Plant small, 2–3½ inches high. Leaf ¾–1¼ inches diameter, membranous, finely and regularly papillose on upper surface, orbicular-cordate; auricles broad and largely rounded overlapping petiole, slightly retuse and apiculate at tip, much veined; veins anastomosing with an intramarginal vein running all round, light-green with (sometimes) a purple midrib and spots near margin; petiole ½–2 inches long; peduncle short, 3–4 lines long, variously situated—springing from near base of long petiole—from the middle—and from the top near leaf, purple spotted, bibracteate at base of ovarium; bracts small, unequal, the front one very minute, white, the back one much larger, ovate-acuminate, green. Flower ½ inch diameter, upper  sepal suboblong-lanceolate, 2½ lines broad, acuminate, acute, projecting far beyond the lip (sometimes 2½ lines), recurved at tip, very thin, 5-nerved longitudinally, greenish-white spotted with purple-red; lateral sepals very filiform, 6–9 lines long, acute, whitish; lateral petals about 2 inches long, somewhat filiform but stoutish, obtuse, cylindrical, twisted, minutely spotted and coloured purple-red above for half of their length, white below; lip large orbicular, ½ inch (or more) in diameter, deeply bilobed above, spreading, plain, neither recurved nor involute, margins rounded entire above with a single slight notch at top on each lobe, very minutely undulate or finely and slightly toothed, retuse and apiculate below, papillose within, transparent, much veined; colour, dark purple-red above, whitish spotted with purple-red below; ovarium subangular, sulcated, purple striped.
Hab. In various parts of Hawke’s Bay, among mosses in ravines, shaded woods in the interior, 1850–1880: W.C. Glenross, near Napier, 1883: Mr. D. P. Balfour.
Obs.—A fine species closely allied to C. macrantha, Hook. fil., but very distinct. Also, having affinity with C. fimbriata, Lindl., an Australian and Tasmanian species.
Thelymitra formosa,917 sp. nov.
Stem erect, very stout, 12–14 inches high, 3 lines diameter, tinged red with leaf bracts and bracteoles; two sheaths below leaf, scarious, truncate obtuse pointed and 2-nerved; 1–2 foliaceous bracts above leaf, 2½ lines long very acuminate, acute; leaf very thick fleshy, linear-ovate, 10 inches long, reaching to lowest flower on scape, 4-nerved, broadly keeled, deeply channelled, edges incurved, 6–8 lines wide near base, purple-brown densely covered with minute red raised dots. Flowers 5–10, erect on stout pedicels ½–¾ inch long; a bracteole at base of each, ovate-acuminate very acute, sub-clasping ½–¾ inch long reaching to base of perianth, obscurely 6–8 nerved; perianth 1–1¼ inches diameter. Sepals ovate-acuminate, nerved, a little longer than the petals, brownish-purple with white margins; petals light bluish-purple, broadly oblong-lanceolate, very obtuse, or elliptic with a mucro, obscurely nerved. Column with pointed tip; appendages (staminodia) long, much longer than the column each bifid, anterior arm densely fimbriated with yellow fimbriæ, posterior ditto with long subulate erect points at top, and crenulated fleshy pink edges on back slope running down to a deep notch at the back, exposing top of column. Ovary obovate, 9 lines long, 3 lines wide, broadly ribbed. Tubers 2, large, sub-obovoid, obtuse, 1 inch long, ½ inch broad.
Hab. In clayey ground, Fagus woods, high land between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1882; flowering in December: W.C.
Order V. Typhaceæ.
Genus 2. Sparganium, Linn.
Sparganium angustifolium, R. Brown.
Hab. Hawke’s Bay, low watery places, sides of streams, etc.: W.C. Petane, near Napier, 1882: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs.—Agreeing closely with the Australian species; also found in the northern parts of the North Island, and long confounded with S. simplex, Huds.
Order VII. Liliaceæ.
Genus 4. Dianella, Lamarck.
