1. Бабенко Л.Г. Филологический анализ текста. Основы теории, принципы и
аспекты анализа. М., 2004.
2. Бакастова Т.В. Семантизация имени собственного в целом художественном
тексте: на материале англ. яз.: Автореф. дис. … канд. филол. наук. Одесса,
ности антропонимического пространства романа В.Скотта “Айвенго” //
Philological sciences. Fundamental research. M., 2010, № 10. с. 3486-3490.
4. Зинин С.И. Введение в русскую антропономию. Ташкент, 1972.
5. Колшанский Г.В. Коммуникативная функция и структура языка. М., 1984.
6. Перкас С.В. Парадигматические и синтагматические аспекты лингвисти-
ческого потенциала топонимов в современном английском языке: Автореф.
дисс. … канд. филол. наук. М., 1980.
7. Спрун В.И. Ономастическое поле русского языка и его художественно-
эстетический потенциал. Волгоград, 2000.
8. Nabokov V. The Real Life of Sebastian Knight. Из-во Vintage, 1992.
9. Scott W. Ivanhoe. Moscow, 2010.
ОБ ОНОМАСТИЧЕСКОЙ КАРТИНЕ В АНГЛИЙСКИХ
В статье анализируются взгляды ономастических английских литератур-
ных текстов. На основe исследований произведений В.Набокова “Подлинная
жизнь Себастьяна Найта” и В.Скотта “Айвенго”, автор приходит к выводу, что
существует прямая связь между именами персонажей включенных и созданием
произведения. Изучение литературной ономастики, прежде всего, важно для
лучшего осмысление произведения. Автор обосновывает имена персонажа,
намеренно обогащая их с потенциальным прагматизмом. Имена употребляются
чаще чем другие единицы антропономических категорий используемых в
ONOMASTIC SIGHTS OF THE LITERARY TEXT
The article analyses onomastic views of the English literary texts. Based on the
research of Nabokov’s “The Real Life of Sebastian Knight” and V.Scott’s “Ivanhoe”
fictions, the author concludes that there is a direct link between the character names
included within and creation of the work. The study of literary onomastic, above all, is
important for better comprehension of the work. The author substantiates naming of the
character, intentionally enriches the name with potential pragmatism. The names are
used more frequently compared to other anthroponomical category units used in
Languages have different morphological structure and accordingly they are
In synthetic languages grammatical relations between words:
a) in the phrase and
b) in the sentence are expressed mostly by means of inflections, as in Modern
a) окно дома, ехать верхом, писать ручкой
b) Он едет на работу автобусом. Она читала эту книгу с большим интересом.
In agglutinative languages grammatical relations between word:
a) in the phrase and
b) in the sentence are expressed by means of word-changing inflections mostly
having only one grammatical meaning, as in modern Turkish languages, including
a) otağın qapısı, almanın dadı, məktəbə getmək, işdən qayıtmaq
b) Mən işə avtobusla gedirəm. Onlar kənddə yaşayırlar.
In additional languages, including contemporary English grammatical relations
b) in the sentence are expressed mostly by means of form-words or word order.
a) the leaves of the tree, to go to school
b) There was not a man in the street.
It should be mentioned that the structure of a language is never purely
synthetic, agglutinative or analytical, in a synthetic language one can come across
elements of analytical languages.
For example, the Russian generally called synthetic language. But still one can
across some elements of analytical language in Russian.
For example, in Russian we can say:
a) буду читать; самая красивая;
b) Мать любит дочь. Дочь любить мать.
In these phrases and sentences relations between words in contemporary Russian
order. Because in the sentences Мать любит дочь and Дочь любить мать syntactical
between words are denoted only by means of the position of the words are мать and
before the verb –predicate; the word дочь is the object because it stands after the verb-
predicate. In the second sentence is vice versa. This is the characteristic feature of the
Accordingly, though English is considered to be an analytical language, still it
has got some elements of synthetic languages, such as word-changing reflections and
inner flexion, which are used to express grammatical relations between words in the
phrase and in the sentence.
the plural endings –s (es), -en, such a: tables, foxes, oxen.
