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Azərbaycan dili üçün  lüğətlərdən nisbi temporal lokallaşdırma funksiyasına ma-

lik olan aşağıdakı sözlər seçilmişdir: 

Leksik  mənasında ÖNCƏGƏLMƏ olan sözlər: 

İsim: arxaizm, avans, başlanğıc, başlanılma, başlanış, dün, dünən, düngün, ərəfə, 

əzəl, əzəlilik, əzəliyyət, ilkinlik, müqəddimə 



Sifət: arxaik, bayaqkı, əvvəlinci, əvvəlki, əzəli, əzəlki, ilkin, inişilki, irəlidəki, irə-

liki, qabaqdakı,      qabaqkı, məktəbəqədər, tarixəqədərki 



Zərf:  axşamayaxın, axşamqabağı, bayaq, bayaqdan, bayramqabağı, bildir, çox-

dan, erkən, ertə (tez, qabaq, əvvəl), ertədən, əqdəm, əvvəl, əvvəlcə, əvvəlcədən, əvvəl-

dən, əvvəli, əvvəllər, əvvəllərdə, əvvəlləri, əzəllər, əzəlcə, ibtidada, ibtidadan, inişil, irə-

li, irəlicə, irəlicədən, irəlidə, qabaq, qabaqca, qabaqcadan, onda (keçmişdə) öncə, öndən, 

sübhəyaxın, 

Qoşma: əvvəl, qədər, müqəddəm, -dak (-dək), -can (-cən), kimi,     

Ara söz: Əvvəla, əvvələn, 

  Leksik  mənasında EYNİZAMANLILIQ olan sözlər: 



İsim:  birvaxtlılıq, eynivaxtlılıq, eynizamanlılıq,  əsrdaş, həməsr, həmyaş, həm-

yaşlıq, həmyaşıd, həmyaşıdlıq, həmzaman, indilik, müasir, müasirlik, nəsil, sinxroniya, 

sinxronizm, sinxronluq, sinxronlaşdırma 

Sifət: buaykı, bugünkü, builki, çağdaş, eynivaxtlı, eyniyaşlı, eynizamanlı, hazırkı, 

həmvaxt, həmyaş, həmyaşıd, indiki, müasir, mövcud, sinxron 



Zərf:  İndi, indilik, indicə, indilikdə, indilikcə, vaxtında, vaxtlı-vaxtında, dərhal, 

əlüstü, hazırda, hələ (ki), hələlik 



Fel:  yaşamaq, var olmaq, mövcud olmaq müasirləşdirilmək, müasirləşdirmək, 

müasirləşmək, sinxronlaşdırmaq 



Bağlama:  ikən   

Leksik  mənasında SONRAGƏLMƏ olan sözlər: 



İsim:  axır, axırzaman, axirət, geclik, mabəd, postimpressionizm, postmodernizm, 

son  


Sifət: növbəti, postsovet, postmodernist, sonralıq, 

Zərf: axırda, ertə (hazırkı gündən sonra gələn), gec, gecdən, gecdən-gec, gec-gec, 

həftəsonu, nəhayət, nəhayətdə, nəticədə, onda (indi yox, o zaman), sonra, sonradan, son-

radan-sonraya, sonralar, sonralıqca, sonrası, tezliklə, yaxında, yaxınlarda 

   Qoşma: bəri, sonra, doğru, 

 Ara söz: nəhayət, axırda, ikincisi, saniyən 

İngilis dili üçün    lüğətlərdən nisbi temporal lokallaşdırma funksiyasına malik 

olan aşağıdakı sözlər seçilmişdir: 

Leksik  mənasında ÖNCƏGƏLMƏ olan sözlər: 

       İsim:  Antecedent, antecedence, antedate, anteriority, anticipation, eve, ex, 

forenoon, forerunner, foreplay, prearrangement, precondition, precaution preface, pre-

judice, precedent, pre-election, prevention  

  Sifət: Antenatal, anterior, early, foregoing, past, precedent pre-classical, precon-

scious, pre-election, pre-dynastic, pre-Columbian, pre-human, preliminary, premature, 

predictable, premier, previous, prior, primary  



Fel: Foreordain, prearrange, predict, pre-elect, preoccupy, prepay, prepossess, pre-

suppose, preview, prevent, predetermine, predestine  



Zərf: Afore, aforetime, already, anteriorly, before, beforehand, ago, early, former-

ly, lately, latterly, previously, recently, yesterday, once  



Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2016 

 