Dianella nigra,918 sp. nov.
Plant a diffuse herb; leaves drooping, subrigid when old, 3 feet long, 8 lines broad, linear acuminate and very acute, keeled, hooked on margins and keel throughout, glabrous, glossy above, striate below, finely and regularly nerved, margins slightly recurved, light-green, bases pink-red, and so bracts. Scapes, 3 feet 9 inches to 4 feet 3 inches long, stem below dark-green, subterete, 1–2 foliaceous bracts below panicle; panicle proper, 2 feet to 2 feet 8 inches long, narrow oblong, slender and very loose, black-purple; main branchlets few, 4–10 inches long, wiry, filiform, very distant on rhachis, 4–6–10 inches apart, tough, each divided into 2–4 long slender sub-branchlets, all straight and suberect, each sub-branchlet with 4–5 scattered flowers at top on long pedicels; pedicels 1–2 inches long, spreading; ultimate bracts small, linear, obtuse, 1–2 lines long, generally situated 2–4 lines below junction of subpeduncle. Perianth (unfolded) dark-purple almost black, linear-oblong obtuse under 2 lines long, expanded 3½ lines diameter, patent not reflexed, segments with very dark distinct nerves, margins whitish; three outer segments 5-nerved, sublinear-ovate, three inner segments 3-nerved, broader and more obtuse at apex. Anthers linear-oblong obtuse, light-yellow, scarcely 1 line long; strumæ about same length, a little thicker, thickest upwards, dark orange-yellow; filaments below much longer, very slender, bent and crumpled, white; style a little longer than stamens, slightly curved; stigma capitate, papillose. Ovary subtriquetrous, rotund at apex, glabrous, ⅓, or so, inferior.
Hab. Dry hillsides among under shrubs, forests near Matamau (S.), Waipawa County, 1882; flowering in December: W.C.
Obs.—A peculiar looking species from its tall, large, and lax black panicle and very small star-like flowers, widely differing from our other only known N.Z. species, D. intermedia, which species is also said to be generally common in the S. Polynesian Islands, as Fiji, etc. [see Seemann, Bentham, etc.] I only detected two bushy diffuse plants or tussocks that had been browsed on by cattle in the past season; they bore, however, a quantity of new leaves, and a great number of scapes. 
Genus 5. Astelia, Banks and Solander.
Astelia spicata,919 Col. (male plant).920
Plant much the same as the female one in size, leafing, and general appearance. Scape erect, 3 inches high, including spike; spike 1½ inches long, bearing 12 flowers, the lower ones distant, alternate and pedicelled, each one of these having a long leaf-like broadly-lanceolate-acuminate and ciliate bract, the lowermost being 3½ inches long, acute and pubescent at tips; the upper flowers are sessile, clustered in a dense obtuse spike, each one having a fine long linear silky bracteole; lobes of perianth white, large, hyaline, linear-oblong, obtuse, 1-nerved, at first cohering at tips and covering anthers, etc., in a conical form, afterwards wholly reflexed; filaments white, 1½ inches long, flat, spreading, succulent; anthers linear, light brown; pollen numerous, issuing in large white grains, possessing a sugary appearance.
Hab. Epiphytical on living trees, in forests near Norsewood (same locality as that of the fem. plant), 1883: W.C.
Obs.—It is rather a curious incident that, after two years research (and always seeing scores of barren (?) plants high up on the neighbouring trees around), I found only this one plant in flower, growing in the low fork of a tree, just as in the case of the one fem. plant two years before.
Order XI. Cyperaceæ.
Genus 9. Cladium, Linn.
Cladium (Vincentia) gahnoides,921 sp. nov.
