small hairs and hairless phyllodes 
except at the base. Acacia leptoneura is also 
similar but has twice as many phyllode nerves.
Hairy-stemmed zig-zag wattle
Acacia subflexuosa subsp. capillata 
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Critically Endangered
Distribution map

33
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Flower, 
C - Fruit and seed, D - Flower and leaf, E - Habit
B
E
C
D
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Thr
eatened Flora Seed Centr
e
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium

34
Derivation of name
Named in honour of Jacques Vassal, a 
contemporary French botanist who studied 
the genus Acacia.
Authority and type collection
Named by Bruce Maslin in 1978 from 
specimens collected near Wongan Hills by 
Ernest Ising in August 1935.  
Description
Habit: Spreading shrub to 0.6 m high. 
Stems: Covered in short stiff hairs, stipules 
persistent 1 to 2 mm long. 
Leaves: Dark green phyllodes are 4 to 8 mm 
long and 1 mm wide, slightly horizontally 
flattened, narrowed at the base with 
hooked tips. 
Flowers: Light golden flower heads are 
globular, 3 to 4 mm in diameter, 1 per axil, 
hairless flower stalks are 3 to 5 mm long. 
Fruit: Pods are linear, openly curved or 
twisted, up to 2 cm long and 1 to 
1.5 mm wide. 
Distribution and habitat
Scattered occurrences in the Watheroo, 
Moora and Wongan Hills areas in the Avon 
Wheatbelt and Geraldton Sandplains IBRA 
regions. It grows in brown or grey sand over 
laterite or yellow sand in woodland, mallee, 
shrubland and heath with Eucalyptus 
pyriformis, Xylomelum angustifolium, 
Allocasuarina campestris, Actinostrobus 
arenarius, Leptospermum erubescens and
Banksia fraseri.
Flowering period
June to August.
Seed maturity
October to November.
Similar species
Acacia ericifolia and A. leptospermoides 
are similar in appearance but have phyllode 
tips that are obtuse to barely acute. Acacia 
brachyphylla is also similar but lacks phyllodes 
with 6 strongly raised nerves. 
Vassal’s wattle
Acacia vassalii 
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Critically Endangered
Distribution map

35
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Flower, 
C - Flower and leaf, D - Habitat, E - Habit
B
E
C
D
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium

36
Derivation of name
Derived from the Latin volubilis (twining), 
referring to the twisted habit of the stems.  
Authority and type collection
Named by Ferdinand von Mueller in 1876 
from specimens collected near Quairading 
by Julia Wells.
Description
Habit: Dense compact tangled shrub to 0.3 
to 0.5 m high. 
Stems: Twisted, round in cross-section, light 
green with parallel ridges running their 
length. Stipules are 0.5 to 1 mm long and 
recurved. 
Leaves: Light green phyllodes are straight 
to shallowly curved, 9 mm long and 1 mm 
wide, few and widely separated with a 
pungent tip. Each phyllode is 5-nerved in all 
with a prominent midrib. 
Flowers: Bright light golden flower heads 
are globular, up to 8 mm in diameter and 
are found on flower stalks 0 to 4 mm long. 
Fruit: Not recorded.
Distribution and habitat
Scattered occurrences in the Cunderdin and 
Quairading areas in the Avon Wheatbelt 
IBRA region. It grows in grey or brown sand 
over laterite in shrubland and heath with 
Allocasuarina campestris, Leptospermum 
erubescens, Banksia vestita, Actinostrobus 
arenarius and Daviesia cunderdin (DRF).  
Flowering period
June to July. 
Seed maturity
November to December.
Similar species
Acacia aemula is similar in appearance but 
has non-twisted and curled branches and 
longer phyllodes and flower stalks. Acacia 
carens and A. cummingiana are also similar.
Tangled wattle
Acacia volubilis
Family: Mimosaceae
Status: Critically Endangered
Distribution map

37
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Flower, 
C - Flower, D - Habitat, E - Habit
B
E
C
D
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium

38
Derivation of name
Derived from the Latin fibra (fibre, 
filament) and osus (abounding in), 
referring to the cones that are covered in 
course hairs.
Authority and type collection
Named as a species of Casuarina by Charles 
Gardner in 1927 from specimens he 
collected near Tammin in September 1926.  
Description
Habit: Erect densely branched shrub to 
0.5 to 1.8 m high with separate male and 
female plants. 
Stems: Modified leaf stems are hairless, 2 to 
5 cm long, pungent, round in cross-section 
with 3 to 4 narrow internodes that are 8 to 
16 mm long.   
Leaves: Four scale-like leaves encircle the 
stem at each node; they are 1.5 to 2 mm 
long, united at the base and have irregular 
divided tips. 
Flowers: The male flower spikes are 4 to 
7 mm long with anthers 0.5 to 0.6 mm 
long and are produced from the branchlets. 
The female flowers are red, produced on 
short lateral branches that are hidden 
among the dense branches and cones on 
the older wood. 
Fruit: Cones are spherical in shape, 1.1 to 
2.5 cm long and covered in long coarse 
hairs, 1 to 2 cm long and protruding from 
the bracts and bracteoles.  The cones are 
held closely to the older wood and are 
hidden within the dense branches. Brown 
to black seeds are 6 to7 mm long.
Distribution and habitat
Scattered occurrences in the Tammin and 
Quairading area in the Avon Wheatbelt 
IBRA region. It grows in grey or white sand 
over laterite, sometimes on low ridges, in 
mallee, shrubland and heath with Eucalyptus
macrocarpa, Allocasuarina campestris, 
Leptospermum erubescens, Acacia 
ataxiphylla subsp. magna (DRF), Banksia 
armata, B. densa, B. sphaerocarpa and
B. vestita. 
Flowering period
July to August.
Seed maturity
November.
Similar species
Allocasuarina grevilleoides and A. microstachya
are similar in appearance but lack long fibrous 
hairs on their cones.    
Woolly sheoak
Allocasuarina fibrosa
Family: Casuarinaceae
Status: Vulnerable
Distribution map

39
A - Herbarium specimen, B - Male flower, 
C - Branches, D - Fruit, E - Habit and habitat
B
E
C
D
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
Joel Collins
A
2 cm
W
A
 Herbarium
JMC79

40
Derivation of name
Derived from the Latin cuneatus (wedge-
shaped), referring to the wedge-shaped 

Kataloq: images -> documents -> plants-animals -> threatened-species -> recovery plans -> wildlife management plans
wildlife management plans -> Western australian wildlife management program no. 28 Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District
wildlife management plans -> Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Warren Region
recovery plans -> Southern shy featherflower
recovery plans -> Interim recovery plan
recovery plans -> Scaly-leaved featherflower
recovery plans -> Pine featherflower (verticordia staminosa subsp. Cylindracea var. Erecta)
recovery plans -> Wongan featherflower
wildlife management plans -> Western australian wildlife management program no. 21 Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Esperance District
wildlife management plans -> Declared rare and poorly known flora

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