the third person singular ending –s (-es)
such as: (She) reads, (He) goes;
- genitive case ending ‘s in the singular nouns, such as: boy’s
-the ending –ed to form the past tense and past participle of regular verbs, such
invited, opened, marked;
a) adjectives and
b) adverbs, such as:
a) shorter, shortest; longer, longest
b) faster, fastest; quicker, quickest
- the gender forming suffix –ess, poetess, lioness
- the inner flexion as in man, men
speak – spoke, louse-lice
The same linguistic phenomena can be met in contemporary Azerbaijani. Being
analytical languages. A striking example for it can be the use of postpositions to denote
grammatical relations between words such as Əhməd üçün and the formation of
comparative and superlative degrees of the adjectives and adverbs as in daha\nisbətən
uzun, ən/lap uzun, daha/nisbətən sürətlə, ən/lap sürətlə.
The grammatical structure of a language is not something that remains fixed and
rigid for ever, it is constantly developing and changing.
The English language can be a good example to testify this. In the history of its
development there have been many changes in the morphological structure of the
Old English had a synthetic structure, in the Middle Period, as a result of almost
disappearance of word changing suffixes, it became analytical, and modern English is
said to be an analytical language, but nowadays it is going to become a synthetic
This postulate can be testified by the fact that in contemporary English the
auxiliary verbs to be, to have, to do and their past tense forms was, were, had, did, the
negative particle not can be used in one case in full forms as a grammatical word
morpheme, as I was, I have, I had, I am not, I was not, in other case as an inflection as
I’ve, you’re, he’s, I don’t, he doesn’t, etc.
In this case the mentioned auxiliary verbs have lost their independence and have
become inflections; they are inseparable parts of the words. They are used together and
can no more be considered auxiliary verbs either in form or in content in present-day
to become a synthetic one, is that nowadays the ‘s is being used more and more wider in
the language. One can observe that the ‘s genitive ending is coming into common use in
contemporary English it can be used with animate nouns as well as inanimate things, as
in the boy’s name, the book’s cover.
English grammarian Barber Charles also testifies to this fast in his book
“Linguistic Change in Present-Day English” published in 1964. He writes:
“In resent years the ‘s genitive has come into common use with nouns which are
replaceable in the singular by it”.
(“Linguistic Change in Present-Day English”, page 132)
Further on he reads:
analytic to the synthetic” (p.133).
All the above mentioned facts show that contemporary English has taken an
extreme tend towards synthetic character.
To know a language, it is not sufficient to know the words existing in the
language. You must also know how to combine them into groups to form meaningful
In other words, you must know the grammar of the language.
Grammar is the totality of rules of the language by which words change their
morphological forms and are combined into sentences in coherent speech; grammar is
the backbone of a language without which it can’t exist and function as a chief means of
It is customary to divide grammar into two main parts:
Morphology deals with the study of the morphemes of a language, and of the
way in which they are joined together to form words.
Syntax deals with the rules of grammar which are used for ordering and
connecting words in a sentence.
Morphology and Syntax of contemporary English tell you how to change words
and how to combine them in order to form various word combinations and sentences
All the words existing in contemporary English are called parts of speech, no
matter whether they have full nominative meaning or not.
According to the classification of the words we can divide them into:
1. Notional parts of speech which comprise the noun, the adjective, the pronoun,
the numeral, the verb, the adverb;
2. Free parts of speech which consist of the interjection and modal words,
including the words yes or no;
3. Functional parts of speech which include the article, the preposition, the
conjunction, the particle.
We know that grammar refers to how we combine, organize and change parts of
words and groups of words to make meaning. We use grammar unconsciously when we
speak, listen, read or write. We also use it, particularly as teachers, to describe language.
We do this by referring to its forms and its uses. Grammar includes a large number of
forms and uses.
and words that contain prefixes.
A part of speech or word class describes how words behave in sentences: how
they operate and combine grammatically with other words.
For example, in English:
1) A noun can act as the subject of a verb but an adjective by itself cannot:
2) An adverb can combine with the adjective but an adjective cannot combine
with another adjective.
well organized, not good organized
3) A noun can combine with another noun:
The form of some parts of speech varies according to the function the parts of
speech have in a sentence. So, for example, these two sentences show different forms of
the adjective old: The boy thought he would never grow old: he’s older than most of his
We also see different grammatical forms in grammatical structure. It concerns
the arrangement of words into patterns which have meaning. There are many
grammatical terms to describe different grammatical structures.