Plant growing in large bushy tufts; culms 2 feet high, compressed, smooth, leafy; leaves flat vertically without a midrib, 2–3 feet long, 4–7 lines broad, linear-acuminate, acute, margins entire, smooth, not cutting, sub-membranaceous, softish, finely striate, equitant at bases, pale green; panicle 6–8 inches long, much branched, nodding; bracts sheathing glabrous, dark-brown, lower ones very acuminate, minutely scabrid only at tips; branchlets drooping, springing from smaller bracts; peduncles flat, or tetragonous, compressed, striate, glabrous; sub-peduncles and pedicels, flat, ciliate-scaberulous; spikelets small, fascicled, rich dark red-brown; lower glumes and bracts awned, glabrous, very slightly and minutely scaberulous on mid-nerve at back; stamens 3, 1 inch long, flat, colour light-brown, twisted, dilated and truncate at apex, elongated and persistent after flowering; style 1 line long, persistent; stigmas 3, linear, longer than style, densely papillose; nut very small, less than 1 line long, spindle-shaped, turgid, triquetrous throughout and ribbed at margins, beak minutely barbed, base thickened, often hanging by the persistent filaments as in several Gahniæ; colour pale light-brown. 
Hab. Cliffy banks of the upper part of the Petane River, near Napier, on high and dry stony ridges, and on similar spots inland between Hawke’s Bay and Taupo, 1846–1852: W.C. Petane Valley, 1881: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs.—A species closely allied to C. sinclairii, Hook. fil., but smaller in all its parts.
Genus 13. Uncinia, Persoon.
Uncinia bractata,922 sp. nov.
Plant perennial, erect, growing in large bushy tufts. Culms 12–18 inches high, stout, smooth. Leaves numerous, shorter than the culms, 10–14 inches long, 2 lines broad, flat, membranous, many nerved, keeled, slightly scaberulous, more so at tips which are obtuse. Spikelet 3–4½ inches long, ⅙th of an inch broad, trigonous; upper 6–12 lines male; bracts 2 sometimes 3, very long, longest and lowermost 6–10 inches and more, foliaceous, very narrow, channelled, scaberulous above, slightly so below; glumes closely imbricate, linear, acute, 2 lines long, glabrous, obscurely nerved, keeled, dark-brown; utricle shorter than glume, subrhomboidal, glabrous, nerved, subtriquetrous, compressed, dark-brown at top light-coloured below; bristle slender, as long as the utricle.
Hab. Woods, dry hills, between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1882–3: W.C.
Obs.–A species having affinity with U. australis; from its much softer foliage often browsed on by cattle.
Uncinia obtusata,923 sp. nov.
Plant thickly cæspitose in rather small tufts. Culms 12–21 inches high, sub-erect, rigid, smooth, but finely scaberulous at top for about 1 inch below spikelet, triquetrous. Leaves much shorter than culms, 6–9 inches long, linear, 1/9th of an inch wide, flat, membranaceous, grassy, sub-erect, smooth, finely and closely scabrous towards top, obtuse, nerved, slightly keeled. Spikelet 1–1½ inches long, loose, spreading, few-flowered, flowers distant; upper 4–5 lines male, very slender; bract 3–4 inches long, filiform, obtuse, scabrous, and densely so at top; glumes closely imbricating, shorter than utricle, 1½ lines long, deltoid-acuminate; 1-nerved, obtuse, lowest (one or two) trifid and awned, awn long barbed obtuse; utricle longer than glume, 2 lines long, broadly lanceolate, glabrous, produced and tumid at base, triquetrous, turgid, 3-nerved, at first green, afterwards when old dark-brown; bristle slender, ½ a line longer than utricle; stigmas long, spreading.
Hab. Open woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa, 1882–3: W.C.
Obs.–Sometimes the culm is entirely smooth throughout, and without a bract.
Genus 14. Carex, Linn.
Carex flagellifera,924 sp. nov.
