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ƏDƏBİYYAT 

1.  Əhmədova R. Müasir ərəb dilində sifətlərin bəzi xüsusiyyətləri. “Elmi əsərlər” 

(şərqşünaslıq elmləri seriyası) N:2, Bakı,1975, s.58 

2.  Əhmədova R. Müasir ərəb dilində sifətlərin dərəcələnməsi. “Elmi əsərlər” 

(şərqşünaslıq elmləri seriyası) N:1, Bakı,1979, s.32 

3.  Məmmədəliyev V.M., Ərəb dilçiliyi, Bakı, Maarif, 1985. 

 


Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2015 

 

237



4.  Белова А.Г. Очерки по истории арабского языка. М., 1999, стр.12 

5.  Гранде  В.М.  Курс  арабской  грамматики  в  сравнительно-историческом 

освещении, М., 1998. S49 

6.  Кариев  У.З.  Словообразование  имён  существительных  и  прилагательных  в 

современном арабском литературном языке, М., 1966, таблица  

7.  Полосин В.В. Словарь поэтов племени абс VI-VIII вв., М., 1995, стр.58 

8.  Пурцеладзе  Н.Н.  Очерк  по  исторической  поэтике  (символ-формула  в 

арабской поэзии), Тбилиси, 1990, с.44-52 

9.  Рыбалкин В.С. Арабская лексикографическая традиция, Киев, 1990, с.24-2 

10.  Фролов Д.В. Классический арабский стих, М., 1991, с. 310 

11.  Фролова О.В. Поэтическая лексика арабской лирики, Л., 1984, с.23-24 

12.  Шарбатов  Г.Ш.  Арабский  литературный  язык,  современные  арабские 

диалекты  и  региональные  обиходно-разговорные  языки.  Языки  Азии  и 

Африки. Т. IV, к. I. Семитские языки. М., 1991, с.300 

13.  Юшманов Н.В., Грамматика арабского языка,  M., 1998, s.255 

14.  Юшманов Н.В. Грамматика литературного арабского языка, M., 1985.s42 

 

1

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 ،نسح  سابع

 

  ،ةرھاقلا  ،يفاولا  وحنلا



1964

.

 



2

.

 



نيمأ  ىفطصم و  مراجلا  يلع

  .


حضاولا  وحنلا

  .


ةرھاقلا

  .


 ـج

1

.



 

3

.



 

  ،ةرھاقلا  ،ةيبرعلا  ةغللا   دعاوق  يف   ،يفاولا  وحنلا  باتك

3

  ،ج 


1965

.

 



 

1. 


Barth, J., Die Nominalbildung in den semitischen Sprachen. Hildesheim, 1967, 

p.22 


2. 

Brockelmann. C. Arabische Grammatik, Leipzig ,1953. p.40 

3. 

Fischer W. Classical Arabic // The Semitic Languages, ed. R. Hetzon. London 



– New York, 1997, p.192 

4. 


Fischer W/ Farb- und Formenbezeichnung in der Sprache ger altarabische 

Dichtung. Wiesbaden, 1965, p.65 

5. 

Fischer W. Grammatik der klassischen Arabisch. Wiesbaden. 1972, p.66 



6. 

Fleisch H. Traite de philologie arabe I. Beyrouth. 1961. p.408 

7. 

Fox J. T. Noun patterns in the Semitic languages. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 



1996, p.297 

8. 


Gaudefroy-Demombynes M.et Blachere R. Grammaire de l'Arabe Classique. 

Paris, 1952, p. 113 

9. 

Kurylowicz J. L'apophonie en semitique. Krakow, 1961, p.157-160 



10. 

Wehr H. Der arabische Elativ Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur 

(Mainz). Geistes- und sozialwissenschaftliche Klasse. Abhandlungen. Mainz – 

Stuttgart, 1952/1953, p.570 

11. 

Wehr H. Der arabische Elativ, Stuttgart, 1953, p.60 



12. 

Wierzbicka A. What's in a Noun? Studies in Language. 1986. p. 356 

13. 

Wright W.A. Grammar of the Arabic Language. Beirut, 1974, p.185 



 

 

 

Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2016 

 

238



ХАЯЛА МУСТАФАЕВА 

  

ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫЕ, ОБОЗНАЧАЮЩИЕ ЦВЕТ И ФИЗИЧЕСКИЕ 

НЕДОСТАТКИ В ЛИТЕРАТУРНОМ АРАБСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ 

 

РЕЗЮМЕ 

В  статье  речь  идёт  о  прилагательных,  обозначающих  цвета  и  физические 

недостатки,  в  литературном  арабском  языке.  Такие  прилагательные  с 

морфологической точки зрения отличаются от всех других прилагательных. Они 

используются  для  обозначения  цвета,  физических  недостатков,  каких-либо 

внешних признаков, особенностей строения человеческого тела, а иногда даже и 

положительных  качеств  и  состояний.  Отмечается,  что  характерная  особенность 

этих  прилагательных  заключается  в  том,  что  они,  обладая  общей  семантикой, 

имеют также общие словообразовательные особенности, отличающиеся от других 

существительных  (имён).  Указывается,  что  в  мужском  и  женском  роде  формы 

множественного  числа  прилагательных,  обозначающих  цвета  и  физические 

недостатки,  не  отличаются  друг  от  друга  и  проявляются  в  одинаковой  форме. 

