Tree diversity in the rain forests of kalimantan



Yüklə 38,33 Kb.
Pdf görüntüsü
tarix11.08.2017
ölçüsü38,33 Kb.

The Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical Rain Forests

69

TREE DIVERSITY IN THE RAIN FORESTS OF KALIMANTAN



Kade Sidiyasa

ABSTRACT

Kalimantan, which has large areas of forest, encompasses a variety of forest types comprising

mangrove forest, coastal forest, swamp forest, evergreen tropical rainforest, forest over

limestone and heath forest, and stretching from sea level up to 2556 m altitude. The mixed

dipterocarp forests are situated mostly in lowland areas, below 600 m altitude. Very few

Dipterocarp species occur at high altitudes, i.e., Hopea mengerawan, Shorea curtisii ssp.



curtisii, Shorea sp. and Vatica oblongifolia. The high quality timber species Agathis endertii is

found only at an altitude of 1450-1600 m, where it mainly grows together with some species of



Lithocarpus, Nageia wallichiana and Podocarpus neriifolius. Eugenia spp., Adinandra and

Lithocarpus dominate vegetations on the mountain peaks of Mt. Lunjut and Mt. Mencah (Kayan

Mentarang National Park). A typical highland species, Weinmannia borneesis is also found

here. Tristaniopsis sp. can be dominant on very steep and rocky slopes. Shorea balangeran and



Cratoxylum glaucum usually grow on peat or kerangas forests, whereas Gonystylus bancanus,

Alstonia pneumatophora, Alstonia spatulata, Combretocarpus rotundatus, Dactylocladus and

Lophopetalum javanicum are adapted to the swampy areas.

Detailed information on the vegetation (trees) of Sungai Wain Protected Forest in East

Kalimantan is presented. In a plot area of 3.6 ha, divided into 9 subplots, 385 tree species with

the dbh of 10 cm or more were recorded. These species belong all to 143 genera and 49

families. The species composition in the different subplots sometimes varies greatly. Ranked by

importance of species, Shorea laevis, Madhuca kingiana, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Shorea



smithiana, Koompassia malaccensis and Drypetes kikir are the dominant species in the

subplots.



INTRODUCTION

The forests of the Malaysian region are very species-rich in all groups of biological organisms.

Of the estimated 42,000 vascular plant species (Roos, 1993) or from the 25,000 species of

flowering plants according to Whitmore (1990), the vast majority occur in forest ecosystems,

and a very high proportion of these plant species are trees and large shrubs. Kalimantan, which

has large area of forest, is believed to be one of the islands that still harbours numerous

unknown and endemic species that have not yet been described. This is a reasonable assumption

because, in the area of flora, most of the biologists (especially botanists) agree that the

Indonesian provinces of Kalimantan area are still under-collected. Relatively few botanical

explorations have been made in the past. In the period 1989–1999, collections by the staff of the

Wanariset Herbarium added more than 11000 items to the collection of Kalimantan (Sidiyasa et

al., 1999). These collections comprise mainly trees from the East Kalimantan area.

Borneo, including the Indonesian provinces of Kalimantan and the Malaysian states of Sarawak,

Sabah and Brunei, is the  largest island in the Sundanic biogeographical subregion. It is a centre

for many genera and species of the Malaysian flora. It is said that Borneo is also the home of the

South East Asian Dipterocarps. According to Newman et al. (1998), there are 273 species and


The Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen, the Netherlands

70

20 subspecies of Dipterocarpaceae in this area. Most of the island comprises undulating hilly



lowland and swampy plains. The Kalimantan part reaches from sea level up to 2556 m altitude.

The highest peak is unnamed and is located above the headwaters of the Bahau River in East

Kalimantan. The climate is humid, with a rainfall varying between 2000 and 4000 mm/year.