A flaccid diffuse largely tufted species. Culms slender, 7–8 feet long, 1 line diameter below, much less above in middle and long panicle, smooth, subcylindric, hollow in the centre, striate, prostrate, extended, bearing a single leaf about the middle. Leaves drooping and spreading, much shorter than the culms, 2 feet 6 inches long, 1 line wide, stout, smooth, channelled, finely scabrous at edges, and still more slightly so on midrib at back, above but not below, green, regularly striate, with a broad filmy margin at the extreme base. Spikelets 4–6 (usually 5), very distant on panicle, cylindrical 2½ inches long, peduncled, pendulous; peduncles 2–3 inches long, compressed, lowermost pair 1–2 feet apart, sometimes the lowermost one is compound trifid or shortly tripedicelled, the uppermost one is male and very slender, 1½ inches long; bracts very long, narrow and foliaceous, finely scabrid at edges; glume ovate-acuminate, 1½ lines long, stoutly 1-nerved, awned, awn barbed; utricle as long as the glume, broadly lanceolate, bifid, turgid shining, light-brown; stigmas 2.
Hab. On sides of abrupt clayey declivities, woods, between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1881–1883: W.C.
Obs.—A very remarkable species, owing to its very long weak and prostrate culms, which stream away together like long wisps or bands, and so get entangled among the low herbage and common fern—Pteris esculenta. Carex sex-spicata, sp. nov.
Culms 2 feet–2 ft. 3 in. high, erect, stout, trigonous, smooth, more than 1 line in diameter, leafy, culm leaves with a sharply acute triangular hairy ligule; leaves as long as culms, ¼ inch wide, sub-rigid, rather harsh, flat, many nerved, the 2 principal lateral nerves white and strong on the upper surface, very acuminate, expanding below into wide filmy sheaths, keeled, closely and finely scabrid at edges, and slightly so on the two white nerves above and on the midrib below, striated; spikelets 6, approximate, each about 2 inches long, stout, shortly peduncled, erect, light brown, panicle short, ⅔ below of upper spikelet male, and the next two with a very few males below, the other 3 wholly female; bracts wide, foliaceous; glume linear-ovate-acuminate, bifid, sub-awned, less than 2 lines long, shorter and much narrower than the utricle, 1-nerved, longitudinally and numerously marked with fine short red lines, persistent; utricle ovate-acuminate, 1-nerved, turgid, spreading, smooth, bifid, tips acute, long-produced; anthers 1½ lines long, linear, apiculate, twisted, light brown; filaments longer than anthers, flat, much flexuose; stigmas 3. 
Hab. Edges of River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, 1883: W.C.
Order XII. Gramineæ.
Genus 16. Danthonia, DeCandolle.
Danthonia pentaflora,925 sp. nov.
Plant tufted, but not in dense tussocks. Culms 2–3 feet high, glabrous, stout. Leaves flat, 3–3½ feet long, 2–3 lines wide, pale green, strongly nerved, glabrous and shining above, pilose below with long scattered white hairs, margins thickened bearing a double row of fine sharp cutting spiny recurved teeth, midrib scabrid above; sheaths ⅓ of an inch broad, subcoriaceous, glabrous and keeled below, pilose above and ciliated with long straggling hairs, margins towards top slightly scabrid, densely and silky pilose with compressed hairs above mouth of sheath, and a transverse line of thickly set shortish white hairs almost disposed in little regular pencilled tufts forming a ligule. Panicle large, erect, broadly obovate, 12–14 inches long, open, diffuse, very thin; branches alternate, distant, 4–8 inches long, 5 springing nearly together from a node, glabrous; branchlets very slender, filiform, few flowered, scaberulous. Spikelets distant, ½ inch long, 5-flowered; peduncles ¼–1 inch long, hairy under spikelet; florets sessile on rhachis; rhachis below florets densely hairy; hairs long. Empty glumes margins entire, subacute, lower one much the smaller, strongly 1-nerved, upper one slightly ciliated near base; flowering glume ciliate with long white hairs at margins near base, the 2 lobes much elongated but not awned, very finely and closely villously-ciliate, 1-nerved, awn much longer than glume, acicular, flat at base, 2-nerved, spreading, deflexed; palenearly as long as the glume, broadest near top, almost subobovate retuse, minutely and closely pilose-ciliate and subpeneilled at apex, largely ciliated with long hairs on the back near base, margins pale-green. Anthers (immature) very long, nearly 2 lines, linear, light-brown, not exserted.