For example: Past continuous\progressive – the form is: subject + past tense of
verb to be+ ing form of verb:
He was running.
Passive voice – the form is: subject + to be + past participle (+by +agent):
Comparative of “long” adjectives – the form is more +long adjective (+than):
prepositional phrase – the form is:
preposition + (article\determiner\....) + noun:
for an hour
As you see from these examples, we find grammatical structures not just in
different form of the parts of speech but also at the level of sentences, phrases and
Contrast clauses – the form is: subordinating conjunction of contrast +finite
Nobody listened although she spoke very slowly and clearly.
We can also talk about how words are formed through word building. One
important way in which English forms words is through the use of two kinds of affixes.
Affixes are a group of letters added at the beginning or end of a base word. They change
the meaning of the words. Affixes are prefixes and suffixes.
Affixes can give grammatical information whether a verb is singular, for
example, or making a tense, parts of verbs, the plural of nouns, possessives:
talked, goes, books, girl’s
Many other prefixes and suffixes are used in English to make new words, by
changing their part of speech and adding a meaning to the base word.
For example: disappear, careful, friendly
communicate) meaning. A particular grammatical structure does not always have the
same meaning. Its meaning comes from the context in which it is used.
The Present Continuous Tense: She is doing he homework might mean:
a) She is doing he homework now\at the moment
listener understands from the context that this refers to an arrangement for the
For example: What is she doing this evening?
Here the Present Continuous is used for firm plans and intentions.
c) She has improved her study habits and regularly does her homework, which she
didn’t do before. The Present Continuous is used here for temporary actions
happening around the time of speaking.
What can we say finally about the morphological structure of languages and
mainly of English language?
Grammar rules describe the way that language works. The language changes
over time, so grammar rules are not fixed. They change too. But grammar rules and
grammar books don’t always change as quickly as the language, so they are not always
up-to-date. For example: some grammar books say that we should use whom rather than
who after prepositions. But in fact, except in some situations, who is generally used,
with a different word order.
I’ve just met the girl who I talked to on Friday.
This sentence is much more common and accepted than
I’ve just met the girl to whom I talked on Friday.
Teachers need to keep up-to-date with what parts of the language are changing
And we have to remember that Grammar rules traditionally describe written
language rather than spoken language.
For example, repetition, exclamations and contractions (two words that are
pronounced or written as one: don’t, isn’t, won’t) are common features of spoken
But they are not always described in grammar books. Some grammar books are
now available which describe spoken language, too.
It is important exercises and activities focus on form and use to give student
practice of both. Learners need to develop accuracy in both form and use.
1. Quirk R., Greenbaums, Leech L, Svartvik L.A. “Comprehensive Grammar of the
English Language. Longman. London and New York, 1998.
2. Barber Charles “Linguistic Change in Present-Day English,” 1964.
3. Gordon E, Krilova I. “A grammar of Present-day English”. Moscow, Vyssaya
4. Azar B. Hagen S. “Basic English Grammar”, Washington, 2006.
5. Elene Marco Fabre “Professional English Grammar”, Cambridge University Press,
Məqalə dillərin morfoloji quruluşundan bəhs edir. Dillərin müxtəlif morfoloji
quruluşu olur və əsasən sintetik, aqlütinativ və analtik olmaqla müxtəlif qruplara
bölünür. Bu qrupların hər birində sözlər, cümlələr arasında qrammatik əlaqə fərqli olur.
Qeyd etmək lazımdır ki, istənilən dilin strukturu sırf sintetik, aqlütinativ, analitik ola
bilməz. Belə ki, məsələn sintetik hesab edilən dilin quruluşunda bir az da olsa analitik
dilin elementlərinə rast gəlmək olur. Məqalədə yuxarıda qeyd olunanlar barədə geniş
məlumat verilmişdir. Bu baxımdan məqalə dillərin morfoloji quruluşu haqqında geniş
informasiya əldə etmək istəyənlər üçün faydalı ola bilər.