Примечательно,  что  эти  модели  прилагательных  наряду  с  обозначением 

физического  признака,  при  выражении  этого  же  признака  посредством  других 

моделей,  усиливают  его  интенсивность.  Таким  образом,  прилагательное, 

образованное  посредством  другой  модели,  в  целом  обозначает  признак, 

прилагательное  же,  образованное  посредством  модели    لعفأ

ُ َ ْ َ  , означает  именно 

отличительную особенность данного признака. 

 

KHAYALA MUSTAFAYEVA 

MEANING COLORS AND PHYSICAL DEFECTS 

 IN THE LITERARY  ARABIC LANGUAGE 

 

SUMMARY 

The article deals with the adjectives meaning colors and physical defects in the 

literary  Arabic language. Such adjectives differ from the other ones from the 

morphological standpoint. They are used for designation of colours, physical defects 

and some outward features, peculiarities of a human body, sometimes even positive 

qualities and states. It is emphasized that characteristic feature of these adjectives is the 

following one: having common semantics they also have common word-formative 

peculiarities that differ from the other nouns. It is also pointed out that in masculine and 

feminine genders the plural of the adjectives meaning colours and physical defects don’t 

differ from one another and manifest themselves in the same form. It is a notable fact 

that these models of adjectives meaning a physical sign intensify it when this sign is 

expressed by the other models. Thus the adjective formed from the other model in the 

whole means a sign, and the adjective formed by the model  لعفأ

ُ َ ْ َ   mean exactly the 

distinctive feature of this sign. 

 

Rəyçi: 



 Akademik V.M. Məmmədəliyev 

Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2015 

 

239



       GÜLŞƏN CÜMŞÜDOVA  

Azərbaycan Dövlət Neft və Sənaye Universiteti  

 

BASIC LANGUAGE SKILLS 

 

Açar sözlər: dil, bacarıq, dinləmə, danışıq, yazı, oxu, ünsiyyət, şifahi, yazılı  

Key words: language, skill, listening, speaking, writing, reading, communication, 

orally, written   

Ключевые слова: язык, умение, прослушивание, разговор, писание, чтение, 

коммуникация, устно, письменно 

 

The teaching of English as a foreign language is now one of the most important 



subjects in most European primary schools. The implementation of English has brought 

along the need to establish clear objectives that are different to the ones traditionally 

assigned to secondary schools. While in secondary schools we still find, in many cases, 

a teaching based in the formal aspects of the language, i.e. grammar; primary school 

teachers have had to adopt a different approach as the age of the children make the 

teaching of formal aspects not advisable. As a result of this point of view, the different 

Educational Departments have decided to establish, as the main purpose of the EFL 

teaching, the development of the four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. 

However, the implementation of this approach has not been trouble-free as many 

teachers insist on asking their children to understand every single word they listen to or 

read, or expect their pupils to write or speak without making the mistakes normally 

found in the process of acquiring any language. 

The main purpose of this article is to provide some guidelines that we hope can 

be useful to teachers of English as a foreign language at schools. 

•  

Listening 



•  

Speaking 

•  

Reading 


•  

Writing  

The four basic skills are related to each other by two parameters: 

•  


the mode of communication: oral or written 

•  


the direction of communication: receiving or producing the message 

We may represent the relationships among the skills in the following chart: 



 Oral 

Written 

Receptive Listening Reading 

Productive Speaking  Writing 

The following modules will briefly describe some characteristics of each basic skill: 

•  

Listening comprehension skill 



•  

Speaking skill 

•  

Reading skill 



•  

Writing skill  



Listening comprehension is the receptive skill in the oral mode. When we speak 

of listening what we really mean is listening and understanding what we hear. 

 In our first language, we have all the skills and background knowledge we need to 

understand what we hear, so we probably aren't even aware of how complex a process it 



Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2016 

 

240



is. Here we will briefly describe some of what is involved in learning to understand 

what we hear in a second language. 

