Vegetation and Flora Survey Report



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A paucity of annual and short lived species were recorded in the August 2003 and April 2004 surveys due 

to very dry seasonal conditions that occurred in prior seasons. As a result, an additional survey was 

conducted in September 2004 after reports of good rainfall in the preceding winter. Despite a number of 

new collections in the additional survey, a number of annual Priority species known to occur in the area 

was not found. The known distribution of Chthonocephalus muellerianus (P2), Chthonocephalus 



tomentellus (P2), Millotia depauperata (P1) and Rhodanthe oppositifolia subsp. ornata (P2) includes the 

survey area but presumably conditions prior to the surveys were not suitable for their germination. The 

local managers of Hamelin Bay and Coburn stations indicated that while the region received good rainfall 

the local area received below average rainfall.  The low rainfall may have contributed to the absence of 

these species.  

 

Fifteen introduced species were recorded in the survey area, of which most are currently restricted to 



small, often disturbed sites. The high level of soil disturbance associated with the proposed mining 

activity poses a risk of increased weed invasion. In a direct return test pit (Rehabilitation Benchmarking 

Exercise)  Brassica tournefortii,  Rostaria pumila and Sonchus oleraceus were recorded. The latter two 

species were found only in the trial pit, while Brassica tournefortii is widespread across the survey area 

where it has invaded relatively undisturbed environments and has become highly abundant in disturbed 

areas. The latter is particularly apparent on the pastoral leases. This species has become a problem in 



Acacia shrublands of the Zuytdorp National Park where it replaces the native species Parietaria debilis, 

particularly when also under grazing pressure (Keighery et al. 2000). Similar but more localised problems 

also occur in the Shark Bay World Heritage Property. The increased number of introduced species after 

disturbance, as shown in the direct return test pit, poses an issue for revegetation and could increase weed 

invasion into the adjacent World Heritage Property. 


Flora and Vegetation 

 

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7. RECOMMENDATIONS 

The findings of the flora and vegetation study illustrate the botanical values of the survey area. The 

significance of the flora and vegetation of the area is evident from the range of priority species and the 

variation in communities from those on the sandy soils in the west to the calcrete and sandy-loam soils in 

the east.  

 

The following recommendations are made to minimise the impacts of the proposed development on the 



botanical values in the event that mining practices commence in the area: 

 



Clearing is limited to that which is necessary for operations, particularly adjacent to World 

Heritage Property. 

 

Communities S5, S8, S9 and S10 should be retained due to a high density of Priority Flora and 



Communities S2, S3 and M1 should be retained where possible to preserve mature plants that 

support a range of fauna species. 

 

Additional searches for Eucalyptus beardiana (R) and other Rare and Priority species on the 



southern haul road should be conducted prior to the finalisation of the access route and the 

location of the accommodation facility options.  

 

Searches for Rare and Priority Flora should be continued during the development phase. 



 

Additional permanent vegetation plots should be established and monitored before during and 



after mining activities. 

 



The likely success for revegetation should be further investigated, addressing the issues of 

water relations, weed invasion, changes in topography and soil structure. 

 

Topsoil should be respread over disturbed areas as soon as possible after clearing and 



stockpiling should only be undertaken for short periods if direct return of topsoil is not 

feasible. 

 

Dunal topographic systems should be protected were possible, or reworked through mining 



process.  

 



Local hydrological soil conditions are managed to minimise direct and indirect impacts on the 

native vegetation areas and the rehabilitation areas. 

 

Further collections of flora should be undertaken after higher seasonal rainfall events to extend 



the range of annual flora species in the survey area. 

8. 

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS 

The following personnel of Mattiske Consulting Pty Ltd have been involved with this project: 

 

Principal Ecologist: 



Dr E. M. Mattiske  

 

Senior Botanist: 



Dr S Chalwell 

 

Botanists: 



Mr D Rathbone 

 

Ms K. Honczar 



Ms C. Gray 

Ms N. Johnson 

 

Data Processing: 



Ms K. Moiler 

9. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author would like to thank Ms Sonia Finucane and Mr Blair Hardman of URS Australia Pty Ltd for 

their assistance with this project. 

 

 



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10. REFERENCES 

Beard, J.S.  (1976) 

Vegetation Survey of Western Australia - Murchison. University of Western Australia. 

 

Beard, J.S.  (1990) 



Plant Life of Western Australia. Kangaroo Press. 