36



Sözönü: Afore, before, ere, till, by, until       

Bağlayıcı: before, since, till, until, when  

Leksik  mənasında EYNİZAMANLILIQ olan sözlər: 



İsim:  Attendant, coexistence, coincidence, concomitance, concourse, contempo-

rary, coeducation, contemporaneity, modernity, modernization, simultaneity, simultane-

ousness, synchronism, synchronization 

Sifət: Attendant, coexistent, coexisting, co-extensive, coeval, coincident, concur-

rent, contemporary, contemporaneous, simultaneous, synchronous 



Zərf: Coincidently, meantime, meanwhile, (at) once “at the same time”, still, yet 

Fel: Accompany, attend, concur, modernize, synchronize 

Sözönü: At, in, on, over, upon, with, during 

Bağlayıcı: As, no sooner … than, when, whenever, while 

  Leksik  mənasında SONRAGƏLMƏ olan sözlər: 

İsim:  Aftercare, aftereffect, aftergrass, afterlife, afterimage, aftershave, after-

shock, posteriority, posterity, post-graduate, post-impressionism, sequence, 

subsequence   

Sifət: After, consecutive, conesquent, posterior, post-classic, post-graduate, post-

war, subsequent, successive, ulterior, belated, coming, late, latter, next  



Zərf:  After, afterwards, immediately, instantly, lastly, late, next, nextly,  pro-

spectively, subsequently, successively,   



Fel: Defer, delay, postdate postpone 

Sözönü:  After, following, on, past, since  

Bağlayıcı:  After, as soon as, directly, immediately 

Müqayisə edilən hər iki dildə  nəzərdən keçirilmiş leksik vahidlərin lüğət təhlili 

göstərir ki, nisbi temporal lokallaşdırma funksiyası müxtəlif leksik vahidlərdə müxtəlif 

cür təzahür edir.  

Hər iki dildə tədqiq edilən temporal leksik vahidlərin semantik strukturunda  ikili  

məna çaları vardır. Onlardan biri «hərəkət, hadisə, proses və ya işin adı»dır və o özünü 

söz köklərində (kök-morfemlərdə) göstərir. Digər çalar isə «aidlik, nisbət, əlaqələndir-

mə» çalarıdır. O da özünü  mürəkkəb sözlərin ikinci komponentində  büruzə verir.  

Qeyd etmək lazımdır ki, post- önşəkilçisi Azərbaycan dilində hələ tam vətəndaşlıq 

hüququ qazanmamışdır. Son dövrlərdə Qərbi Avropa dillərindən bizim dilimizə keçən 

sözlərin tərkibində özünü göstərən bu şəkilçinin hələlik Azərbaycan mənşəli sözlərlə 

birləşərək söz yaratması müşahidə olunmur. Sonragəlmə mənası  ...sonrakı komponenti-

nin iştirak etdiyi mürəkkəb sözlərdə özünü göstərir. Mürəkkəb sözlərdə ...qabağı, ...ön-

cəsi,...qədərki  komponentləri öncəgəlmə mənası yaradır. 

Bu sahədə ingilis dilində önşəkilçilər üstünlük təşkil edir. İngilis dilində nisbi 

temporal lokallaşdırma funksiyalı sözyaratma vasitələrinə after-, ante-, fore-, co- (con-, 

com-), post-, pre- önşəkilçilərini nümunə göstərmək olar. Onlardan ante-, fore-, pre- ön-

şəkilçiləri öncəgəlmə, co- (con-, com-) önşəkilçisi eynizamanlılıq, after-, post- önşəkil-

çiləri isə sonragəlmə ifadə edir.  

Faktik dil materialının araşdırılması göstərir ki, temporal leksikanın reallaşdırdığı 

semantik funksiyalar ayrı-ayrılıqda deyil, nitqdə yalnız mütləq temporal lokallaşdırma 

funksiyası ilə birlikdə reallaşa bilir.  



Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2015 

 

37



ƏDƏBİYYAT 

1.  Axundov A. Fəlsəfi və qrammatik zaman kateqoriyaları // Ağamusa Axundov. Dil 

və Ədəbiyyat. I cild 

2.  Axundov A. Azərbaycan dilinin izahlı lüğəti. Bakı, 2005. 

3.  Azərbaycan dilinin izahlı lüğəti. II c., Bakı, 1999. 

4.  Azərbaycan dilinin izahlı lüğəti. III c., Bakı, 2000. 

5.  Бондарко А.В. Функциональная грамматика.Л., Наука, 1984.  

6.  6.Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Cambridge University Press, 2003.  