There are two kinds of listening situations in which we find ourselves:  

•  


interactive, and 

•  


non-interactive  

Interactive listening situations include face-to-face conversations and telephone 

calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance 

to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner. Some 

non-interactive listening situations are listening to the radio, TV, films, lectures, or 

sermons. In such situations we usually don't have the opportunity to ask for 

clarification, slower speech or repetition. 

Richards (1983, cited in Omaggio,1986, p. 126) proposes that the following are 

the micro-skills involved in understanding what someone says to us. The listener has to: 

•  


retain chunks of language in short-term memory 

•  


discriminate among the distinctive sounds in the new language 

•  


recognize stress and rhythm patterns, tone patterns, intonational contours. 

•  


recognize reduced forms of words 

•  


distinguish word boundaries 

•  


recognize typical word-order patterns 

•  


recognize vocabulary 

•  


detect key words, such as those identifying topics and ideas 

•  


guess meaning from context 

•  


recognize grammatical word classes 

•  


recognize basic syntactic patterns 

•  


recognize cohesive devices 

•  


detect sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, object, prepositions, and the 

like 


Speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It, like the other skills, is more 

complicated than it seems at first and involves more than just pronouncing words. 

There are three kinds of speaking situations in which we find ourselves: 

•  


interactive, 

•  


partially interactive, and 

•  


non-interactive 

Interactive speaking situations include face-to-face conversations and telephone 

calls, in which we are alternately listening and speaking, and in which we have a chance 

to ask for clarification, repetition, or slower speech from our conversation partner. Some 

speaking situations are partially interactive, such as when giving a speech to a live 

audience, where the convention is that the audience does not interrupt the speech. The 

speaker nevertheless can see the audience and judge from the expressions on their faces 

and body language whether or not he or she is being understood. 

Some few speaking situations may be totally non-interactive, such as when 

recording a speech for a radio broadcast. 

Here are some of the micro-skills involved in speaking. The speaker has to: 

•  


pronounce the distinctive sounds of a language clearly enough so that people can 

distinguish them. This includes making tonal distinctions. 

•  

use stress and rhythmic patterns, and intonation patterns of the language clearly 



enough so that people can understand what is said. 

Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2015 

 

241



•  

use the correct forms of words. This may mean, for example, changes in the tense, 

case, or gender. 

•  


put words together in correct word order. 

•  


use vocabulary appropriately. 

•  


use the register or language variety that is appropriate to the situation and the 

relationship to the conversation partner. 

•  

make clear to the listener the main sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, 



object, by whatever means the language uses. 

•  


make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or information. 

•  


make the discourse hang together so that people can follow what you are saying. 

Developing your speaking skills will involve gaining fluency in spoken 

interactions with others, as well as practicing your pronunciation. Use your new 

language skills as often as you can to speak to people – other students from your 

language class, native speakers you might meet around town, or language partners in 

online exchanges. To practice pronunciation try reading aloud or repeating after a 

recorded text, trying to reproduce the pronunciation and intonation of the original. Make 

a recording of yourself and listen back to try to identify your own strengths and 

weaknesses as a speaker. 

Reading is the receptive skill in the written mode. It can develop independently 

of listening and speaking skills, but often develops along with them, especially in 

societies with a highly-developed literary tradition. Reading can help build vocabulary 

that helps listening comprehension at the later stages, particularly. 

Here are some of the micro-skills involved in reading. The reader has to:  

•  


decipher the script. In an alphabetic system or a syllabary, this means 

establishing a relationship between sounds and symbols. In a pictograph system, 

it means associating the meaning of the words with written symbols. 

•  


recognize vocabulary. 

•  


pick out key words, such as those identifying topics and main ideas. 

•  


figure out the meaning of the words, including unfamiliar vocabulary, from the 

(written) context. 

•  

recognize grammatical word classes: noun, adjective, etc. 



•  

detect sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, object, prepositions, etc. 

•  

recognize basic syntactic patterns. 



•  

reconstruct and infer situations, goals and participants. 

•  

use both knowledge of the world and lexical and grammatical cohesive devices 



to make the foregoing inferences, predict outcomes, and infer links and 

connections among the parts of the text. 

•  

get the main point or the most important information. 



•  

distinguish the main idea from supporting details. 

•  

adjust reading strategies to different reading purposes, such as skimming for 



main ideas or studying in-depth. 

Writing is the productive skill in the written mode. It, too, is more complicated 

than it seems at first, and often seems to be the hardest of the skills, even for native 

speakers of a language, since it involves not just a graphic representation of speech, but 

the development and presentation of thoughts in a structured way. 

Here are some of the micro-skills involved in writing. The writer needs to: 


Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2016 

 

242



•  

use the orthography correctly, including the script, and spelling and punctuation 

conventions. 

•  


use the correct forms of words. This may mean using forms that express the right 

tense, or case or gender. 

•  

put words together in correct word order. 