В статье идет речь о морфологических структурах языков. В соответствии
с морфологическими структурами языки делятся на различные группы:
синтетические, агглютинативные и аналитические. В каждой из этих групп
грамматические отношения между словами, предложениями отличаются. Следует
отметить, что в любом языке, структура я не может быть чисто синтетической,
агглютинативной или аналитической. Так, например, структура языка, которая
считается синтетической, аналитических элементов может быть найдено совсем
немного. Данная статья может быть полезна для тех, кто хочет получить
информацию о морфологических структурах языков.
Açar sözlər: dil, öyrtəmə, metod, söhbət, oxu, informasiya, lüğət, innovativ, dinləmə
English, the official language of the entire world is a very tricky language to
undergone many forms changes from Proto English derived from the Latin and the
German culture to the Modern English which was established after in the post
Renaissance period. Each version was simpler than it
’s previous. Present day English is
the simplest adaptation of a very old Language and yet it is still difficult to teach this
language effectively especially to those who speak English as a second language.
is needed. Teaching the alphabets and the formation of the words is essential and a
must. But there is something that is even more important. The children must be able to
speak the words and understand their meaning before writing them down. The
foundation to teach English can only be taught using the orthodox methods of teaching
the alphabets and the words and the rules. But then teaching only the rules is found to
be boring by most students and it is because of this that they lose interest in learning the
language. Although there is no way other than the traditional one to teach the basics of
the language these methods must be tweaked a bit so as to appeal to the students. When
it comes to teaching English to students of higher classes who already know the basics
the traditional methods generally tend to yield poorer results that innovative methods.
This has already been proven by methods implemented like use of stories, poems,
movies, books and newspapers etc. These methods help the students learn the language
better without them actually realizing and also it keeps their interest. This paper will
provide a few of such methods to teach English Language.
Stories form a very integral part of teaching a language. These stories help teach
the students about the formation of sentences and how to express their thoughts and a
lot of other things and plus they help in keeping the students interest alive as the story
end is something that every student wants to know. It appeals to the inquisitive nature of
Although this method of using stories has been implemented the procedure of teaching
the language through it is generally not right. The evaluation procedure of testing the
students in their proficiency over the language is through questions based on the story.
This is generally not that effective. Due to this the students generally tend to take up the
stories as a chapter rather than looking at it as an interesting read. A story is supposed to
appeal to the creative part of the brain. It helps us be more imaginative, by trying to
language but it should also help Innovative Methods of Teaching English Language
them in extracting a lesson from the story. Keeping questions for evaluation kills the
entire idea of imagination for the students look at the story as something that they need
to learn for answers. There is a better way of using the stories to English using stories.
The students can enact the stories or the plays. In this way the students are personally
engaged with the stories. They can bring their own interpretation of the character to life.
It is interesting for the students to understand the characters and put themselves in their
positions. It engages their creativity by allowing them to create the entire set, assign the
characters and play it out according to what they had imagined. It also helps them
understand other people
’s interpretation of the story and helps them have a healthy
conversation about it which again helps them in learning the language. It removes the
dull aspects and makes the learning more colorful without jeopardizing the learning of
the language. It may not be perfect but it will leave a deep impression on their mind.