The FAO (1981) described Borneo as an island covered by a continuous carpet of evergreen

rain forest dissected by swirling brown rivers. Today, a lot of forest areas have been cleared for

timber, agricultural land, industries and resettlement. Forest fires in 1982/1983 and 1997/1998

had a disastrous impact on remaining forest conservation areas. Soon, after the forest cover had

been removed, people who live nearby, automatically extended their ladang area into the

conserved forest lands.

Kartawinata et al. (1981), Bratawinata (1986), Sidiyasa (1987, 1995) and Riswan (1987),

among others, have already published information and detailed studies on the structure and the

species composition of forests at some places in Kalimantan. However, much more research is

still needed.  The present paper elaborates on the results  of the research on tree species diversity

in primary forests carried out by the MOFEC-Tropenbos-Kalimantan Project during its

existence in this area (since 1987). Literature study is also incorporated in order to provide more

adequate information.



GENERAL FLORISTIC DIVERSITY OF KALIMANTAN

Lowland forest

The area where lowland forest occurs refers usually to the area below 700 m above sea level,

and does not include specific habitats like kerangas forest, swamp forest, coastal forest and

mangrove forest. Most of the Kalimantan forests are in this category, where the Dipterocarp

species may be dominant. In many cases, the dominance of the Dipterocarpaceae in the area is

related to their trunk or bole sizes, which is usually very large. It is different from the family of

Euphorbiaceae, which is also very often dominant, but the dominance is related to the higher

number of genera and species found.

Nine genera of Dipterocarpaceae are found in Kalimantan. They are Shorea, Anisoptera,

Parashorea, Dipterocarpus, Cotylelobium, Dryobalanops, Hopea, Vatica and Upuna. From the

10 genera of the Malaysian Dipterocarps, only Neobalanocarpus has not been recorded from

Borneo so far. This species occurs in Thailand and in Peninsular Malaysia.

As the most suitable habitat, it is well known that the lowland forests consist of the highest

diversity of plants, especially trees. The most durable timber species “iron wood”

(Eusideroxylon zwageri) is mostly adapted to flat lands along rivers, sometimes dominant, and it

is extremely slow growing. Sidiyasa (1995) found this species was also growing well on

undulating areas in Sintang, West Kalimantan.

Other common and important tree species in lowland primary forests in Kalimantan are

Koompassia excelsa,  Pometia pinnata, Dracontomelon dao, Durio spp., Artocarpus spp., and

Dialium spp.,  These species, except Koompassia excelsa, are important and well known

because of their fruits, which are edible. Sindora spp. and Palaquium spp. are known for their

timber quality. Pometia pinnata and Dracontomelon dao are some of the trees which usually

grow along the rivers and small tributarys. Pometia pinnata especially is very easy to

distinguish in the field because of its young leaves, which are dark red.


The Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical Rain Forests

71

Montane  forest

It is already well known that, in most places at higher altitudes, the diameter of trees tends to be

smaller than that of trees growing at lower altitudes. This characteristic is very obvious when

the habitats are rocky or are higher than 1600 m altitude. Very few  Dipterocarp species occur at

this level. During our botanical exploration in the Kayan Mentarang National Park (Mt. Lunjut

and Mt. Mencah), four species of Dipterocarpaceae were collected. They are Hopea

mengerawan, Shorea curtisii ssp. curtisii, Shorea sp. and Vatica oblongifoliaShorea curtisii

ssp. Curtisii, in particularis found at the altitude of 1000 - 1600 m. The high quality timber

species Agathis endertii is found only at an altitude of 1450-1600 m. It grows mainly together

with some species of Lithocarpus, Nageia wallichiana and Podocarpus neriifolius.  At the top

of Mt. Lunjut (1900 m), Eugenia spp. are very dominant, while on Mt. Mencah (1980 m) the

vegetation is dominated by Adinandra spp. and Lithocarpus. A typical highland species,



Weinmannia borneesis, is also found here. Tristaniopsis sp. which is easily recognised from its

filling and red-orange outer bark can be dominant on very steep and rocky slopes.



