and seized by their ruthless and powerful enemy. I also secured various species of the genera, Vespa, Thynnus, Coccinella, Mantis, Forficula, and Dytiscus, and of others quite unknown to me; several of which, are doubtless new to science. I could but remark, that in many of them their colour was assimilated to that of the plant on which they lived—a beautiful display of the Divine Wisdom, by which many of His smaller and stationary creatures are the better enabled to elude the unceasing depredations of their ever-vigilant and rapacious enemies.
“Where space exists, Thine eyes of mercy see,—
Creation lives, and moves, and breathes in Thee!”
On the immediate banks of the river, I discovered a new and peculiar species of Rubus; an almost leafless shrub, having only here and there at the extremities of its youngest branches, a small compound leaf of three leaflets. It was about five feet high, branches very long, filiform, and much entangled; in colour, a beautiful light green, thickly studded with orange-coloured prickles. The natives, who accompanied me, assured me that it bore red fruit in the winter, on which the birds fed. I could not, however, find a vestige of either flower or fruit. Here also I discovered two small cæspitose plants of the natural order Compositaceæ, called by the natives, Papapa; together with two species of Epilobium, which were new to me. This valley abounds in grass, and possesses a rich alluvial soil; slate, of a coarse quality, shows itself in large quantities towards its upper end. I soon arrived at Wakawitira, belonging to the Nagatiporou tribe, one of the largest native towns in New Zealand, containing, when all are assembled, from 3 to 4,000 souls. This village is not far from the celebrated mountain Hikurangi; an eminence belonging to the chain of mountains, which take their rise at the East Cape, and continue on to Wellington, Cook’s Straits, and which were denominated by Cook, “the Southern Alps.” 
I remained at this village a day or two, and could but contrast with thankfulness, the wonderful change, outward at least, which had taken place in the people of this district, since my former visit with the Rev. (now Archdeacon) W. Williams, in 1838. Then, the inhabitants were living in the grossest darkness of heathenism; none knew bow to read— none knew anything of an hereafter: now, nearly 700 persons assembled for service in the chapel of this village, a building which, they had themselves built of the bark of the Totara tree (Podocarpus? Totarra Don.), measuring nearly 80 feet by 40; while in the school, after morning prayers, I had, 1st class, readers in the New Testament, 77; 2nd ditto, readers who required prompting, 92; 3rd ditto, 128; 4th ditto, rehearsers of catechisms, &c. 240; and infants, 98—making a total at school, on a week-day, when numbers were absent at their plantations, of 635 persons, of whom more than 100 could read well.
Early in the morning of the 1st December, I re-commenced my journey. I had proceeded but a few yards, ere I discovered a very pretty procumbent Ranunculus, with imparipinnate leaves. Two fine species of Gramineæ, which grew here on the river’s banks, I also secured. Crossing the stream, which at the ford was not waist deep, I found a curious little Lobelia, growing in grassy spots. Here, also, that pretty little thyme-scented species of Labiatæ, Micromeria Cunninghamii, Benth., abounded. Leaving the grassy plains of Waiapu, and proceeding towards the sea, through a long winding and stony watercourse, I descended to the beach, without detecting any thing new by the way, save a few mosses. Continuing on by the shore for a few miles, I arrived at Wareponga, a small village close to the sea. In my way thither, I noticed the great quantities of whole timber which every where protruded from underneath, the cliffs, buried in some places under hills of earth from 20 to 50 feet in perpendicular height; a faithful testimony to the  convulsion which Nature must formerly have undergone in these parts. To all questions concerning this timber the natives invariably reply, “No te hurihanga wenua” i.e. caused by the overturning of the earth. In building of chapels, or good houses, throughout the district, the natives generally dig up the large trees out of the ground (which are mostly Totara), and, having split and smoothed them, use them for posts; the timber thus procured, is dark, somewhat of a chocolate colour, and has a very neat appearance.
Water, that indispensable refreshment to the dry and thirsty traveller, was rather scarce in this locality, being only observed here and there trickling from the cliffs. Underneath these drippings were small pools, and by their sides lay shells of the Haliotis genus, with which the passers-by drank, but not to their satisfaction; the water being strongly impregnated with some nauseous alkali, probably soda, the crystallized efflorescence of which lay deposited about.
