Low Isolated Clumps of Shrubs of Regelia ciliata and Kunzea glabrescens or Mid Shrubland
*Hypochaeris glabra and Trachymene pilosa on white grey sandy clay or grey brown sand on
the periphery of claypans
Mid Open Shrubland of Acacia saligna subsp. lindleyi and Calothamnus quadrifidus over
*Briza maxima and *Briza minor on grey brown sandy clay in drainage lines
Low Heathland to Mid Closed Heathland of Banksia telmatiaea, Hakea obliqua subsp.
loam, sandy clay or clay loam in broad damp depressions on flat to gently undulating plains
Low Isolated Clumps of Trees to Low Woodland of Banksia attenuata, Banksia menziesii
Sedges to Mid Sedgeland of Anarthria laevis and/or Low Isolated Clumps of Rushes of
Low Sparse Heathland to Low Closed Heathland of Allocasuarina spp., Calothamnus
Sedgeland of Mesomelaena pseudostygia and Schoenus clandestinus on white grey to grey
sand or white grey sandy loam to yellow brown clay loam with lateritic surface stones in
broad dry depressions or gently undulating plains
Mid Open Shrubland to Mid Shrubland of Banksia leptophylla, Banksia sessilis var.
yellow brown sandy loam on ridges and dunes with limestone outcropping
Mid Open Shrubland to Tall Closed Shrubland of Melaleuca teretifolia, Melaleuca
loam or clay loam in broad shallow basins, wet flats and drainage lines
Low Woodland to Mid Open Forest of Eucalyptus rudis subsp. rudis over Low Isolated
Shrubland to Tall Shrubland of Acacia saligna subsp. lindleyi, over Low Isolated Clumps of
Forbs to Low Closed Forbland of *Galium murale, *Hypochaeris glabra, *Lysimachia
arvensis and Trachymene pilosa on grey to grey black sand, sandy loam, sandy clay or clayey
sand in wetlands, broad shallow basins/depressions and drainage lines
Low Isolated Clumps of Trees to Mid Woodland of Banksia littoralis and Melaleuca
black loamy sand in drainage lines, wet plains and edges of damp depressions
Mid Isolated Clumps of Trees to Mid Open Forest of Corymbia calophylla, Eucalyptus rudis
Shrubland of Acacia cyclops, Acacia saligna and/or Spyridium globulosum over Mid Isolated
Clumps of Shrubs to Mid Sparse Shrubland of Xanthorrhoea preissii with occasional Mid
Clumps of Sedges of Gahnia trifida on white grey to grey brown sandy loam in drainage lines
Tall Shrubland to Tall Closed Shrubland of Acacia saligna subsp. ?lindleyi and Melaleuca
?longitudinale on grey sand to dark brown loamy sand with ironstone outcropping in shallow
Low Sparse Samphire Shrubland to Mid Samphire Shrubland of Sarcocornia quinqueflora,
Clumps of Shrubs to Low Open Shrubland of Frankenia pauciflora and/or Lawrencia
*Lysimachia arvensis, *Polypogon monspeliensis and/or *Vulpia bromoides on white grey to
grey brown sandy clay to clay on saline flats
Mid Woodland of Casuarina obesa over Mid Sparse Shrubland to Tall Closed Shrubland of
Mid Isolated to Tall Isolated Clumps of Sedges of Baumea juncea and Gahnia trifida or Low
Isolated Clumps of Shrubs of Calothamnus hirsutus, Grevillea thelemanniana subsp.
Cooljarloo (B.J. Keighery 28 B) and Verticordia densiflora on grey white to grey brown
clayey sand on saline flats
Low Woodland of Eucalyptus decipiens or Low Mallee Woodland of Eucalyptus foecunda
Shrubland of Acacia lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa, Calothamnus quadrifidus, Leucopogon
low rises or ridges with limestone surface stones; or Tall Isolated Clumps of Shrubs of
Low Sedgeland of Schoenus curvifolius and/or Low Isolated Clumps of Forbs to Low Closed
*Parentucellia viscosa, Brachyscome bellidioides, Calandrinia sp. Kenwick (G.J. Keighery
10905), Goodenia pulchella subsp. Coastal Plain A (M. Hislop 634) and Wurmbea sp. on grey
to grey brown sandy clay loam on non-saline flats
General Description: Dominated by Low Isolated Clumps of Trees to Low Open Forest of
mixed Banksia attenuata, Banksia menziesii and occasionally Eucalyptus todtiana and
Banksia prionotes, over general species rich Low Shrubland dominated by mixed species
including Bossiaea eriocarpa, Eremaea pauciflora, Melaleuca clavifolia, Hibbertia
to sandy clay on dunes to undulating plains, to open depressions and flats; Heaths typically
present on depressions and flats with greater levels of clay present.
Super-group 2 is comprised of VTs 17 and 18, occupying approximately 66% of the Study
undulating plains and dunes of deeper sand. The landforms and associated soils upon which
VT 17 and 18 were mapped are relatively similar, with VT 17 generally associated with white
sand and VT 18 with yellow sand and a laterite influence. The Woodland forms of VT 17 and
18 are difficult to interpret in the field and from aerial photography, without the confidence of
VTs within Super-group 2 generally grouped together due to the presence of taxa from Species
including Banksia menziesii, Banksia attenuata, Dasypogon obliquifolius, Bossiaea eriocarpa,
Other Species Groups which were represented included H and M, however these species were
not consistently represented to the extent as those in Species Group S (Appendix R).