 

Bureau of Meteorology (2005) 



Climate Averages for specific sites.  Publicly available data prepared by the Bureau of 

Meteorology, Commonwealth of Australia. 

http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/ca_wa_names.shtml 

 

Department of Agriculture (2005) 



Declared Plants List.  Publicly available list prepared by the Department of Agriculture, 

Western Australia. 

 

Department of Conservation and Land Management (2005) 



Declared Rare and Priority Flora List.  Publicly available list prepared by the Department of 

Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.  

 

Department of Environmental Protection (2000) 



Bush Forever. Volume 2 – Directory of Bush Forever Sites.  Department of Environmental 

Protection, Western Australia. 

 

Diels, L. (1906) 



 

Die Pflanzenwelt von West-Australien sudlich des Wendekreises.  Vegn. Erde 7, Leipzig. 

 

English, V. and Blyth, J. (1997) 



Identifying and conserving threatened ecological communities in the South West Botanical 

Province.  National Parks and Wildlife and Department of Conservation of Land Management, 

Western Australia.  

 

Environment Australia (2005)  



National list of Threatened Species, Ecological Communities and Threatening Processes. 

Commonwealth of Australia.   

http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/forms/sprat/public/publicthreatenedlist.pl?wanted=flora 

 

Gardner, C.A. (1944) 

 

The vegetation of Western Australia with special reference to climate and soils.  J.Proc. R.Soc. 

West Aust. 28: 11-87.  

 

Gardner, C.A., and Bennetts, H.W. (1956) 



 

The Toxic Plants of Western Australia.  WA Newspapers, Perth. 

 

Gibson, N., Burbidge, A.H., Keighery, G.J. and Lyons, M.N. (2000) 



The temperate to arid transition of the Irwin – Carnarvon phytogeographic boundary, Western 

Australia. In ‘Biodiversity of the southern Carnarvon Basin’ Supplement No. 61. Eds - Burbidge 

A.H., Harvey, M.S. and McKenzie, N.L. Western Australian Museum. 



 

Keighery, B.J. (1994) 



Bushland Plant Survey. A Guide to Plant Community Survey for the Community. Wildflower 

Society of WA (Inc.), Western Australia. 



 

Flora and Vegetation 

 

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Keighery, G.J., Gibson, N., Lyons, M.N. and Burbidge, A.H. (2000) 



Flora and vegetation of the southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. In ‘Biodiversity of 

the southern Carnarvon Basin’ Supplement No. 61. Eds - Burbidge A.H., Harvey, M.S. and 

McKenzie, N.L. Western Australian Museum. 

 

Maslin, B.R., Acacia subrigidaFlora of Australia, 11A: 374 (2001). 

 

Mattiske Consulting Pty Ltd (2003) 



Preliminary Flora and Vegetation Survey of Proposed Mineral Sand Mine – Coburn and 

Hamelin Stations – Shark Bay 

Unpublished report prepared for URS Australia Pty Ltd and Gunson Resources Ltd. 



 

Ninox Wildlife Consulting (2004) 

Vertebrate Fauna Survey Coburn Mineral Sands Project. Unpublished report prepared for URS 

Australia Pty Ltd and Gunson Resources Ltd. 

 

Thackway, R. and Cresswell, I.D. (eds.) (1995) 



 

An Interim Biogeographical Regionalisation for Australia: a Framework for Establishing the 

Natural System of Reserves, Version 4.0.  Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra. 

   


Trudgen, M.E. and Keighery, G.J. (1995) 

Flora of the Shark Bay World Heritage Area and Environs. A report prepared for the Australian 

Heritage Commission by the Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land 

Management, Western Australia. 

 

Western Australian Herbarium (2005a) 



Florabase. Department of Conservation and Land Management.   

http://www.calm.wa.gov.au 

 

Western Australian Herbarium (2005b) 



Max. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth. 

 

 



A1.

APPENDIX A:  COMPARISON OF VASCULAR PLANT SPECIES RECORDED IN THE COBURN 

                            SURVEY AREA AND IN OTHER SIMILAR AREAS IN THE CARVARVON BASIN

NB: * denotes introduced (weed) taxa

        ^ Includes community groups 1, 5 and 6 only.

Mattiske

Mattiske

Gibson Trudgen 

&

Aug 2003 &

Sep & Nov

et al. 