From these cliffs the natives collect in large quantities the red oxide of iron, with which they make a coarse red pigment, much used in smearing their canoes, architraves of their chief’s houses, and stores in which they keep their sweet potatoes, images,105 carved work, mausoleums, sacred enclosures, and every article, in fact, which they may please to make sacred; red being invariably their sacred colour.106 The  red pigment, with which they formerly anointed their hair and bodies, is of a finer quality, and is generally obtained by laying a quantity of fern fronds in some running chalybeate water, on which a fine ferruginous mud is speedily deposited; more fern is then laid, stratum super stratum, until they suppose they have a sufficient quantity, when the whole mass is taken out, the ferruginous particles collected, made up into balls, and baked for use. This fashion of anointing themselves with red, is, however, nearly obsolete; being only followed by a few of the old grandees of other days. Nothing can possibly present a more disgusting appearance, than a half naked haggard old New Zealand lady with dishevelled locks, who, hearing of your approach, has hastily poured the contents of her rouge-pot over her head and face! Such disgust is only surpassed, when such a being condescends to move out of her little enclosure to embrace and rub noses with the white man; an act, requiring no small degree of self-possession and gallantry, on the part of the obliged gentleman, quietly to receive. This red pigment they here call Takou, while among the northward tribes it is known by the name of Kokoöé.
On the rocks near Wareponga, I observed a large species of red conical-shelled Patella, which sank the base of its shell considerably into the face of the rock on which it had fixed its residence; these rocks, as before, were composed of indurated clay. Here, too, I obtained some beautiful  specimens of fossil marine shells, imbedded in sand-stone; the stone itself being extremely hard. On the sandy shore, in front of the village, I detected a rambling Clematis, with ternate, coriaceous, and glabrous leaves, the lower half of each leaflet being greatly crenate. I believed this to be a new species (or, perhaps, a variety of C. coriacea, De Cand. prodr. 1. p. 5) but, unfortunately, lost my specimens which I brought away for examination.
During the whole night, there incessantly descended—
from which I was happy to take refuge in a native’s little hut, which not being finished was far from being water-proof. Here, among the reeds with which the hut was lined, were myriads of small insects of the Anobium? genus, who most annoyingly kept up a continuous drumming and tickling all night. I tried to secure some of these gallant little serenaders, or at least to get them to keep the peace, but in vain. Morning however broke, and being fine, I continued my journey. After travelling for four miles over beaches, I arrived at Waipiro, a small village, whence I directed my course inland, over high and craggy hills. A short distance beyond Tapatahi, a village romantically perched on a high and perpendicular crag, I discovered a timber tree of the Natural Order Corylaceæ, from 30 to 60 feet in height, with small oval entire leaves, which may possibly be found to belong to the Linnæan genus Fagus. I had first noticed this plant, in this very locality, a few years before, but had not subsequently seen it in any of my wanderings, until I came again to the same spot. I got a native to climb it, in order to procure me a branch, but was disappointed in not being able to procure good specimens. Proceeding onwards, I discovered two elegant species of Epilobium, a species of Convolvulus, with very small leaves; and a species of Pittosporum, which at first I took for P. umbellatum, Banks, but have  since determined it to be a distinct, and probably a new species, ranking between P. crassifolium, Banks, and P. umbellatum. Here, while resting on the turf, I noticed the great prevalence of smut (Uredo, sp.) in the common indigenous grasses; and also the great profusion of Edwardsia microphylla, which every where abounded. At the northern parts of the Island, this tree is by no means common, nor do I recollect ever having seen a single plant in any other locality, than close by the sides of rivers, and on headlands near the sea. A large erect species of Ranunculus I also found in this spot. Towards evening I brought up, in rain, at Te Ariuru, a large village in Tokomaru Bay; a spot, which, by the botanist, will ever be contemplated with the most pleasant association of feeling—for here it was that Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander botanized, in October, 1769. This Bay was called Tegadoo, by Cook. I was obliged to remain at this village a day or two, in consequence of the very violent gale of wind and rain, which commenced on the night of my arrival, and which completely imprisoned me within the canvas-walls of my tent. On the ebbing, however, of the tide, I ventured to the rocks just below me, which, composed of a very hard stone, abounded with petrified marine fossils. In tumbling them over in the rain, I was rewarded with a truly elegant species of Patella, which, not finding described, I have named P. Solandri,107 in commemoration of Dr. Solander.