7.  Hornby A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, Vol. I-II, 1982. 

8.  Милейковская Г.М. О соотношении объективного и грамматического времени 

// Вопросы языкознания. 1956, № 5. 

9.  The Oxford English Dictionary, Volume X1, T-U, Oxford, At the Clarendon Press. 

 

                                                                    ГЮЛЬНАР АХУНДОВА 



СЕМАНТИЧЕСКИЕ ФУНКЦИИ СЛОВА ОБОЗНАЧАЮЩИЕ ВРЕМЯ 

 

РЕЗЮМЕ 

  В  статье  на  материале  азербайджанского  и  английского  языка 

анализированы  семантические  функции  слова  обозначающие  время.  Различные 

языковые средства выражения темпоральности представляют собой не случайный 

набор изолированных единиц, а систему взаимозависимых и взаимодействующих 

средств.  Эти  средства  объединяются  на  основе  общности  и  взаимодействия  их 

семантических 

функции. 

Общность 

семантических 

функции 

означает 

принадлежность  семантических  элементов  к  определенной  семантической  зоне. 

Все семантические функции обладают общим значением «временная координата» 

и  служат  для  реализации  функции  временной  локализации.  Общая  функция 

временной  локализации  включает  в  себя  ряд  специальных  семантических 

функций: 1) функция  абсолютный  темпоральной  локализации; 2) функция 

относительной темпоральной локализации;  

 

GULNAR AKHUNDOVA 

THE SEMANTIC FUNCTIONS OF WORDS EXPRESSING OF TIME 

 

SUMMARY 

This article deals, on the material of the Azerbaijani and English languages, with 

the semantic functions of  words expressing of time . The different linguistic means of 

expression of temporality are not a casual set of disconnected, incoherent units, but a 

system of the organic and associated means. These expression means combine on the 

basis of commonness and interrelationship of their semantic functions. The 

commonness of semantic functions means belonging of semantic elements, expressed 

by various language means, to a definite semantic zone. All constituents of the field of 

temporality have a common meaning of ‘time dating’ (‘time coordinate’) and serve for 

the realization of the function of time localization. The common semantic function of 

time localization includes a number of special semantic functions as 1)  the absolute 

temporal localization; 2) the relative temporal localization. 



 

Rəyçi: İlham Tahirov, fil.e.d., professor 

Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2016 

 

38



f.e.n., SEVİL ƏLİYEVA 

ADNSU 

sevil.aliyeva.72@mail.ru 



 

DEVELOPING THE SKILL OF ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS  

 

Açar sözlər: sual, cavab, bacarıq, inkişaf etdirmək, dil, müəllim, tələbə, ünsiyyət 

Key words: question, answer, skill, to develop, language, teacher, student, 

communication  

Ключевые слова: вопрос, ответ, умение, развивать, язык, преподаватель, 

студент, коммуникация   

 

A daily activity in every classroom is the asking and answering of questions. 

There are many purposes for asking questions including, the following: to actively 

engage the students in the lesson, to create interest in the topic and to develop the 

students’ critical thinking abilities. Unfortunately, teachers are sometimes unaware of 

the most beneficial approaches to implementing this activity, and that the techniques 

that they do employ might, in fact, be inhibiting student participation and learning. 

Teachers ask questions for several purposes, and for that reason, they may 

formulate their questions in various ways.  There are many ways of categorizing 

questions, and we will review several approaches in this article. 

The simplest way to distinguish between types of questions is the difference 

between display questions and referential questions. A display question is a question for 

which for which the answer is obvious; for example, what is this colour? Alternatively, 

how many arms do I have? The purpose of a display question is to allow the student to 

show that they know and can express the answer in the target language.  A referential 

question, on the other hand, poses a problem for which the answer is not obvious and 

may be unknown to the teacher and student alike.  The purpose of this type of question 

is to discover the unknown information. 

a) 

Refocusing questions are used when learners are off-task or in a transition to a 



new topic, 

b) 


Clarifying questions are used if the learner’s answer was not clear, if the 

teacher is looking for a different answer or if the teacher wants the answer expressed 

differently, 

c) 


Verifying questions are used to elicit more detail and clarification, 

d) 


Narrow the focus questions are used to refocus answers within a narrower 

framework; that is, to restrict the content of the answers, 

e) 

Supporting questions are used to assist students in establishing connections 



and relationships between concepts. 

Teachers should consider preparing some questions in advance.  This would 

benefit the students since it would ensure that various types of questions with differing 

levels of difficulty and complexity would be explored.  It is advisable to keep Bloom’s 

Taxonomy in mind when preparing questions.  This would oblige the teacher to 

consider the type of information they are seeking to elicit with the question. 