Keighery

Family

Species

Apr 2004

2004

2000^

1995

OPHIOGLOSSACEAE



Ophioglossum lusitanicum

+

MARSILEACEAE



Marsilea hirsuta

+

CUPRESSACEAE



Actinostrobus arenarius

+

Callitris glaucophylla

+

        


 

TYPHACEAE



Typha domingensis

+

POTAMOGETONACEAE



Potamogeton pectinatus

+

ZANNICHELLIACEAE



Lepilaena preissii

+

JUNCAGINACEAE



Triglochin calcitrapa

+

Triglochin centrocarpa

+

Triglochin mucronata

+

Triglochin nana

+

POACEAE


Aira caryophyllea

+

+



Amphipogon caricinus

+

Amphipogon turbinatus

+

Amphipogon strictus

+

Aristida contorta

+

Aristida holathera

+

Austrodanthonia  sp.

+

+

Austrostipa compressa



+

Austrostipa crinita

+

Austrostipa elegantissima

+

+

+



 

Austrostipa macalpinei

+

Austrostipa nitida

+

+

Austrostipa trichophylla



+

Austrostipa tuckeri

+

Avellinia michelii



+

Avena barbata

+

Bromus arenarius

+

Bromus diandrus



+

Bromus hordeaceus

+

Bromus japonicus  var. vestitus



+

Cenchrus ciliaris

+

Cynodon dactylon



+

Ehrharta calycina

+

Ehrharta longiflora



+

Eragrostis dielsii

+

Eragrostis eriopoda

+

Eulalia aurea

+

Hordeum leporinum



+

Lamarckia aurea

+

+

Monachather paradoxus



+

+

+



+

Paractaenum novae-hollandiae

+

+



A2.

APPENDIX A:  COMPARISON OF VASCULAR PLANT SPECIES RECORDED IN THE COBURN 

                            SURVEY AREA AND IN OTHER SIMILAR AREAS IN THE CARVARVON BASIN

NB: * denotes introduced (weed) taxa

        ^ Includes community groups 1, 5 and 6 only.

Mattiske

Mattiske

Gibson Trudgen 

&

Aug 2003 &

Sep & Nov

et al. 

Keighery

Family

Species

Apr 2004

2004

2000^

1995

POACEAE


Paractaenum novae-hollandiae 

(Continued)



subsp. novae-hollandiae

+

Pentaschistis airoides



+

+

Poa drummondiana

+

Poaceae  sp.



+

Rostraria pumila

+

+

+



Schismus barbatus

+

Setaria dielsii

+

Triodia bromoides  (P4)

+

Triodia danthonioides

+

+

+



Triodia longipalea

+

+



Triodia plurinervata

+

+



+

Triodia pungens

+

CYPERACEAE



Bulbostylis barbata

+

Cyperus bifax

+

Mesomelaena pseudostygia

+

Schoenus asperocarpus

+

Schoenus nanus

+

CENTROLEPIDACEAE



Centrolepis drummondiana

+

Centrolepis humillima

+

RESTIONACEAE



Desmocladus asper

+

Lepidobolus densus  ms (P3)

+

ECDEIOCOLEACEAE



Ecdeiocolea monostachya 

+

+



JUNCACEAE

Juncus kraussii

+

DASYPOGONACEAE



Acanthocarpus humilis

+

 



Acanthocarpus parviflorus  (P3)

+

Acanthocarpus preissii

+

+

+



+

Acanthocarpus robustus

+

Acanthocarpus verticillatus

+

Acanthocarpus sp. aff. robustus 

(Hopper 1367)

+

+

ANTHERICACEAE



Arnocrinum drummondii  (P3)

+

Corynotheca micrantha  var. micrantha

+

Corynotheca micrantha  var. acanthoclada

+

Laxmannia sessiliflora  subsp. sessiliflora

+

Murchisonia volubilis

+

?Murchisonia  sp. nov.



+

+

Thysanotus manglesianus

+

+

+



+

Thysanotus patersonii

+

Thysanotus speckii

+

Tricoryne  aff. corynothecoides 

(GJK and NG 1274)

+


A3.

APPENDIX A:  COMPARISON OF VASCULAR PLANT SPECIES RECORDED IN THE COBURN 

                            SURVEY AREA AND IN OTHER SIMILAR AREAS IN THE CARVARVON BASIN

NB: * denotes introduced (weed) taxa

        ^ Includes community groups 1, 5 and 6 only.

Mattiske

Mattiske

Gibson Trudgen 

&

Aug 2003 &

Sep & Nov

et al. 

Keighery

Family

Species

Apr 2004

2004

2000^

1995

ASPHODELACEAE

Asphodelus fistulosus

+

+



+

Bulbine semibarbata

+

+



COLCHICACEAE

Wurmbea densiflora

+

Wurmbea inframediana

+

+

Wurmbea monantha



+

Wurmbea odorata

+

Wurmbea tenella

+

+

PHORMIACEAE



Dianella revoluta

+

+



Dianella revoluta  var. divaricata

+

+



HAEMODORACEAE

Anigozanthos manglesii  subsp. quadrans

+

Conostylis aculeata  subsp. septentrionora

+

Conostylis candicans  subsp. flavifolia

+

+



Conostylis stylidioides

+

DIOSCOREACEAE



Dioscorea hastifolia

+

ORCHIDACEAE



Eriochilus dilatatus  subsp. dilatatus  ms

+

Pyrorchis nigricans

+

CASUARINACEAE



Allocasuarina acutivalvis

+

+



Allocasuarina helmsii

+

URTICACEAE



Parietaria cardiostegia

+

Parietaria debilis

+

+

Urtica urens



+

PROTEACEAE



Adenanthos acanthophyllus

+

+



Banksia attenuata

+

Banksia ashbyi

+

+

+



+

Banksia lindleyana

+

Banksia prionotes

+

Banksia sceptrum

+

+



Conospermum microflorum

+

+



+

Conospermum stoechadis  subsp. stoechadis

+

Dryandra  aff. fraseri

+

Grevillea acacioides 

+

Grevillea annulifera  (P3)

+

Grevillea argyrophylla

+

Grevillea brachystachya

+

+

Grevillea candelabroides



+

+

Grevillea commutata

+

Grevillea didymobotrya  subsp. didymobotrya

+

Grevillea dielsiana

+

Grevillea eriostachya 

+

+



+

Grevillea gordoniana

+

+



Grevillea leucopteris

+

Grevillea rogersoniana  (P3)

+

+


A4.

APPENDIX A:  COMPARISON OF VASCULAR PLANT SPECIES RECORDED IN THE COBURN 

                            SURVEY AREA AND IN OTHER SIMILAR AREAS IN THE CARVARVON BASIN

NB: * denotes introduced (weed) taxa

        ^ Includes community groups 1, 5 and 6 only.

Mattiske

Mattiske

Gibson Trudgen 

&

Aug 2003 &

Sep & Nov

et al. 

Keighery

Family

Species

Apr 2004

2004

2000^

1995

PROTEACEAE



Grevillea stenobotrya 

+

+



+

(continued)



Grevillea stenomera  (P2)

+

Grevillea stenostachya  (P3)

+

+

+



Grevillea pinaster

+

Hakea bucculenta

+

Hakea candolleana

+

Hakea circumalata

+

+

Hakea stenophylla



+

+

Hakea stenophylla  subsp. notialis

+

+

Hakea trifurcata



+

Persoonia acicularis

+

+



+

Persoonia angustiflora

+

Persoonia bowgada

+

+

+



Persoonia saundersiana

+

+



Petrophile brevifolia

+

Petrophile semifurcata

+

+

Xylomelum angustifolium



+

SANTALACEAE



Anthobolus foveolatus

+

+



+

Exocarpos aphyllus

+

+



+

Exocarpos sparteus

+

+



Leptomeria pauciflora

+

Leptomeria preissiana

+

Santalum acuminatum

+

+



+

Santalum lanceolatum

+

+



Santalum  spicatum

+

+



+

Santalum spicatum  subsp.  nov.

 

+



OLACACEAE

Olax aurantia

+

LORANTHACEAE



Amyema benthamii

+

Amyema miquelii

+

Amyema miraculosa  subsp. miraculosa

+

+



Amyema preissii

+

+



Lysiana casuarinae

+

Nuytsia floribunda

+

POLYGONACEAE



Acetosa vesicaria

+

Emex australis



+

Muehlenbeckia adpressa

+

CHENOPODIACEAE



Atriplex amnicola

+

Atriplex bunburyana

+

Atriplex codonocarpa

+

Atriplex holocarpa

+

Atriplex paludosa  subsp. moquiniana

+

+



Atriplex semilunaris

+

Atriplex vesicaria

+

+

Atriplex vesicaria  subsp. incompta



+
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