On the morning of the 4th, I again resumed my journey.  My route being by the sea shore, and the sea in many places laving the bases of the clayey cliffs, together with the extreme wetness and slipperiness of almost every thing from the late heavy rains, made this day’s travelling very unpleasant. At Motukaroro, the romantic and weather-worn S.E. headland of Tokomaru Bay, the colossal bones of a huge whale lay bleaching on the strand. A black and graceful species of Hæmatopus, with orange-coloured bill and legs, is common on these undisturbed shores. Their cry is very quick and shrill. These birds generally keep together in pairs; the plumage of the young ones is grey, with greyish bill and legs, totally unlike those of the parent bird. The natives call them Torea, and believe that this bird knows of an approaching storm, which he indicates by a difference in his note; crying, “Kería, kería” (dig, dig—i. e. shell-fish out of the sand, by the waves, as food for himself), before a storm, and “Tokía, tokía,” after one. At 3 p.m., I passed Waihirere, a beautiful waterfall, which fell down a perpendicular sandstone cliff, the face of which, covered with mosses and ferns, appeared more than ordinarily lovely in this desolate and otherwise barren spot. I took a hasty glance at the vegetation, in hopes of finding somewhat new, but could not detect anything. I obtained, however, another distinct species of Patella from the rocks, in this day’s journey. By sunset, I reached Anaura, a small village on the sea coast. Here, in the houses of the natives, a quantity of a thick succulent Fucus was hung up to dry, which they informed me they used as an article of food, mixing it with the expressed juice of Tupakihe (Coriaria Sarmentosa, Forst.), to give it consistency. This Fucus they called Rimurapa. I noticed the beautiful little glossy Cuckoo (Cuculus lucidus), as being very abundant in this neighbourhood. This handsome bird is migratory, only remaining about three or four months in New Zealand; but where it goes to in the winter has not yet been ascertained. The natives—knowing that it left their  country, and not being aware of the proximity of any land to which it could resort, nor of the powers of flight of which a bird is capable—asserted that it spent its winter on a whale’s back! Like the European cuckoos, it changes its note in about a month after its arrival, which, to the New Zealander, is very pleasing, being his assured sign of summer. It is a bold bird, coming frequently into gardens in search of insects. By the natives of these parts it is called Koekoeä; but, by the northern tribes, Pipiwarauroa.
Leaving Anaura, and striking inland, I ascended some steep hills, on whose summits I noticed several fine trees of the Trophis genus (T. opaca? Sol.); none, however, possessing either flower or fruit. Passed some clumps of Kahikatea (Dacrydium excelsum)this day; the land about being swampy, rushy, and very poor. Secured some fine specimens of the genus Epilobium, and two new ferns, Polypodium sylvaticum, and Davallia Novæ-Zealandiæ,108 which grew here, beneath the forest’s shade. Arriving at the banks of the river Uawa, at present a muddy rapid stream, swollen greatly through the late rains, I noticed a Lobelia (probably, L. angulata, Forst.), and a species of Violaceæ (Erpetion? Don.), growing thickly on its banks. After some little time spent in fording the stream (which I managed to do with the assistance of some strong natives), I continued my journey until I arrived at Mangatuna, a small village, where, on the pressing solicitation of the chief, I consented to spend the night. Here, I found an old blind chief, who, for a time, valiantly defended the native superstitions. Our discussion, which was not a little animated, engrossed the attention of the by-standers. This old man, whose name was Hakahaka, also stated, that he recollected Cook’s visit in 1769, although he was but a very little boy then. From this village,  recrossing the Uawa twice, I proceeded over rich alluvial plains, which form its banks to the sea-side; obtaining a few small plants by the way, which were new to me. At 2 p.m. I reached Honurora, a large village on the sea coast, at the mouth of the Uawa river. This river has a bar at its mouth, but small vessels of 20 to 40 tons can come in, and lay quite alongside of the village. Such have entered, but the master of one of them informed me, that it is an utter impossibility to remain in the river during a fresh occasioned by heavy rains in the winter season.