Heath forest

In Kalimantan and the other parts of Borneo, this forest formation is called ‘kerangas’. The

forest grows on very acid soils, that usually consist of white sand.Nutrients are therefore very

low and rice will not grow. The most common tree species that occur in kerangas forests are



Shorea balangeran, Cratoxylum glaucum and Eugenia spp. Some species of Lithocarpus and

Buchanania arborescens also occur here. In Sarawak, Casuarina nobilis and Calophyllum

incrassatum were also recorded (Whitmore, 1990).

Swamp forest

Depending on the type of the habitat of its occurrence, this forest is may be called  ‘peat swamp

forest’, if it occurs in a wet area with waterlogged condition, or ‘freshwater swamp forest’, if it

occurs in an area where flooding is periodic, either daily, monthly or seasonally. In peat swamp

forest, some tree species such as Gonystylus bancanusAlstonia pneumatophora, Alstonia

spatulata, Cobretocarpus rotundatus (Anisophylleaceae),  Dactylocladus and Lophopetalum

javanicum grow particularly well. In freshwater swamp forest many more species are usually

adapted to the habitat conditions. Calophyllum spp., Eugenia, Vatica venulosaHorsfieldia spp.

are common here.

STRUCTURE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF SUNGAI WAIN FOREST

Introduction

The forest of the Sungai Wain Protected Forest (SWPF) is the remaining tract of primary

lowland forest nearest to the large cities in East Kalimantan. The forest is located only 15 km

north of the Balikpapan city, along the Balikpapan - Samarinda main road. The total area is

about 10,000 ha. Unfortunately, local communities occupy part of the area, especially along the

Balikpapan - Samarinda main road. According to Sukmajaya et al. (1999), about 360 ha have

been already converted into agricultural land by 147 families. In addition, more than 50 percent

was affected by forest fires in 1997/1998.

As the only primary forest remaining near a big city like Balikpapan, the Sungai Wain forest has

a very important function, economically as well as ecologically. Much research on flora or

fauna, including their ecosystems, has been or still is being done here. This area supports

populations of sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), red monkey (Presbytis rubicunda), orang-utan

(Pongo pygmaeous) (Orang-utan Reintroduction Project) and a wide range of other rare


The Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen, the Netherlands

72

endemic fauna and flora species. The forest also provides non-timber forest products for the



people living around the Sungai Wain FR and it serves as the main water catchment area

supplying the immense oil refinery industry in Balikpapan.

The aim of this study is to obtain detailed information on forest structure and tree species

composition (diversity) and to compare these characteristics with other forest sites, mainly in

Kalimantan, Sarawak, Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia.

Plot establishment and site description

Following an extensive field orientation, nine permanent subplots, each 200 x 20 m (0.4 ha),

totalling 3.6 ha, were established in the Sungai Wain PF. In order to facilitate the inventory, the

subplots were divided into 10 x 10 m units. Ironwood poles of 5 x 5 x 130 cm were used as the

corner (border) markers of each subplot. Slope corrections were made for horizontal distances.

The main terrain characteristics of the subplots were:

- subplot 1: consists mostly of flat land, which is located on a small tributary of the Wain river;

- subplot 3: on lower and middle slope, a small part on a small tributary of the Wain river;

- subplot 5 undulating area on a small tributary of the Wain river;

- subplot 7, upper slope, ridge and a little part in a swampy area;

- subplot 9, slope and flat land on a small tributary of the Bugis river;

- subplot 11, undulating;

- subplot 13, undulating, partly swampy and small tributaryof the Bugis river;

- subplot 15, slope and a small part in the swampy area;

- subplot 17, ridge, slope and small tributary of the Bugis river.

The forest in the plots was considered primary forest, but there has probably been some illegal

logging and damage by storm in the past. Many big trees had fallen, probably because of the

loose soils, which are mostly sandy.



Data collection

All trees with a dbh 10 cm or more (dbh = diameter at breast height, 130 cm above ground

level) or if buttresses present, about 30 cm above buttresses, were measured in all nine subplots.