Hab. Slopes of Ruahine mountain range (immature), 1846, etc.: W.C. Near same localities, 1882: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs.—A species very near to D. cunninghamii in its general appearance but smaller, of tufted growth but not largely so, and more restricted as to locality. I have closely examined several specimens, gathered at various seasons and in separate localities, and have invariably found a spikelet to consist of 5 florets, the upper one being often smaller and abortive. Unfortunately all my specimens, though gathered at different times in early summer, were rather immature; and those collected by Mr. Hamilton in December are much the same. This species ripens its seeds late in the autumn. I have hitherto refrained from describing it in the hope of obtaining more complete specimens. 
Class III. Cryptogamia.
Order I. FILICES.
Genus 1. Gleichenia, Smith.
Gleichenia littoralis,926 mihi.
Plant gregarious; rhizome creeping, stoutish, thickly clothed with shining brown laciniate scales; stipes erect, glabrous, 6–8 inches high, sub-cylindrical below, flattish above, deeply channelled on upper surface, olive-green, sometimes light-brown; fronds sub-flabelliform, 2-branched, each main branch once or twice forked, or sometimes with 3 single branchlets; branchlet ovate-acuminate, 4–6 inches long, 1–1¼ inches broad near base, pinnate below, deeply pinnatifid quite to midrib above, extending also to apex which is not caudate; colour reddish-green, rhachis and veins red; segments linear, glabrous, sub-membranaceous, opposite and occasionally alternate, plane, patent, sub-erect, broadest at base, decurrent, ½–¾ inch long, 1 line wide, pinnate, distant and sub-adnate, not decurrent, (those on branchlets below the upper forkings are generally the longest—there are none below the first or lowest fork), margins entire (slightly recurved in age), sometimes a few segments are irregularly and very finely and distantly serrulate; apices very obtuse incurved and adpressed and finely woolly on both surfaces; midrib and veins woolly below with shining silky spreading hairs; capsules reddish, usually 4 together (sometimes 5 or 3), biserial on upper veinlets of middle of segments, exposed; veins prominent, forked.
Hab. Wooded cliffy shores of Whangaruru Bay S., 1836–41: W.C. Owana, E. coast Great Barrier Islet, Thames, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.
Obs.—This species is allied to our G. fiabellata, Br. (but is very distinct from it, though often, I think, confounded with it), and, possibly, more so to the Cape Horn species, G. acutifolia, Hook., particularly in its being a small pedate, erect, non-proliferous species, and like that species also a seaside plant. It seems to have a narrow range, at least I never met with it anywhere else than in that one habitat at Whangaruru, though there it grew plentifully and thickly in one spot, which I visited year after year from the time of its first detection, but could only find short barren yellowish fronds, which both A. Cunningham and Sir W.J. Hooker supposed to be those of G. flabellata in its young state; this, however, I always doubted. Now, then, after more than 45 years! it has been rediscovered by Mr. Winkelmann as above, from whom I have had for examination several specimens in full fruit, and pretty uniform.
Gleichenia punctulata,927 mihi.
Fronds erect, slender, 1½–2½ feet high, repeatedly dichotomously branched, very regular; stipe and rhachises slender, brown, densely scaly,  woolly, and hairy; branches deltoid-acuminate, 5–7 inches long, 2 inches broad at base, pinnate; pinnæ petiolate, alternate, very distant, 1 inch long, 1½ lines broad, deeply pinnatifid to midrib, glabrous and shining and dull dark green above, wholly glabrous below, except towards base of midrib, and there slightly woolly and scaly, but not hairy, whole plant, however, densely woolly and scaly below when young, the lowest pair of lobes (or sometimes two) larger, distinctly free and pinnate, lobules adnate, broadly elliptic, almost sub-quadrangular, very obtuse and slightly recurved at tips, glaucous almost blue beneath, and minutely and regularly punctulate (stippled) with light fawn-coloured shining dots; veins usually 1–3 branched, obscure; capsules 1–2 together, large, white, exposed, submarginal on upper inner corner of lobule; hairs short, rigid, dark red, fascicled in small scattered bundles; scales large, triangular, acuminate, netted and thickly ciliated.