Two types of wait time are apparent in a classroom setting.  One type of wait time 

is the time between asking a question and getting an answer from a student.  The second 

type of wait time concerns the length of time that the teacher allows to pass after a 

student stops speaking before the teacher speaks up, again. Some studies have shown 

that the average wait time allowed by teachers is less than a second, which does not 


Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2015 

 

39



allow much opportunity for students to internalize the discussion.  A wait time of 3 to 5 

seconds has been found to result in higher student performance standards.  Waiting 

those extra few seconds can produce several other positive outcomes including, the 

following: 

a) 

Improved student retention, 



b) 

Increased length of student responses, 

c) 

More unsolicited student responses, 



d) 

Increased contributions by students who normally would not with a wait time 

of under 3 seconds, and; 

e) 


Fewer student interruptions. 

In addition to evaluating their techniques of posing questions, teachers should also 

actively assess their techniques of answering questions, as well. Teachers should 

consider whether to answer questions directly, indirectly or not answer the question at 

all and redirect it to someone else. 

As we can see the process of posing and answering questions, whether by the 

teacher or by the students, is of critical importance in the language classroom.  All 

students need to be made to feel comfortable asking questions, even if the answer has 

already been covered.  The teacher must acknowledge the value of each question. 

Students should be given plenty of opportunity to ask questions, so that they do not 

need to be constantly interrupting the class to ask something. All of these considerations 

may be facilitated if the teacher provides an opportunity for the student to ask questions 

at regular intervals. By demonstrating the necessary patience to indulge students’ 

curiosity, a teacher will create a “question-friendly” environment, and this would go a 

long way toward creating a “student-friendly” classroom. 

Question forming is often difficult for foreign language speakers due to the 

mandatory word order inversion in English questions. This is especially true for Spanish 

speaking students, where word order inversion is uncommon. In each question, students 

are presented with a group of words. The object is to put these words in the correct 

order to form a syntactically correct question. Practice involves rewriting sentences. 

Below you will find our forming questions worksheets. On these worksheets, 

students learn common question formats. These worksheets work especially well with 

English as second language students because English differs from many other languages 

in regards to interrogative structure. 

  Interested in using interactive versions of our worksheets? Want to use a study 

tool which automatically scores your work and allows you to review your mistakes? 

Have fun and help preserve the environment at the same time. As we know learning a 

language is done on mainly three levels:  

1) 

beginning  



2) 

intermediate  

3) 

advanced  



Answering questions by students is changed, i.e. is from simple to complex 

according to these levels. For example:  



Beginning Level 

Beginning Forming Questions Worksheet - Who? 

Beginning Forming Questions Worksheet - What? 

Beginning Forming Questions Worksheet - When? 

Beginning Forming Questions Worksheet - Where? 

Beginning Forming Questions Worksheet - Why? 

Beginning Forming Questions Worksheet - How? 


Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2016 

 

40



Beginning Forming Questions Worksheet - To be? 

Beginning Forming Questions Worksheet - To do? 



Intermediate Level 

Intermediate Forming Questions Worksheet - Who? 

Intermediate Forming Questions Worksheet - What? 

Intermediate Forming Questions Worksheet - When? 

Intermediate Forming Questions Worksheet - Where? 

Intermediate Forming Questions Worksheet - Why? 

Intermediate Forming Questions Worksheet - How? 

Intermediate Forming Questions Worksheet - To be? 

Intermediate Forming Questions Worksheet - To do? 

Advanced Level 

Advanced Forming Questions Worksheet - Who? 

Advanced Forming Questions Worksheet - What? 

Advanced Forming Questions Worksheet - When? 

Advanced Forming Questions Worksheet - Where? 

Advanced Forming Questions Worksheet - Why? 

Advanced Forming Questions Worksheet - How? 

Advanced Forming Questions Worksheet - To be? 

Advanced Forming Questions Worksheet - To do? 

The first step in asking better questions is to identify the types of questions we are 

currently asking, why we are asking them, and finally, what techniques can we utilize to 

improve the questioning that occurs in our classrooms. Questions help teachers fulfill 

multiple agendas in the classroom. Questions are used to help teachers ascertain the 

level at which their students understand (or misunderstand) concepts presented during 

lecture, they are used to engage or encourage students’ active participation in a lesson, 

they are used to allow students to express their thoughts and hear explanations offered 

by their peers, and they are used to keep students alert or on task during class time. 

Focusing on why questions are asked leads us to ask the deeper question of how 

questions are being asked. When we look within the broader context of classroom 

interaction, how questions are asked has a tremendous impact on learner outcomes. 