The position where the measurement was made was marked by red paint (a horizontal ring

around the tree bole). All trees in the subplots were numbered permanently, using aluminium

tags. Preliminary tree identification was made in the field, but later a detailed identification was

made in the herbarium at the Wanariset station. All specimens (plant samples) which could not

be identified with certainty to the species level were collected. These (paucher) specimens were

also important for identifying the total number of species, even if the plants were not fully

identified to species level; in which case, a numeric coding system was used, e.g. Baccaurea

sp.1,  Baccaurea sp.2, Garcinia sp.2, etc.

Data analysis

The Important Value index (I.V.) of Cottam and Curtis (1956) is used to describe and compare

the species dominance of the subplots. The I.V. of the taxon of each subplot is defined as the

sum of its relative density and relative dominance; while, in order to describe the dominance of

species in the whole plot, the I.V. is defined for the whole plot (all 9 subplots) - - by adding its

relative frequency. The following equations are used:



The Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical Rain Forests

73

Number of individuals of a taxon



Relative density

------------------------------------------    x 100

    Total number of individuals

        Basal area of a taxon

Relative dominance

-----------------------------------------     x 100

 Total basal area of the subplot

        Frequency of a taxon

Relative frequency

----------------------------------------      x 100

   Total frequencies of all taxa

Result

Forest structure

Based on the data collected in the whole plot area of 3.6 ha, the forest in the Sungai Wain FR

has a density of 535 trees/ha and a basal area of 23.5 m2/ha (Table 1 shows the tree density and

basal area of each subplot). The tree density is more or less similar in most subplots, with a

variation between 470 trees/ha in subplot 5 and 712 trees/ha in subplot 17. There is no distinct

correlation between the tree density and basal area found in the subplots. As shown in Table 1,

the forest in subplot 7 has the largest basal area of 30.2 m2/ha, with a density of only 500

trees/ha. In subplot 17 the density of 712 trees/ha is much higher than that in the other subplots,

but here the basal area is only 23.1 m2/ha (lower than those found in subplots 5, 7 and 11).

Table 1 


Tree density and basal area of nine subplots in the Sungai Wain forest

No. of subplots

Characteristic of subplot

Tree density

(trees/ha)

Basal area (m

2

/ha)

1

Flat, small stream



524

22.6


3

Slope, small stream

500

22.8


5

Slightly undulating, small stream

470

29.6


7

Slope, ridge and swampy

500

30.2


9

Slope, flat and small stream

505

18.8


11

Undulating

502

24.9


13

Undulating, small stream and swamp

505

19.9


15

Slope and a little swamp

555

19.6


17

Ridge, slope and small stream

712

23.1


The very high tree density in subplot 17 (712 trees/ha) is an exception. The forest in this subplot

is in very good condition. The number of trees with a diameter of more than 60 cm in this

subplot is higher than in the other subplots (except subplot 1), which have only one or two trees

of more than 60 cm in diameter.

Comparison with some other forest areas in Kalimantan, Sarawak, Sabah and Peninsular

Malaysia shows that the forest in Sungai Wain has the lowest basal area  (see Table 2). This low

basal area is probably due to the small diameter of the trees in the Sungai Wain PF. In the whole

plot area of 3.6 ha, only 18 trees with the diameter of more than 60 cm were recorded. In the

“Matthijs” permanent plot in the Wanariset Forest with a plot area of 0.51 ha, 10 trees with a

dbh of more than 60 cm were recorded, and in a plot of 1.12 ha in the Apo Kayan forest 19 such

trees were found (van Valkenburg, 1997).


The Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen, the Netherlands

74

Table 2 



Tree density and basal area in primary forest plots in Kalimantan, Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular

Malaysia


Site

  Area

 (ha)

Density

(trees/ha)

Basal area (m

2

/ha) Reference

Kalimantan

Wanariset (plot Matthijs)

0.51

518


32.3

van Valkenburg (1997)

Wanariset

1.6


541

29.7


Kartawinata et al. (1981)

Lempake


1.6

445


33.7

Riswan (1987)

PT.  ITCI

4.9


599

41.8


van Valkenburg (1997)

Apo Kayan

1.12

570


35.5

van Valkenburg (1997)

Apo Kayan

(Fagaceae plot)

0.8

719


36.0

Bratawinata (1986)



Sungai Wain

3.6

535

23.5

present study

Sarawak

Gunung Mulu

1.0

778


57.0

Proctor et al. (1983)



Sabah

Danum Valley

8.0

434


26.3

Newbery et al. (1992)

Danum Valley

1.0


431

42.8


Kamarudin (1986)*

Peninsular Malaysia

Sungai Menyala

1.62

488


32.9

Wyatt Smith (1966)

*) As cited in Newbery et al. (1992).

There are three very big trees (with a dbh more 100 cm) in Sungai Wain PF sample plot. One of

these trees is Dipterocarpus cornutus and the other two are Shorea laevis. The largest diameter,

122.6 cm,  is a Shorea laevis. All of these species belong to the heavy Dipterocarps group. The

largest size for ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri) was 75.2 cm in diameter in subplot 5, where

this species is also the dominant species.

In terms of tree density (see Table 2), the Sungai Wain plot as well as the forest plots in the

Wanariset area (Kartawinata et al., 1981and van Valkenburg, 1997), and the plot in Lempake

(Riswan , 1987) may be considered as representative for the Balikpapan-Samarinda area. The

very high density for the forest plot in Apo Kayan described by Bratawinata (1986) in a

Fagaceae forest may be the highest one in Kalimantan so far.

Species composition

In the plot area of 3.6 ha, 385 tree species (dbh 10 cm or more) were recorded. They belong to

143 genera and 49 families. Based on number of species of each family, Euphorbiaceae is the

most dominant family (consist of 47 species), followed by Lauraceae (28 species),

Myristicaceae (27 species) and Myrtaceae (24 species). The ten most common families in the

present study in Sungai Wain PF as well as in studies in  primary forest plots in some other

places in East Kalimantan, are presented in Table 3.

In the family Euphorbiaceae, Baccaurea is the most common genus (with 10 species) followed

by Aporosa (9 species) and Cleistanthus (8 species). In the family of Lauraceae, 10 genera were

recorded, led by Litsea consisting of 11 species. The family of Myristicaceae was dominated by



Knema (11 species); while the family of Myrtaceae was dominated by Eugenia (21 species).

Eugenia is one of the most common genera; it was found in every subplot. The exception was

subplot 1, where only one tree of Eugenia was recorded. In the other subplots the genus

occurred usually more, with up to 18 trees belonging to 9 species in subplot 9. Depending on the

species, some tend to grow on flat land and along streams and some others on slopes or ridges.



The Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical Rain Forests

75

Table 3



The highest ranking ten families of trees (dbh > 10 cm) at various sites in East Kalimantan based on

number of species, except for ITCI plots and the Apo Kayan plot, which are based on Importance Value



Families

Sungai Wain*

Wanariset

1

Lempake

2

Apo

Kayan

3

ITCI

76-3a

76-b

3

ITCI

72-8

76-4

3

Spec.


(rank)

spec.


(rank)

spec.


(rank)

Euphorbiaceae

47

(1)


26

(1)


32

(1)


2

2

3



Lauraceae

28

(2)



14

(2)


18

(3)


5

2

Myristicaceae



27

(3)


12

(5)


10

(7)


9

Myrtaceae

24

(4)


4

3

6



Dipterocarpaceae

19

(5)



14

(2)


12

(6)


1

1

1



Fagaceae

19

(5)



3

8

5



Leguminosae

17

(7)



10

Burseraceae

15

(8)


11

(6)


9

(8)


5

5

Annonaceae



15

(8)


8

(8)


22

(2)


10

9

8



Anacardiaceae

12

(10)



7

Also included in the top ten in Wanariset, Lempake, Apo Kayan and ITCI

Meliaceae

9

(14)