The story will help them learn the language as they will be enacting it by dialog which
they will themselves extract from the stories and also modifications can be made to the
plays to help the students be more interactive and creative. They can add more lines,
characters, change the ending, bring in an interesting twist etc. The more creative the
modification, more are the points awarded to the team. This also leads to personality
development and helps them work as a team player and all the way the student was
learning the language. For example if Julius Caesar was taught using the traditional
methods of questions and answers the student would never understand the deep
emotions of Brutus, the cunningness of Cassius, the loyalty of Antony, the tragedy of
war, the brilliance in Antony
’s speech and many other such aspects of the story for
which the story of Julius Caesar was written by Shakespeare. Similar is the case with all
great stories such as Christmas Carol, Harry Potter, and all the epic stories. Emotions
help define the story and they form a very important aspect of the language and one
ourselves. On the other hand if such stories are enacted then every intention of the story
becomes clear. The students have to immerse themselves into the atmosphere of the
story and they have to put them in their positions. This entire process has many benefits
besides being a very effective method of teaching the language; it helps preserve the
literature, which is nothing but our culture. This method brings about the total learning
experience that was meant to be provided by the story and in the end the student will
definitely be able to answer questions without even preparing for it as an exam, besides
the entire process is fun and not at all boring. Hence it ensures the learning process is
Conversations are by far the most useful ways of teaching the language. When a
child learns his or her mother tongue it is by the conversations that takes place between
them and others or by listening to the conversations made by the others. The child is
never taught the language but is still able to percept the meaning and learns it
automatically to use it in day to day life. No one ever teaches the kid the characters of
the language or how to make sentences or the grammar of that language. The
conversations alone teach the children. Hence conversations form a very important part
of the teaching process. The sentence construction and the grammar is not something
happen through a lot of reading and a lot of listening. This can be taken care of easily as
every conversation needs a topic. The topic can be given to the students in form of
written documents which they have to first read then form an opinion and then have a
conversation about it or it can be spoken out and then they can listen, understand and
also take part in the conversation. The participation and other aspects of the
conversation can always be evaluated through points which will also push the students
to take part in the conversation. These conversations have to be general. They have to
happen as if friends are talking to each other. This way the students are comfortable in
expressing themselves in the best possible way. This process may take some time but in
the end it would be the most efficient one in teaching the language.
Teaching through games is a very interesting method of teaching. Students and
children generally tend to like games and want to play them more and more. Traditional
methods dictated for study and games to be separate but the fact remains that the
students tend to be more interested in playing games rather than sitting down to study.
Any logical reasoning would dictate us to combine the two aspects to solve the problem.
The games part of learning would help the students keep their interest as the desire to
win is very strong. It keeps us going and when included with different aspects of
learning the learning process would continue almost throughout the day without the
children getting tired or bored of studying.
The most important part of any language is the vocabulary. To understand the
meaning of the words and to use them in day to day life is a very difficult task and
games can help the students overcome this Innovative Methods of Teaching English
Language difficulty. Games like scrabble, housie etc. have been designed for this
specific purpose. These games are just based on words and help the students develop
their vocabulary. In addition to these very simple games can be played to help improve
the word database of the students such as simple dictation competitions, synonym
competitions, words puzzles, anagrams and hangman. All these games are very
addictive and help a lot in improving our vocabulary as whenever the student hears a
new word the first question that comes up is “what is its meaning?” and in this way the
vocabulary improves and most of the times we don
’t even have to consult the
dictionary. Most of the times competitions like debates and elocutions also help the help
the students a lot in learning the language as the aspect of the competitions keep them at
the best in conversations. It forces them to use the best possible construction of
sentences to put forward their opinions and to use good vocabulary etc. This is a very
important tool in helping them learn the language. Also these competitions help them
address large crowds which is again is a very important part of personality
Up till now most of the techniques that we discussed required a greater amount
of effort on the student
’s part. This method requires effort on the teacher’s part.
Assignments help the students learn something on their own and most of the times they
have to research on something then write something up on it. This method although
effective is most of the times very tedious. This method of approach is very appropriate
for sciences and engineering although when it comes to languages the students should
be given assignments in which they have to modify something that already exists. If the
the students crack because not everyone can come up with a story or even if they come
up with one they cannot write it down. In such case the students should be given the
base knowledge and data and then ask them to modify the data for example the students
can be given a base story and then ask them to modify a part of it. This engages their
creativity and also helps them overcome their difficulty of writing. Above all it lifts the
pressure of creating completely new. Invention is very difficult especially when we are
being forced to do it. In this way the students are not forced to complete the assignment
and then they can do it whole heartedly and hence complete the learning experience that
can be gained from the assignment.