Super-group 2 was mapped in areas from open depressions (not water gaining), plains, and
mapped on areas with deeper sands, and in these areas the vegetation structure was
characterised by Woodlands dominated by a variety of Banksia species; however, areas of
shallower sands with a higher clay content were also represented, where the structure of the
vegetation consisted of species-rich mixed Heath, often with occasional emergent Banksia
trees or Nuytsia floribunda.
The taxon richness of VTs within Super-group 2 was similar, with a mean richness of 37.3
native taxa was also similar, with 233 species recorded in VT 17 and 234 species in VT 18.
VT 18 had a greater variation in structure and species richness than VT 17. On average
species richness was generally higher than that of Super-group 1.
VTs 17 and 18 are described briefly below, with detailed information presented in Appendix
Low Isolated Clumps of Trees to Low Open Forest of Banksia attenuata, Banksia menziesii
Shrubs to Low Shrubland of Bossiaea eriocarpa, Dasypogon obliquifolius, Eremaea
?occidentalis and Petrophile linearis over Low Isolated Clumps of Sedges to Mid Open
Low Isolated Clumps of Trees to Low Open Forest of Banksia attenuata and Banksia
Clumps of Sedges to Mid Open Sedgeland of Mesomelaena pseudostygia on grey to yellow
grey sand on undulating plains and low dunes or white grey to grey brown sand, sandy loam
or sandy clay loam on simple slopes, open depressions or flats within undulating plains
Other areas within the Study Area that did not possess naturally occurring native vegetation or
were void of vegetation were mapped separately. These areas, detailed below, occupied
approximately 8% (2 650 ha) of the Study Area.
Areas where no vegetation occurred because of human disturbance were mapped as ‘Cleared
9). The numerous minor tracks throughout the Study Area were not mapped as Cleared Land
due to their complexity.
Portions of the North and South mine occurring within the Study Area have been rehabilitated
Wetlands with obvious areas of open water, visible on aerial photography were mapped as
The majority of the Study Area consists of large areas of intact native vegetation and was
mapped as having a ranking of 2 (Excellent) (Keighery 1994; Table 5), with little to minor
overall disturbance (for example historical drilling lines), and limited presence of introduced
flora taxa (non-aggressive taxa). Although the vegetation in many individual quadrats had
been ranked as 1 (Pristine), as a whole the majority of vegetation has been mapped as 2 due to
the non-capture of disturbance such as tracks and historical drilling within the scale of
Fewer areas have been mapped as having vegetation in either 3 (Very Good) or 4 (Good)
densities of introduced flora taxa and rabbit-related impacts (Figure 8). Wetland areas appear
to be more degraded than vegetation on other landforms in the Study Area, particularly the
naturally more open larger Melaleuca rhaphiophylla wetlands in the south (e.g. VT 9b) and
the low-lying flats in the west (e.g. VT 13). Contributing factors include increasing weed
covers leading to a loss of native understorey species, which may be a result of increasingly
extensive periods of drying out and shorter periods of inundation due to changes in medium to
long term rainfall patterns (Section 2.1), and edge effects from adjacent agricultural land.
Areas that were mapped as Cleared for the purposes of vegetation mapping have been mapped
under Rehabiltiation, or are represented by open Water have been mapped as such (Figure 8).
Significant (recent) vegetation stress was observed (but not mapped) across the Study Area
various Banksia species in the period since the Spring 2012 survey (approximately six
months). The incidence of deaths was highest in proximity to vegetation occurring in wetter
areas (VT 1, VT 5, VT 6), indicating that hydrological factors may be contributing to the
decline in vegetation.
The Declared Weeds Echium plantagineum and Moraea flaccida are of limited distribution
prolific in Banksia woodlands in the southwest, particularly around Perth.
Table 13 presents the local significance of each VT, as defined in Table 7; all VTs were
ranked Moderate, High or Very High. The local conservation significance of the majority of
vegetation within the Study Area was ranked Moderate (78.1 % of the Study Area, composed
of three VTs); although they were not restricted in distribution in the local area, they provide
preferred habitat for one or more Threatened flora. The local conservation significance of a
further eight VTs (comprising 11.03 % of the Study Area) was ranked High; these VTs are
generally restricted in distribution, but often do not provide habitat for Threatened Flora taxa.
The local conservation significance of a further eight VTs mapped within the Study Area was
(3.17 % of vegetation within the Study Area); although Threatened flora are known to occur
in these, they do not provide preferred habitat for such flora. An explanation of the VTs
ranked Very High is given:
It provides habitat (although not preferred) for Anigozanthos viridis subsp.
provides habitat (although not preferred) for the Threatened Flora taxa Andersonia
of the Study Area (Figure 9). It does not represent preferred habitat for any Threatened
flora taxa, but it does occur on a highly restricted landform (clay pans);
lines and depressions predominantly in the southern part of the Study Area. It also
provides habitat (but not preferred) for the Threatened flora taxa Andersonia gracilis
and Anigozanthos viridis subsp. terraspectans;
VT 10 was predominantly mapped in the northeast corner of the Study Area where the
restricted in the Study Area and represents preferred habitat for P1 and P2 flora taxa;
VT 12 was mapped at one location within the Study Area. It occurs on a highly
Study Area, however one has subsequently been cleared during mining activities in the
North mine (Quadrat COOL-49);