13

(4)


13

(5)


7

Rubiaceae

11

(11)


8

(8)


15

(4)


Sapotaceae

11

(11)



12

(5)


5

(9)


7

4

4



Moraceae

11

(11)



9

Bombacaceae

6

Polygalaceae



8

* = present study;  ¹ = Kartawinata et al. (1981);  ² = Riswan (1987);  ³ = van Valkenburg (1990)

The sweet edible (pulp) fruit of Baccaurea macrocarpa is found in subplots 1, 5, 7, 11, 13 and

17. Some other common fruit tree species were found in the area, such as Artocarpus



anisophyllus, Artocarpus dadah, Arstocarpus nitidus, alangium spp. and Bouea oppositifolia.

The dominance of species in each subplot was determined on the basis of the I.V. of each

species (see Table 4).  Shorea laevis and Madhuca kingiana appeared to be the most common

species in the plot area. Each was found to be dominant in three subplots. Shorea laevis was

always dominant in areas with relatively dry soils and on upper slopes and ridges; while

Madhuca kingiana prefers the slightly wet habitat, on lower slopes and flat land.

Table 4


The dominant species on every subplot in Sungai Wain forest based on Importance Value (I.V.)

No. of

Subplots

Dominant species

Number

of trees

Basal area

(m

2

)

I.V.

1

Madhuca kingiana

36

0.971


27.350

3

Madhuca kingiana

48

0.804


32.806

5

Eusideroxylon zwageri

11

1.449


24.467

7

Shorea laevis

 7

1.784


21.823

9

Drypetes kikir

11

0.558


12.865

11

Madhuca kingiana

12

0.318


9.168

13

Shorea smithiana

 2

1.530


20.231

15

Shorea laevis

 4

1.071


15.465

17

Shorea laevis

 9

1.091


14.967

The Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen, the Netherlands

76

Eusideroxylon zwageri, which is now said to be becoming rare, is dominant in subplot 5, in a

slightly undulated flat stretch along a small tributary of the Wain river. This species grows

mainly in the company of Dipterocarpus tempehesMadhuca kingiana and Shorea johorensis.

Compared with other forests in other sites in Kalimantan, Sarawak, Sabah and Peninsular

Malaysia, as shown in Table 5, its seems that the species composition of the Sungai Wain forest

is rather rich. Probably, only the Apo Kayan plot is richer than the Sungai Wain plot. The much

smaller Apo Kayan plot of 1.12 ha, contains as many as 58 families with 136 genera and 264

species. The ITCI plot 76-4, which is located in the middle slope and in a valley, is a poor plot,

with only 198 species being recorded in an area of 1.65 ha.

Table 5

Number of families, genera and tree species (dbh 10 cm or more) at various sites in Kalimantan, Sabah,



Sarawak and Penansular Malaysia

Site

Area

(ha)

No.

families

No.

genera

No. species References

Kalimantan

Sekadau, West Kalimantan

0.6

37

71



106

Sidiyasa (1987)

Wanariset

0.51


35

76

117



van Valkenburg (1997)

Wanariset

1.6

45

122



239

Kartawinata et al. (1981)



Sungai Wain

3.6

49

143

385

Lempake


1.6

44

125



209

Riswan (1987)

PT. ITCI (upper slope,

Plot 76-3a)

0.5

31

62



104

van Valkenburg (1997)

PT. ITCI (middle slope/

Valley, plot 76-4)

1.65

44

108



198

van Valkenburg (1997)

Apo Kayan

1.12


58

136


264

van Valkenburg (1997)

Apo Kayan, Fagaceae plot

0.8


42

78

175



Bratawinata (1986)

Sabah

Danum Valley*

4.0

-

-



242

Newbery et al. (1992)

Danum Valley*

4.0


-

-

247



Newbery et al. (1992)

Sarawak

Gunung Mulu, alluvial plot

1.0

-

-



223

Proctor et al. (1983)

Gunung Mulu, diptero. plot

1.0


-

-

214



Proctor et al. (1983)

Peninsular Malaysia

Pasoh


1.0

-

-



210

Kochummen et al. (1990)

* =  Trees >12 in. (30.5 cm) girth at breast height.