Multimedia sources like songs, movies, TV series, magazines, newspapers play
a very vital role in improving our language. We don
’t even realize that they have helped
us. We just wake up one fine day and realize that we are better than it than we were
yesterday. Such sources can be used to help the students improve their language. But
great precautions must be taken. This method should be used in the final stages of
learning as that is the only place where there is no scope of damage as most of the
movies and songs etc. use colloquial English most of the times which is grammatically
wrong and it is very important that the students understand that fact so that they do not
use that form of the language in their everyday usage. Apart from that this source is
very helpful as it does not feel like education. This is something that the students will do
in their spare time. The songs are the best way to communicate how to use a language to
express our feelings. Movies are a very common past time but apart from that most of
the times they are also very instructional and educational. Also this method appeals to
the students as most of the times they are able to connect with the songs and the movies
which help them understand the meaning of expressions, usage of tools of the language
like comparisons, personifications etc. These sources help them understand why such
tools are necessary and also help them understand their usage. Hence this method is
again very effective in teaching the language. Traditional methods of reading
newspapers and books, novels are also very good methods to teach the language. When
the traditional methods are modified along with some innovative ideas the entire
learning and the teaching process is enriched and guarantees a success in efficient
learning. These are some of the innovative and creative ways of teaching the English
Everyone loves a teacher with an infectious sense of humor. Looking at the
lighter side of life not only fosters cordial relations between professors and students, but
also provides welcome relief while trying to follow a difficult lecture on a complicated
subject. When there is a willingness to change, there is hope for progress in any field.
Teaching is a challenge. Learning is a challenge. Combining both effectively is a
challenge. Being humorous is a challenge. However, laughing is easy. We are
convinced both by experience and research that using humor in teaching is a very
effective tool for both the teacher and student. Humor strengthens the relationship
between student and teacher, reduces stress, makes a course more interesting and if
relevant to the subject, may even enhance recall of the material. Humor has the ability
to relax people, reduce tension, and thereby create an atmosphere conducive for learning
and communication. Numerous studies in the field of advertising have noted that humor
is the most effective tool for enhancing recall of advertisements. It is easy to create a
The students should be encouraged to take notes, especially to learn about the
professionals’ use of such techniques as exaggeration, pauses, and timing. Observe
reality and exaggerate it - much humor lies in observations about real life and truthful
situations. In conclusion, humor not only plays an important role in the healing process
but is also very important in education.
The languages play a very important role in our lives. They help us express our
emotions. They help us explain what we want. They help us to communicate and hence
are the prime tools to express who we are. Thus the knowledge of a language and its
proper utilization is very important as it defines us. If languages were not there to help
us communicate there would be no difference in our communications and the way the
animals communicate. Hence the ways the languages are taught play a very vital role in
’s life. Since English is the official language of this world it is of utmost
importance that this language has to be taught in such a way that it will help us not just
to speak and write and listen but to communicate. That is the Innovative Methods of
Teaching English Language purpose of the language and that is what it must be used
for. Hence innovative methods help in bringing a change and most of the times for the
better. It helps the students learn faster and in an efficient, interesting and an interactive
manner and it is the teacher
’s responsibility to leave the traditional methods and make
way for new and better methods for the students benefit.
Man is the most intellectual among the all creatures that are born on the planet
Earth. He is next to God, the almighty of this Universe, in controlling things with in his
limitations. The progress of the universe can be compared to ‘the water of a never
drying up river’. “Innovative skill” of the human’s led to the present progress of the
world for which we are the real eye witness. The days are gone when the conventional
and traditional methods of teaching had been everything in the classroom. It’s the age of
inventions and innovative methods. The mindset of the people belonging to two
generations viz. the generation of 60s and the younger generation of 16s has got a great
variation. What was considered great in earlier days is common at present days. Getting
400 marks in SSC was a great task earlier but now the scenario is known to every one of
us. It is not that the paper evaluators are pouring marks like anything for unanswered
questions but it is the fact that the capability of all students due to changes happening in
the teaching using innovative methods. The methods that were followed by the teachers
of later part of 20th century have been superseded by the innovative methods of 21st
century. Nowadays, ‘Learning English’ including its four skills i.e. Listening, Speaking,
Reading and Writing has been the top priority of any student. In Intermediate level and
especially in Graduation level we can see the never dying attitude of students to get
English Language and Communication skills. Every innovative thought bringing us an
innovative method to learn this language by the English teachers has done a lot to all the
learners of this language. The purpose of this article is to suggest some useful teaching
methods that can be attempted in imparting knowledge to the students. Basically
teaching must include two major components sending and receiving information.
Ultimately, a teacher tries his best to impart knowledge as the way he understood it. So,
any communication methods that serve this purpose without destroying the objective
could be considered as innovative methods of teaching.