Hab. Near Hot Springs, centre Great Barrier Islet, Thames, 1882: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann. I have also seen barren specimens collected earlier, from the west coast, South Island
Obs.—A species having pretty close natural affinity with G. G. microphylla, Brown; semivestita, Lab.; and hecistophylla, A. Cunn.; but differing from them all, and possessing characters which those species have not—that are better seen than described in words.
Note.—I have ever believed in the specific distinctness of those three ferns I have just mentioned; in which I also wholly agree with Mr. J. Smith (who had so long successfully cultivated them at Kew), in his last two works on ferns, viz., “Historia Filicum,” p. 339, and “Ferns, British and Foreign,” p. 248; as well as with Sir W.J. Hooker in his “Species Filicum.” Those eminent practical botanists, R. Brown and A. Cunningham, who had ample opportunities throughout many years of observing those three ferns they had described in their native habitats, could not possibly have been mistaken about them.
Genus 10. Lindsæa, Dryander.
Lindsæa trilobata,928 sp. nov.
Rhizome creeping densely scaly; scales ramentaceous, largely reticulated and transversely barred. Plant erect, cæspitose, 7–10 inches high, sublinear-lanceolate acuminate, pinnate, glabrous, dull green, but when young of a graceful delicate light green, sub-membranaceous. Stipes 4–6 inches long, very flexuous and tough below, obscurely triquetrous, compressed at base, deeply channelled and shining (together with rhachis) on the upper surface, slightly and sparsely roughish and muricated with little round knobs; colour light chestnut-brown. Fronds 3–5 inches long, 6–9 lines broad, fertile ones usually the longest and about 20–22-jugate; pinnules 2–4 lines long, ½–3 lines deep, opposite and sometimes alternate, petiolate, obliquely-flabelliform, sub-rhomboidal, and broadly cuneate, spreading, distant, lower very remote, upper approximate; petioles slender; the larger pinnules of the barren fronds and frequently of the fertile ones deeply 2–4 (mostly 8-) lobed on upper convex margin; lobes laciniate and irregularly crenate and toothed, the lower and inner margins of pinnules entire; veins radiate, free, forked, clavate at apices, prominent, dark-coloured, not extending to margin. Involucres, the inner valve green, broad, extending quite to margin of the outer one; margins of both closely and deeply laciniate-toothed; teeth sub-rigid, very obtuse; margins (with petioles and upper rhachis) bright red, and revolute when young. Sori, straw-coloured, but reddish with age.
Hab. In hollows on high land, tops of hills near the north head of Wellington Harbour (but not plentiful), 1846–7: W.C. Whangaparapara, west coast Great Barrier Islet, Thames, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.
Obs.—A species having affinity with L. linearis, Sw., and probably with L. incisa, Prentice, another Australian species (judging from Bentham’s description of this latter, as I have not seen any specimens of this plant), and with L. lobbiana, Hook. (also from his description). Differing, however, from L. linearis (a species found plentifully in New Zealand—Bay of Islands, and elsewhere) in size—in its larger and lobed pinnæ, which are also on slender petioles—in form and colour of stipes and rhachis, and in the stout obtuse toothing of its involucres. Here I might very well adopt Sir W.J. Hooker’s remark in describing the fern above mentioned, L. lobbiana:—“Without a figure I should despair of making its character intelligible, so difficult is it to define in words the forms of the pinnæ of these plants.”—Sp. Filicum.