•  

use vocabulary correctly. 

•  

use the style appropriate to the genre and audience. 



•  

make the main sentence constituents, such as subject, verb, and object, clear to the 

reader. 

•  


make the main ideas distinct from supporting ideas or information. 

•  


make the text coherent, so that other people can follow the development of the 

ideas. 


•  

judge how much background knowledge the audience has on the subject and make 

clear what it is assumed they don't know. 

Writing in another language can seem a daunting task, but is a critical skill, 

especially if you plan to use it in the workplace. As in your first language, your writing 

will be improved by becoming a critical reader - try to think actively about how texts 

are structured and what kinds of phrases or vocabulary are used for different purposes 

(e.g. introducing a topic, describing, comparing and contrasting, writing conclusions). 

When writing in a foreign language, always try to think and write directly in that 

language. Do not translate from a first draft. It is best not to use a dictionary too much 

in the early stages of writing. Using words in your first language is fine if it helps you 

get a draft written more quickly. You shouldn’t expect to write everything correctly the 

first time, but write and re-write as much as necessary. Finally, try to get constructive 

feedback from others (your teacher, fellow students, native speakers) on how you can 

improve. 

We conclude from our research that the teachers should encourage the students 

to become independent learners enhancing the quality of instruction moving away from 

routine and monotonous activities just for filling time. Thus, our implication from the 

research is that skill integration is inevitably vital where all language skills are not used 

separately but instead all language skills are used in every class. Integrating the 

speaking/listening and writing/ reading classes was informed by Rebecca Oxford's 

image of a language class as a tapestry woven of different strands, where the primary 

skills of speaking, listening, writing, and reading are 'one of the most crucial of these 

strands'. The integrated-skill approach, as opposed to merely segregated approach

confronts English language learners to authentic language and challenges the learners to 

interact naturally in the language. If these four skills are separated from one another, a 

language is taught; however, if they are integrated with each other, authentic 

communication is taught While doing it, the English teachers are supposed to create 

materials and topics that meet the students' needs and interests reflecting on their current 

approach and evaluate the extent to which the skills are integrated. For instance, when 

we teach writing as a process of drafting, revising and letting them brainstorm, all of 

those units must be assessed with the students' participation and need analysis, unlike 

administering a conventional timed essay test. Our instructional materials, textbooks 

and technologies we use must promote the integration of listening, reading, speaking, 

and writing beside the associated skills of syntax, vocabulary and so on. If the tapestry 

of all four skills is interwoven, English language learners will use them effectively for 



Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2015 

 

243



oral and written communication. Furthermore, the study results indicate that the 

integrated-skill approach no matter it is found in content-based or task-based instruction 

can be quite motivating to students of all age groups and backgrounds through 

appropriate tasks. In task-based instruction tasks are defined as activities that can stand 

alone as fundamental units and that require comprehending, producing, manipulating, or 

interacting in authentic language while attention is principally paid to meaning rather 

than form. The aim is to increase the collaboration and interaction among students. The 

theme-based model integrates the language skills into the study of a theme and the 

theme must attract the attention of the learners allowing a wide variety of language 

skills to be practiced. It is a very influential form of content-based instruction in our 

days and we can use it quite often in our classes. 

 

LITERATURE  

1)  Swain, M. & Johnson, R. K. (1997). Immersion education: A category within 

bilingual education. In R. K. Johnson & M. Swain (Eds.), Immersion education: 

International perspectives (pp. 1–16). NY: Cambridge University Press. 

2)  McKay, Sharon; Schaetzel, Kirsten, Facilitating Adult Learner Interactions to 



Build    Listening and Speaking Skills, CAELA Network Briefs, CAELA 

and Center for Applied Linguistics 

 

G.İ.CÜMŞÜDOVA 

ƏSAS DİL BACARIQLARI   

XÜLASƏ 

Məqalə əsas dil bacarıqlarından bəhs edir. Əsas dil bacarıqları dedikdə biz dörd 

növ dil bacarığını nəzərdə tuturuq: dinləmə, danışıq, oxu, yazı. Dilin tədrisi prosesində 

bu bacarıqların hər birinə yer verilməlidir. Əks halda effektli dil tədrisindən söhbət gedə 

bilməz. Dörd əsas dil bacarığı bir-birilə iki parametrlə əlaqədə ola bilər: 

1)  ünsiyyət tərzi: şifahi və ya yazılı; 

2)  ünsiyyət istiqaməti: mesajın alınması və ya təqdim edilməsi. 

Məqalədə yuxarıda qeyd olunanlar barədə geniş məlumat verilmişdir. Bu 

baxımdan məqalə əsas dil bacarıqları haqqında geniş informasiya əldə etmək istəyənlər 

üçün faydalı ola bilər.  




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