Conclusion

1.

 



Dipterocarps and most timber tree species in Kalimantan are found mainly in tropical

lowland forest.

2.

 

Tree species that are common in montane forests in East Kalimantan include Shorea



curtisii ssp. curtisii, Agathis endertii, Nageia wallichiana, Podocarpus neriifolius,

Weinmannia borneensis, Adinandra spp., Lithocarpus spp., Tristaniopsis sp. and Eugenia

spp.


3.

 

Shorea balangeran and Cratoxylum glaucum are the most common tree species found in

kerangas forest.

4.

 



Typical tree species that grow well in swampy areas are Gonystylus bancanusAlstonia

pneumatophora, Alstonia spatulata, Cobretocarpus rotundatus,  Dactylocladus and

Lophopetalum javanicum .

5.

 



An indication of the forest structure of the Sungai Wain sample plot is given by a tree

density of 535 trees/ha (representative for the Balikpapan-Samarinda area) and a basal area

of 23.5 m2/ha, which is the lowest value compared to other forest sites that have been

studied in Kalimantan.



The Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical Rain Forests

77

6.



 

The Sungai Wain forest is rather rich in tree species. In the sample plot of 3.6 ha, 385 tree

species (dbh 10 cm or more) were recorded, belonging to 143 genera and 49 families.

7.

 



The family of Euphorbiaceae is the most dominant family in the Sungai Wain sample plot

with 47 species, followed by Lauraceae with 28 species, Myristicaceae with 27 species and

Myrtaceae with 24 species.

REFERENCES

Bratawinata, A. (1986). Bestandsgliederung eines Bergregenwaldes in Ostkalimantan /



Indonesien nach floristischen un structurellen merkmalen. PhD thesis. Georg August

Universität, Göttingen, Germany.

Cottam, G. and Curtis, J.T. (1956). The use of distance measurements in phytosociological

sampling. Ecology 37: 451-460.

Kochummen, K.M., LaFrankie, J.V.  and Manokaran, N. (1990). Floristic composition of Pasoh

Forest Reserve, a lowland rain forest in Penansular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest



Science 3: 1-13.

Newbery, D.M., Campbell, E.J.F., Lee, Y.F., Ridsdale, C.E. and Still, M.J. (1992) Primary

lowland dipterocarp forest at Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia: structure, relative abundance

and family composition. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, series B

335: 341-356.

Proctor, J., Anderson, J., Chai, P. and Vallack, H.W. (1983). Ecological studies in four

contrasting lowland rain forests in Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak. Journal of

Ecology 71: 237-260.

Riswan, S. (1987). ‘Structure and floristic composition of a mixed dipterocarp forest at

Lempake, East Kalimantan’, pp. 435-457 in: A.G.J.H. Kostermans (ed.), Proceedings of the

Third Round Table Conference on Dipterocarps (16-20 April 1985, Mulawarman University,

Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia).

Sidiyasa, K. (1987). Composition and structure of a ‘tengkawang’ (Shorea stenoptera Burck)

forest at Sekadau, West Kalimantan. For. Res. Bull. 490: 13-23.

Sidiyasa, K. (1995). Structure and composition of ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. & Binn.)

forest in West Kalimantan. Wanatrop 8(2): 1-11.

Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. van. (1997). Non-timber forest products of East Kalimantan: potentials



for sustainable forest use. Tropenbos Series 16. The Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen,

the Netherlands.

Whitmore, T.C. (1990). An introduction to tropical rain forests. Clarendon Press, Oxford,

United Kingdom.



Wyatt-Smith, J. (1966). Ecological studies on Malayan forests. Malayan Forestry. Department

Research Pamphlet 52.

The Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen, the Netherlands

78


Yüklə 38,33 Kb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2020
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə