Plantunder a foot high, tufted, 6–12 fronds to a plant, glabrous, suberect and spreading, with a short, stout, woody caudex about 1 inch long. Roots stoutish, long, spreading, densely clothed with light brown, shining, shaggy hairs; stipes short, usually under 1 inch (sometimes of sterile fronds extending to 2 inches or more, and of fertile fronds still longer), slender, dark purple-brown, slightly roughish below, sub-cylindrical, channelled (with rhachis) on the upper surface; scales long at base and for some distance upwards; fronds pinnate; sterile ones sub-lanceolate, broadest near tips, flat, 7–9 inches long, 10–14 lines broad, pinnæ numerous, rather distant, sub-opposite, adnate and decurrent, coarsely and prominently veined, membranaceous and puckered, deeply and coarsely crenate-serrate,  almost sub-laciniate or pinnatifid-serrate, the most prominent teeth or laciniations usually bearing a minute hard white recurved tooth (sometimes two) on their tips; colour pale greyish-green; upper and largest pinnæ broadly linear-oblong, very obtuse and truncate, 6–8 lines long, 3–4 lines broad, suberect, confluent at top, terminal lobe deltoid very obtuse; lower pinnæ occupying considerably more than half of the frond, much smaller than upper, orbicular and gradually decreasing in size downwards; fertile fronds longer than barren ones, but more slender with fewer and more distant pinnæ; pinnæ opposite and alternate, distant, ligulate, largest ½ inch long, 1 line broad, apiculate, upper and larger ones slightly petiolate, terminal one subcaudate, lower ones excessively small; involucre finely reticulated, margins entire; scales on stipes 2 lines long, flat, deltoid-linear acuminate, nerved longitudinally and much dilated at base. Veins conspicuous, simple and forked, extending quite to margin, clavate, very few and distant, usually only 4-jugate in the largest pinnæ, the lowermost one or two pairs not springing from the midrib (this character is also found in the smallest orbicular pinnæ), midrib usually forked at apex.
Hab. Great Barrier Islet, Thames, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.
Obs. I.—A species having close affinity with L. lanceolata and membranacea, particularly the latter, but differing in several important particulars:–e.g., in its large normal sterile pinnæ being fewer in number and decurrent, and much more coarsely serrate, and fewer veined, with veins extending to margins and the lowermost not springing from the midrib; in its small orbicular and deeply crenate-serrate pinnæ occupying nearly two-thirds of the frond; and in all being more distant from each other on the rhachis; and in its upper fertile pinnæ being petiolate, and their involucres finely reticulate with entire margins.
Obs. II.—I have had several fully fronded plants containing together more than fifty specimens of barren and fertile fronds to look over, and their uniformity in habit and character is great; the plants differing only in size.
Genus 22. Polypodium, Linn.
Polypodium rufobarbatum,930 sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, sub-erect, wholly covered with long and stout red and shining jointed and moniliform hairs; rhizome creeping, densely hairy; fronds ½–1 inch distant on rhizome. Stipes 1–3 inches long, and rhachis, slender, subflexuose, dry, channelled above, red, shining; frond 4–6 inches long, sublinear-ovate, acuminate, bipinnate, membranaceous, light green; pinnæ petiolate, distant and subopposite, deltoid-acuminate, ¾–1 inch long, 3–6 lines broad, spreading; pinnules sessile, distant, pinnate below, pinnatifid above, cut down quite to midrib of pinnæ, decurrent, linear-oblong, obtuse,  flat, 6–7 lobed, very uniform, ciliated all round with stout red hairs extending far beyond margin; lobes slightly crenate-toothed, never recurved over sori; sori large, round, reddish, bifariously disposed, one on each lobe on middle of veins, within margin, mostly three pairs on a pinnule; veins few, simple, and once forked, extending quite to margin, clavate at tips.
Hab. Skirts of woods, hills, between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1882; W.C.
Obs.—A very graceful little fern of uniform growth and appearance, allied to Polypodium rugulosum and Hypolepis distans, but distinct from both.
Order II. Lycopodiaceæ.
Genus 2. Lycopodium, Linn.
Lycopodium consimilis,931 sp. nov.
Plant gregarious; rhizome creeping, stout, white, glabrous; stems slender, erect, leafy from the base, 7–10 inches long, simple and branched; branches often again forked from near their bases; leaves nearly 3 lines long, squarrose, flat, linear-acuminate (occasionally forked), broadest at base and coadunato-decurrent, finely striate and shining, obsoletely nerved, margins revolute, slightly lacerate and jagged at tips, tips obtuse; green when young, yellowish-green when mature, often purple-tipped; spikes 5–6 on a branch, lateral and sub-terminal, cylindrical, peduncled, 5–8 lines long, lowermost longest, narrow, acute; bracts large, spreading, finely striate and shining, deltoid-acuminate, sub-awned, slightly keeled towards apex, margins serrate and jagged and sub-revolute, apices jagged (after the manner of the leaves but stronger); yellow-brown; capsules 3-lobed, turgid, with a small linear inner bracteole arising from base of capsule and embracing it.
Hab. Stony ground, White Cliffs, Great Barrier Islet, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.
Obs.—A species having pretty close affinity with L. laterale, Brown.
Order IV. Musci.
Genus 21. Encalypta, Schreber.
E. novæ-zealandiæ,932 sp. nov.
Stems closely tufted, very short, about ½ an inch high. Leaves green, sub-erect, oblong, obtuse, margin entire, midrib very stout below, not excurrent, glabrous; perichætial leaves broadly ovate. Fruit stalk 3–4 lines long, red; capsule linear-ovate, compressed, smooth, shining, reddish; calyptra large, nearly 3 lines long, shining (satiny), finely striated, entire at the base (and, sometimes, finely toothed), tips smooth.
Hab. On ground, dry hills at Pohue, and at Petane, near Napier, 1882: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs.—A species near to our only (hitherto) known New Zealand species E. australis, Mitten); and also, and nearer, to E. vulgaris, Hedw., a British and common European species, found also in Tasmania; but differing from both, and from all others known to me.
Order V. Hepaticæ.
Genus 7. Gottschea, Nees.
Gottschea compacta,933 sp. nov.
Plant of densely compact dwarf growth under 1 inch high, erect, closely imbricate, forming little patches, whole plant very tender and brittle. Stems rather stout, prostrate, dark claret colour, 1–½ inches long, with many fine dark pink rootlets below, sometimes two-branched near the tops, tops of branches decumbent, spreading, and then 4–6 lines broad, with leaves laxly imbricate. Leaves light green, pink at junction with the stem, very much waved and crisped, smooth, shining, semicircular, broadly elliptic and sub-quadrate in outline, margins entire, decurrent, sometimes very sparingly toothed towards base. Involucral leaves smaller, narrower, entire, conniving; fruit stalk 1 inch long, rather slender; capsule small, globose, black, minutely pitted; stipule 0.
Hab. On wet perpendicular clay cuttings among mosses, etc., near bridge of River Mangatawhainui, Norsewood, 1883: W.C.
Genus 30. Symphyogyna, Mont. and Nees.
This, hitherto, small and little-known genus having lately largely increased in additional and new species, I give a classification of them:–
I. Fronds stipitate, erect.
1. Margins serrate.
1. S. rubricaulis. 2. S. pellucida. 3. S. melanoneuron. 4. S. vulgaris.
2. Margins entire.
5. S. simplex. 6. S. megalolepis. 7. S. fætida. 8. S. longistipa.
II. Fronds prostrate, creeping.
1. Margins serrate.
9. S. prolifera.
2. Margins entire.
10. S. undulata. 11. S. marchantioides.
S. rubricaulis,934 sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, gregarious, diœcious, each plant simple, suberect, stipitate, the largest from ¾–1 inch long including stipe, roots short succulent and hairy; stipe mostly 3–4 lines long (sometimes 9–10), flexuose, obsoletely angled, rosy-red, 1-nerved from base of frond to root (sometimes 2-nerved above), succulent, semi-transparent; frond (largest and fruit-bearing) broadly deltoid or fan-shaped in outline, ½ inch long, ½ inch broad at top, mostly 4-parted or sub-digitate, sometimes simply once-forked, 1½–2 lines broad, and very truncate and undulate at base, not decurrent on stipe; segments under 1 line broad, nearly linear but broadest at base and narrowest at tips, margins serrate, serratures few, small, and irregular, none at tips which are obtuse and retuse, glabrous, transparent, minutely reticulated, areolæ oblong-pentangular regular; colour bright light green; fructification on upper surface of frond, single, on one side below forking of veins of forked fronds; involucre a narrow linear-oblong laciniate scale; peduncle 10–11 lines long, slender; calyptra tubular, 2½–3 lines long, whitish, reddish at base, slighly roughish, mouth truncate, laciniate, with rather long fimbriæ; fimbriæ brown; capsule 1–1½ lines long, linear, cylindric, finely striate, sub-acute and pointed, shining, black; antheridia on separate and much smaller fronds, closely placed on midrib and veins on the upper surface.
Hab. On shaded clayey banks, Seventy-mile Bush, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa, 1880–3: W.C. Glenross, near Napier, 1883: Mr. D. P. Balfour; fruiting in September.
Obs.—A species having affinity with S. biflora, mihi, and S. hymenophyllum, Hook., but very distinct from both. S. biflora bears its fructification on the lower surface and this species on the upper. This species grows thickly together in little beds or patches, with its fronds always inclining one way, half-nodding and overlapping, with its coloured fructification erect and some distance above them. Some fronds have three segments, others only two, and some a single one, which is then oblong-lanceolate. It is a very pretty neat little species.
2. S. pellucida,935 sp. nov.
Plant gregarious stipitate erect, usually single, though sometimes two, or even three, are found united by a very short rhizome, 1–1½ inches high, 1½–2½ lines broad, commonly once-forked, sometimes single, and occasionally (though rarely) 3-branched, single fronds and segments generally linear-oblong and broader near tips, pagina of frond broadly decurrent to near base, slightly sinuate and waved, particularly below, transparent, margins very finely serrate, apices rounded, obtuse or slightly emarginate, nerve single, strong, and extending to tips, colour very light green; stipes very  short, 1–1½ lines long, with small fine rootlets at base; fructification on the upper side, scattered, mostly on nerve near the middle of the frond, sometimes near the base, and sometimes at the forking but above it, and not unfrequently two on a frond; involucre broad, subplicate, deeply and finely laciniate, sometimes three occur on a branchlet; calyptra cylindric, two lines long, whitish, glabrous, slightly rugulose, with delicate small fimbriæ at the mouth; peduncle slender, 8–12 lines long; capsule linear, obtuse, 1 line long, glossy dark brown, valves not cohering at tips; spores circular, presenting a ringed appearance; cellules very minute, chain-like, irregular in shape and size, mostly pentagonal.
Hab. On clay banks, sides of streamlets near Norsewood, 1878–83 (but barren): W.C. Petane, near Napier, September, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton; profusely in fruit.
Obs.–A species having alliance with S. subsimplex, Mitten, and S. prolifera, mihi (infra), but very distinct from both. Occasionally, however, a frond is met with slightly rooting from its centre, below the fruit-point, or from becoming recumbent, and sometimes, though rarely, by throwing out lateral fronds from its base. A few young fronds are also found intermixed, very narrow long and pointed; these, I am inclined to believe, enlarge their pagina afterwards.
3. S. melanoneuron,936 sp. nov.
Plant small, single (?), stipitate, erect; frond reniform in outline, 7–8 lines broad, 4–5 lines long, forked, once or twice divided, stoutish, wavy, colour dark olive, cellules small, oblong; segments few, sublinear-oblong, short, about 1½ lines or more wide, not divided deeply, not decurrent on stipe, very slightly and distantly serrulated towards bases not above, tips largely emarginate; midrib stout, almost black, not extending to tips, in some segments midrib forked at tips; stipe 6–9 lines long, stoutish, black-brown; involucre small, simply 2–3 times notched, on upper surface at second forkings above, 2–3 on a frond; antheridia on lower surface, under minute ovate leaf-like scales, scattered on both sides of the midrib.
Hab.—On clay banks under ferns, &c., dark forests near Norsewood, 1879–83: W.C.; and at Great Barrier Islet, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.
Obs.—This is another peculiar-looking species, of which I should have liked to have had better fruiting specimens. It is a rather scarce species and generally barren. I have long known it in this state, and I should not care now to describe it had I not been engaged lately in studying and working-up the several species I have described in this paper—besides my well-knowing all the other published N.Z. species of this genus. I have, therefore, no doubt of its being quite distinct as a species from all of them, although I find it hard to describe plainly in a few words its characteristic differences.  The ultimate segments of the fronds are remarkably wide and short, indeed, on some fronds, might more properly be termed lobes. The few specimens brought away by Mr. Winkelmann this year (1883) from the Great Barrier Islet, were also barren, and very similar.
4. S. vulgaris,937 sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, gregarious, diœcious, stipitate, erect, arising from a short stout rhizome, 2–3 springing together, or nearly so, 1½–2 inches high including stipe; fronds variously shaped, but mostly broadly fan-shaped in outline, 6–8 lines long, 9–10 lines broad at top, divided into two main branches, each being dichotomous and sub-imbricate, angles of sinuses very obtuse, spreading; segments 1 line broad, mostly dilated with very large margins above forks, and deeply emarginate at tips, margins finely serrated extending down the decurrent wings of stipe, nerves thick throughout, not percurrent to tips; colour a light reddish- or lurid-green, cellules large oblong; stipe 1–1½ inches long, stout, sub-flexuose, broad and compressed and winged above, sub-cylindrical below, stoutly 2-nerved, sometimes 3-nerved above; fructification on upper surface of frond in the main forks; involucre a rather broad trifid or deeply 3-laciniate scale with jagged margins; sometimes 3–4 observed on a frond, but invariably only one bearing a calyptra; calyptra large, tubular, 3–3½ lines long, slightly contracted at base, dilated and fimbriate at mouth, of a similar dirty-reddish hue as the frond; antheridia on separate and narrower fronds, rather loosely scattered in lines on both sides of main nerves under broad acuminate jagged scales.
Hab. Clay banks lower sides of deep water-courses, shaded forests, Seventy-mile Bush, Waipawa County, 1878–1881: W.C.
Obs.—This species is one of the largest and the coarsest-looking of all our known stipitate New Zealand species. I have long known it, but hitherto I have refrained from describing it in hopes of getting better specimens,–i.e., more perfect in fruit. The calyptræ of this plant often seem as if gnawed by some small insect. It appears to be pretty closely allied to S. hymenophyllum, Mont., and also to S. rugulosa, mihi, in its general appearance, but this latter species has entire margins, etc.
5. S. simplex,938 sp. nov.
Plant diœcious; frond stipitate, erect, with no indication of a rhizome, simple, of varied outline mostly linear and sublinear-ovate, sometimes broadest at base and then deltoid-acuminate and subtruncate, 1–2¼ inches long including stipe, 1½–2 lines broad in the broadest part, slightly repand and waved, very thin, pale green, margins entire, emarginate at apices, mostly narrowly and very gradually decurrent half-way down stipe, midrib narrow, very prominent and keeled on both surfaces, light yellow-brown, not continued to tip, but continued downwards as a nerve within to the  base of the stipe; stipe 3–6 lines long, slender, rosy-red; fructification on midrib upper surface, nearer the apex than the base; involucre small, trifid, laciniate, laciniations acuminate sharp; calyptra substipitate, stout, 1½ lines long, much fimbriated at top, dilated and laciniate at mouth; peduncle slender, short, 3–4 lines long; capsule large, nearly 2 lines long, linear, obtuse, truncate at base, light-brown; cellules pretty regular, suborbicular-pentagonal; antheridia under small deltoid jagged scales, in short linear masses on the midrib near the top of separate fronds, that are usually narrower and longer.
Hab. High and dry woods near Norsewood, 1878–1882: W.C. Pohue, high lands near Petane, Hawke’s Bay, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs.—This small and simple species very much resembles some of the linear unbranched fronds of S. subsimplex, to which species it is closely allied; and indeed it was for some time by me taken for it, but on close examination and dissection I found several differences: e.g., this species is never branched or forked, has generally much more attenuated fronds with a keeled and coloured midrib, and longer stipes that are rosy red, its involucral scale is sharply laciniate, and, beyond all, it differs greatly in the form of its cellules, which, in S. subsimplex, are distinctly “hexagonal.”. It has caused me much study to determine its specific difference, for, though I have collected plenty of specimens, there are but few among them in full fruit.
6. S. megalolepis,939 sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, gregarious, stipitate, erect, rising from a slender and long rhizome, roots stoutish, white, closely intermixed, each frond about 1 inch apart on rhizome; frond fan-shaped, flat, slightly waved, 6–8 lines long, 4–7 lines broad at top, divided into two main branches that are generally again once or twice divided; segments broadly linear, sub-imbricate, broadly decurrent on upper part of stipe, margins entire, apices sub-rotund and emarginate; stipe 6–9 lines long, slender, sub-flexuose; whole plant very pale green, delicate and highly transparent, cellules orbicular; involucre on under surface, immediately above lowest fork of veins, very large, apparently double (?)—the outer scale being more than 2 lines broad at top, extending quite across lower forkings, orbicular-reniform, loose and slightly waved, margin quite entire, the inner scale, as seen through the outer, small, green, and much laciniate, with a tumid swelling at the base—sometimes two involucral scales on a frond, the upper one smaller and above the upper fork, nerves throughout strong and extending quite to tips, and biserial in the upper part of stipe; antheridia under minute jagged scales, in scattered circular spots and tubercles, at forkings of veins and on both  sides of the lower rhachis. A peculiar abnormal very narrow stout linear segment (nearly all nerve) arises vertically from forking of nerves in some fronds.
Hab. On rotten logs, forests, between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1880–1882: W.C.; also young and barren, Great Barrier Islet, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann.
Obs.—Not yet detected bearing fruit; the supposed “inner scale,” as seen through the clear outer one, may prove to be the laciniate tips of the undeveloped calyptra, but if so it is very large and coloured. I know of no New Zealand species bearing a large and plain outer scale like this; although that of S. longistipa, mihi, (sp. nov., infra) approached it; it is a striking characteristic. Some immature fronds have been noticed more strongly forked, the fronds beginning at 2–3 lines above the branching stipe.
7. Symphyogyna fætida,940 sp. nov.
Plant (? monœcious) gregarious; rhizome stout, succulent, creeping under soil; fronds stipitate, erect, mostly 2 inches high, and about 1 inch apart on rhizome. Stipe, 1½ inch long, stout, green, succulent, sub-cylindrical, compressed and dilated at top, with sometimes small warted tubercles (? antheridia) beneath on upper part. Frond, orbicular in outline when expanded, symmetrical, generally of a reniform appearance, 4–5 lines broad, 10–12 lines wide, multifid, divided into 2 (sometimes 3) main branches, each subdivided into 3 branchlets, and each branchlet again divided into 2–4 portions; segments numerous, usually 20–40, linear, entire, imbricate, slightly sinuate and waved, obtuse and emarginate; colour (adult) dark green. Fructification on the under surface (sometimes several on a frond), on the main stipe below first forking, and also on the branches above secondary forkings, arising from a gibbous tubercle; involucre a large sub-plicate scale, slightly laciniate; calyptra greenish white, cylindrical, broad, smooth, membranaceous, truncate and dilated at apex; mouth very minutely and regularly toothed—sometimes 3 calyptras on a single frond; capsule (immature within), oblong, blackish.
Hab. In damp spots in dark woods, growing in large patches in rich soil near Matamau, Seventy-mile Bush, Waipawa County, 1883: W.C.
