A paucity of annual and short lived species were recorded in the August 2003 and April 2004 surveys due
to very dry seasonal conditions that occurred in prior seasons. As a result, an additional survey was
conducted in September 2004 after reports of good rainfall in the preceding winter. Despite a number of
new collections in the additional survey, a number of annual Priority species known to occur in the area
was not found. The known distribution of Chthonocephalus muellerianus (P2), Chthonocephalus
survey area but presumably conditions prior to the surveys were not suitable for their germination. The
local managers of Hamelin Bay and Coburn stations indicated that while the region received good rainfall
the local area received below average rainfall. The low rainfall may have contributed to the absence of
Fifteen introduced species were recorded in the survey area, of which most are currently restricted to
activity poses a risk of increased weed invasion. In a direct return test pit (Rehabilitation Benchmarking
Exercise) Brassica tournefortii, Rostaria pumila and Sonchus oleraceus were recorded. The latter two
species were found only in the trial pit, while Brassica tournefortii is widespread across the survey area
where it has invaded relatively undisturbed environments and has become highly abundant in disturbed
areas. The latter is particularly apparent on the pastoral leases. This species has become a problem in
particularly when also under grazing pressure (Keighery et al. 2000). Similar but more localised problems
also occur in the Shark Bay World Heritage Property. The increased number of introduced species after
disturbance, as shown in the direct return test pit, poses an issue for revegetation and could increase weed
invasion into the adjacent World Heritage Property.
The findings of the flora and vegetation study illustrate the botanical values of the survey area. The
significance of the flora and vegetation of the area is evident from the range of priority species and the
variation in communities from those on the sandy soils in the west to the calcrete and sandy-loam soils in
The following recommendations are made to minimise the impacts of the proposed development on the
Communities S5, S8, S9 and S10 should be retained due to a high density of Priority Flora and
support a range of fauna species.
Additional searches for Eucalyptus beardiana (R) and other Rare and Priority species on the
location of the accommodation facility options.
Searches for Rare and Priority Flora should be continued during the development phase.
Additional permanent vegetation plots should be established and monitored before during and
water relations, weed invasion, changes in topography and soil structure.
Topsoil should be respread over disturbed areas as soon as possible after clearing and
Dunal topographic systems should be protected were possible, or reworked through mining
native vegetation areas and the rehabilitation areas.
Further collections of flora should be undertaken after higher seasonal rainfall events to extend
The following personnel of Mattiske Consulting Pty Ltd have been involved with this project:
Ms K. Honczar
Ms N. Johnson
The author would like to thank Ms Sonia Finucane and Mr Blair Hardman of URS Australia Pty Ltd for
their assistance with this project.
Beard, J.S. (1976)
Vegetation Survey of Western Australia - Murchison. University of Western Australia.
Beard, J.S. (1990)
Bureau of Meteorology (2005)
Meteorology, Commonwealth of Australia.
Department of Agriculture (2005)
Department of Conservation and Land Management (2005)
Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.
Department of Environmental Protection (2000)
Protection, Western Australia.
Diels, L. (1906)
English, V. and Blyth, J. (1997)
Environment Australia (2005)
Commonwealth of Australia.
Gardner, C.A. (1944)
The vegetation of Western Australia with special reference to climate and soils. J.Proc. R.Soc.
West Aust. 28: 11-87.
Gardner, C.A., and Bennetts, H.W. (1956)
Gibson, N., Burbidge, A.H., Keighery, G.J. and Lyons, M.N. (2000)
A.H., Harvey, M.S. and McKenzie, N.L. Western Australian Museum.
Keighery, B.J. (1994)
Society of WA (Inc.), Western Australia.
Keighery, G.J., Gibson, N., Lyons, M.N. and Burbidge, A.H. (2000)
the southern Carnarvon Basin’ Supplement No. 61. Eds - Burbidge A.H., Harvey, M.S. and
McKenzie, N.L. Western Australian Museum.
Maslin, B.R., Acacia subrigida, Flora of Australia, 11A: 374 (2001).
Mattiske Consulting Pty Ltd (2003)
Unpublished report prepared for URS Australia Pty Ltd and Gunson Resources Ltd.
Ninox Wildlife Consulting (2004)
Vertebrate Fauna Survey Coburn Mineral Sands Project. Unpublished report prepared for URS
Australia Pty Ltd and Gunson Resources Ltd.
Thackway, R. and Cresswell, I.D. (eds.) (1995)
Heritage Commission by the Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land
Management, Western Australia.
Western Australian Herbarium (2005a)
Western Australian Herbarium (2005b)
NB: * denotes introduced (weed) taxa
^ Includes community groups 1, 5 and 6 only.
Aug 2003 &
Sep & Nov
* Avellinia michelii
* Avena barbata
* Bromus diandrus
* Bromus hordeaceus
* Bromus japonicus var. vestitus
* Cenchrus ciliaris
* Cynodon dactylon
* Ehrharta calycina
* Ehrharta longiflora
* Hordeum leporinum
* Lamarckia aurea
* Pentaschistis airoides
* Rostraria pumila
Triodia bromoides (P4)
Lepidobolus densus ms (P3)
Acanthocarpus sp. aff. robustus
Corynotheca micrantha var. micrantha
Corynotheca micrantha var. acanthoclada
Laxmannia sessiliflora subsp. sessiliflora
?Murchisonia sp. nov.
Tricoryne aff. corynothecoides
(GJK and NG 1274)
* Asphodelus fistulosus
Conostylis aculeata subsp. septentrionora
Conostylis candicans subsp. flavifolia
* Urtica urens
Dryandra aff. fraseri
Grevillea annulifera (P3)
Grevillea didymobotrya subsp. didymobotrya
Grevillea rogersoniana (P3)
Grevillea stenostachya (P3)
Hakea stenophylla subsp. notialis
Amyema miraculosa subsp. miraculosa
* Emex australis
Atriplex paludosa subsp. moquiniana
Atriplex vesicaria subsp. incompta