This bay, or rather open roadstead, is the Tolaga Bay of our illustrious circumnavigator, Cook. Here, his ships were at an anchor in October, 1769; here it was, that the first of those elegant trees, Knightia excelsa, Brown, was seen, and the first New Zealand Palm (Areca sapida, Sol.) cut down for the sake of its edible top. Here, too, near the S.E. headland of the bay, Cook dug a well, for the supplying of his ships with water; which well is shown at this day by the natives, to the curious “white man” travelling this way.
The native-built chapel at this village, though not so large as some which I had lately seen, is well worthy of notice. Without, it is a plain building, 34 feet long by 24 feet wide, and nearly 20 feet to the roof. Within, however, it has an elegant appearance, being very neatly reeded with the long slender culms of Arundo australis, closely placed and firmly fastened on the outer wall, composed of flat bundles of Typha angustifolia. The broad posts, or rather pilasters, are of the dark and almost fossil Totara already mentioned, cut and smoothed nicely with a little adze, without the help of a plane; whilst, upon and across the reeds in the interstices between the posts, narrow black and red wands of thin slips of wood are alternately disposed at regular distances, each being continuously and doubly bound, in the shape of a St. Andrew’s cross, with very narrow strips of the white fibres of Freycinetia Banksii. 
On the morning of the 9th, I once more recommenced my journey, crossing the Uawa at its mouth in a canoe. At first my route lay inland, but I soon found I had to descend again to the sea coast. In descending a high hill near the sea, I was gratified and rewarded, in discovering an elegant little Arthropodium in flower. This very distinct species, only 6-9 inches high, I only detected in this locality, although I sought it assiduously throughout the remainder of my journey. Close by it, a fine shrubby Pimelea flourished. A very shy and peculiar bird, closely allied to the cuckoo tribe (perhaps a species of Eudynamys) was to be met with in these parts. This bird has a remarkably attenuated body and tail, with a silky spotted plumage, and a very sweet note. I have heard it, occasionally, in the middle of the night; the natives call it, Kohaperoa.109 Proceeding on, over long sandy beaches, I was soon overtaken with rain, from which I endeavoured to shelter under some fine trees of Corynocarpus lævigatus, Forst., which often grow in clumps near the shore; but the rain continuing, I was obliged to proceed. From some natives whom I met I obtained a basket of fresh Haliotes, the black fish of which, my baggage bearers ate raw with great zest. On their shells I found a peculiar little Patel1a, identical with a species discovered by Dr. Joseph Hooker, at Auckland Island.110 At 4 p.m., we arrived at Parinuiotera, the high bluff promontory commonly known, from its appearance at sea, by the not inappropriate, though quite unclassical, cognomen of Gable-end foreland. This remarkable headland, of not less than 200 feet in perpendicular height, is entirely composed of white indurated clay, on whose face and sides grew not so much as a single moss or lichen, from the continual crumbling down of the clay of which it is composed. Here, in the pelting rain beneath this towering  crag, where we could scarcely stand on our feet, owing to the extreme slipperiness of the clayey rocks, we found that the tide had not sufficiently receded to allow of our passing onwards without hazard. As, however, the evening was drawing on, and we had still some distance to travel ere we should meet with either food or shelter, we were necessitated to make the attempt. Scrambling, in some places, on all-fours like a cat, and upborne in others by my faithful natives, I rounded this cape through the breakers (passing under a natural archway in the rocky cliff), and got in safety to the other side. Continuing my march, I collected several species of Algæ, which were new to me. At sunset we arrived, wet, cold, and hungry, at Pakarae, a small village containing about twelve persons; who, according to their custom, heartily welcomed us, although, as we subsequently found, they had not a scrap of food to give us! The old chief kindly pulled up three stakes from the fence of his little city (for trees there were none in this neighbourhood), as tent-poles for my tent; and presented me with a dead cray-fish, which I was happy enough to obtain and divide among six of my party (including myself) as a substitute for supper. The next morning I started early (having procured a basket of sweet potatoes for breakfast, which were fetched during the night from some distance), travelling, as yesterday, by the seaside. At 2 p.m. my party halted to roast a few potatoes for our dinner, which afforded me an opportunity of straying about a little; in doing so, I was fortunate enough to find Euphrasia cuneata in flower, which was abundant hereabouts on the low clayey cliffs; and three plants of Compositaceæ which were new to me; one of which, a curious little one-flowered plant, was covered with a thick viscid substance, which exuded from its glandular pores. Here, also, procumbent on the sand, I found a small plant, in habit and general appearance somewhat resembling Tetragonia expansa, but differing widely in its fruit, its berries being large, succulent, pimpled, and dewy, and filled with a carmine-coloured juice.  