These outcomes are shaped not just by how the instructor phrases and uses questions, 

but are also shaped by the ways in which students are encouraged to generate their own 

questions. How questions are asked and answered have broader implications than 

mastering content. Effective instructors “model the process of inquiry and organizing 

the search for solutions for their students”. Teach Talk, a newsletter for educators 

dedicated to promoting best practices in the classroom, suggests that successful 

questioners utilize several skills when crafting and asking good questions. These 

include: phrasing and sequencing questions effectively, responding to questions so that 

class time is used efficiently, keeping questions from leading to digression (unless the 7 

digression is useful), and using the right tone and delivery both when asking and 

responding to question.  

Techniques for Successful Questioning  

1. Phrasing; teacher communicates the question so that the students understand the 

response expectation (i.e.: no run-on questions).  

2. Adaptation; teacher adapts the question being asked to fit the language and 

ability level of the students.  

3. Sequencing; teacher asks the questions in a patterned order indicating a 

purposeful questioning strategy.  



Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2015 

 

41



4. Balance; teacher asks both convergent and divergent questions and balances the 

time between the two types. The teacher uses questions at an appropriate level or levels 

to achieve the objectives of the lesson.  

5. Participation; teacher uses questions to stimulate a wide range of student 

participation, encouraging responses from volunteering and non-volunteering students

redirects initially asked questions to other students.  

6. Probing; teacher probes initial student answers, and encourages students to 

complete, clarify, expand or support their answers.  

7. Wait Time (Think Time); teacher pauses three to five seconds after asking a 

question to allow students time to think. The teacher also pauses after students’ initial 

responses to questions in class.  

8. Student Questions; teacher requires students to generate questions of their own.  

The techniques listed above are straightforward points that most instructors are 

familiar with. However, even though we know that these simple techniques make for 

best practice in the classroom, many of us simply forget to employ them regularly. Most 

often forgotten is the practice of “wait time.” Research shows that instructors wait 

between .7 seconds and 1.4 seconds for pupils to respond to questions. Furthermore, 

teachers will wait less than .7 seconds if they believe that their students might not know 

the answer to the question posed. “Wait time” – or the time an instructor waits silently 

between asking a question and expecting an answer – can impact the classroom 

dynamic tremendously. Mary Bud Rowe first described the positive outcomes 

associated with “wait time” in 1972. Rowe’s research indicated that when teacher 

directed questions were followed by at least three seconds of undisturbed silent time for 

students to formulate responses, the students answered the question more successfully. 

Student success in formulating answers was not the only positive outcome observed 

when “wait time” techniques were introduced to classrooms. Other researchers found 

that regular use of “wait time” had positive impacts on both students and teacher 

attitude and behaviors. 

Student behaviors observed when increased “wait time” was introduced to the 

classroom:  

1. Decrease in “I don’t know” responses  

2. Length and accuracy of answers increased  

3. The number of volunteered, appropriate responses by larger number s of 

students increased.  

4. Achievement test scores rose. Teacher behaviors observed when increased 

“wait time” was introduced to the classroom:  

5. Questioning strategies became more flexible and varied.  

6. The quantity of questions asked decreased, while the quality and variety of 

questions increased.  

7. Higher-order, divergent questions were asked more often.  

In 1985, Stahl updated Rowe’s conception of “wait time” with the introduction of 

“think time”. Stahl’s idea is based upon Rowe’s research, but goes a step further

defining this time as a “distinct period of uninterrupted silence by the teacher and all 

students so that they can both complete appropriate information processing tasks, 

feelings, oral responses and actions” (Stahl, 1994). Stahl articulates his preference for 

the term “think time over “wait time” in a 1990 article published by the Arizona State 

University:  

1. Think time names primary academic purpose and activity of the period of 

silence thus allowing students and teachers to complete “on-task” thinking.  


Filologiya  məsələləri – №02, 2016 

 

42



2. There are numerous places where periods of silence are as important as those 

“wait time” periods reported in the literature.  

3. There is at least one exception labeled “impact pause time” that allows for 

periods of less that 3 seconds of uninterrupted silence.  

Whether calling it “wait time” or “think time,” instituting breaks between the 

questions and anticipated student responses proves to be a technique that makes 

questions more powerful teaching tools. Questioning at post-secondary level few 

students, even those at graduate levels are skilled at asking higher-cognitive questions in 

class, and observations of college-level instructors reveal that even at the post-

secondary level, teachers are not modeling high level divergent questioning for their 

students. 



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