This juice is used by the natives of these parts in writing, as a substitute for ink; but, like most other simple vegetable dyes, is very evanescent. The natives call the plant Kokihi. A small straggling procumbent plant, which at first sight I supposed to be Anchusa spathulata, Roem., also grew here; but that plant is described as possessing “foliis ovatis obtusis,” which this one has not; to that natural order, however, it belongs. The summons being given, to dine and march, I obeyed; and, leaving the seaside, struck inland, over low sand-hills and through a long swamp of Phormium. About 5 p.m. I reached the river at Turangunui, a village in the inner N.W. angle of Poverty Bay Crossing the river in a canoe, I made the best of my way to Kaupapa, a church-mission station, where Archdeacon Williams resides. This place I reached at 7 p.m., quite tired. The very hospitable reception, however, which we all received from the Archdeacon, went far towards causing us to forget the toils of the journey
I may here remark, that the White Mangrove (Avicennia resinifera, Forst., A. tomentosa? Linn.), so very common in salt water creeks and marshes in the northern parts of the island, was not seen anywhere on this line of coast. The natives say, that it does not grow in these parts; their name for this tree, is Manawa.
At Poverty Bay I remained several days, and during my stay obtained specimens of several new and little known plants; among which I may notice—a fine spiny shrub of the Natural Order Rhamnaceæ (probably of the genus Discaria, Hook.), which grows plentifully here in the alluvial plains on the banks of the river. It attains the height of 2-4 feet, and will, doubtless, make an admirable fence. The natives give this plant the expressive name of Tamatakuru, i.e. Standing-face-beater.—A very lovely and fine moss, with large membranaceous leaves;—a one-flowered Compositaceous plant, possessing an elegant coloured and imbricated involucre ;—and a curious minute Lemna-like floating plant, were among the number of my spoils. I was rather surprised  to find the Ngaio (Myoporum lætum, Forst.) growing very commonly here as a small forest tree, with a straightness and height unknown in the northern parts of the island. In the Bay of Islands, and adjacent districts, M lætum is an irregular growing shrub, or small tree, and onlyfound in the immediate neighbourhood of the sea, there, too, its wood as so small, as not to be of any use, and is not even collected for the purpose of firing; whilst, here, the tree attains the height of 30-35 feet, and its wood is very commonly used by the natives for posts, poles, rafters, &c.
On the morning of December 20th, I once more recommenced my journey, directing my course, for the first time, directly into the interior. Proceeding up Turanga valley by the river’s banks, over alluvial and grassy plains (sure indication that the whole of this ground had at some period been cultivated by the natives, who are very numerous in this district), I reached the forests at the base of the first high range of hills by 2 p.m. In my way thither, I observed another fine plant of that unique and leafless Rubus, which I discovered in Waiapu valley, much, however, in a similar state. Here, I obtained a tall and new species of Compositaceæ;— a Viola, which grew plentifully on the river’s banks, though not in flower;—and an elegant membranaceous-leaved fern (Lomaria rotundifolia, n.sp. W.C.). In pools, in marshy grounds, I discovered a fine aquatic Ranunculus, with very long and fistulous petioles, nearly as stout as the barrel of a goose quill. On the clayey hills, and generally in dry elevated spots, I obtained specimens of two plants, possessing a very Aster-like appearance, and which may probably prove to be species of Celmisia. Ascending a hill, I discovered a plant with copious verticillate inflorescence, large sub-rotund leaves, and long succulent petioles. Most unfortunately I could not find a specimen possessing either flowers or seeds, although I sought most assiduously for such. It must have flowered very early in the season, as both carpels and peduncles in