Obs.—A very distinct and fine species, possessing a most disagreeable smell, its strong Algæ-like odour resembling that of Chara fetida; this strong smell is retained by long-dried specimens and emitted on their being soaked, filling the room with its stink. The single fructification on the main stem is surrounded by several largish scales, some longer than the others, reminding of those of Steetzia lyellii. The natural affinities of this species are with S. flabellata, rugulosa, and longistipa (sp. nov., infra), though largely differing from them all. 
8. S. longistipa,941 sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, gregarious, stipitate, erect, rising from a slender and long rhizome, roots wiry, fronds generally 3–4 near each other, of irregular shapes and sizes, usually broadly sub-flabellate in outline, 6–9 lines broad, 4–8 lines long, forked, sometimes trifid and almost pinnate-pinnatifid, pinnæ on long slender branchlets or petioles, segments short, flat, broadly sublanceolate-linear, sinuses round, margins entire, rounded at tips and deeply emarginate, not decurrent on stipe nor on branchlets; stipes 1¼–1¾ inches long, slender, subflexuose; whole plant darkish green; involucre on lower surface immediately above forkings, double—the outer scale being very large, loose and flabellate, margins entire, the inner scale much smaller and laciniate—several fruiting involucres on a frond, often four on a small frond all bearing fructification; calyptra white, cylindrical, transparent, 3 lines long, glabrous, mouth dilated, slightly laciniated or bifid, and finely and regularly toothed; seta 1–1½ inches long, slender; capsule large, cylindrical, linear, abounding after bursting in dark-brown elaters, which often remain hanging in pencilled masses; valves long, linear ovate, bordered; spores green; antheridia scattered beneath on the stipe, midrib and veins, under rather large open jagged scales.
Obs.—A plant having close natural affinity with the preceding (S. megalolepis), but differing from it in several characters.
9. S. prolifera,942 sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, prostrate creeping, cæspitose, imbricated in growth, rooting at middle and tip of fronds, and thence sending forth other fronds; fronds very irregular of various shapes and lengths, but flat, mostly linear and very narrow, 1–3 inches long, 1–3 lines broad, obtuse, sometimes ovate-acuminate, 2–3 leaf-like fronds issuing from near base of the short stipe, fragile, irregularly sinuate and serrate, very thin, transparent and pale green, midrib stout with fine short hair-like rootlets scattered below: fructification arising from midrib on upper surface, 1–2 on a frond, pretty close together or scattered; involucres very small, narrow, jagged, sometimes 2 scales or bifid; calyptra cylindric, 2–3 lines long, whitish, lacerate at mouth and slightly fimbriate; peduncle slender, weak, 1 inch long; capsule linear, cylindric, 1 line long, brown; valves cohering at tips; elaters and spores numerous, rich red-brown; spores circular, plain; cellules very small, oblong and irregular in size.
Hab. In rich black mould, wet shady woods, Seventy-mile Bush, near Norsewood, 1879–1882 (rarely in fruit): W.C.; and at Glenross, 1883 (fruiting plentifully): Mr. D. P. Balfour. 
Obs.—A species pretty closely allied to S. rhizobola, Nees, but differing considerably.
10. S. undulata,943 sp. nov.
Plant diœcious, of densely compact growth, procumbent, creeping, rooting from midrib below its whole length, apices free, branches frondose, 1–1½ inches long, 2–3½ lines wide, forked, linear, crisp, translucent, brittle, much undulated and sub-sinuate, margins entire, sub-involute, apices orbicular and emarginate; colour light green, midrib broad, dark, nerve indistinct with long brown hairy rootlets below; fructification from the midrib on the upper surface, 2–3 on a branchlet at a short distance from each other; involucre large, sub-flabellate, trifid and laciniate, sometimes surrounding calyptra, front and sides; calyptra cylindric, 1½–2 lines long, whitish, largely tuberculate and fimbriate, particularly at apex; tubercles at first white, succulent, soon becoming reddish-brown; mouth laciniate; peduncle 1–1½ inches long, rather stout; capsule th of an inch long, cylindric, linear-oblong, obtuse, sub-apiculate, shining, dark purple-brown; valves cohering at apex; spores minute, orbicular, black and tuberculated; elaters geminal; antheridia in dense brownish linear masses, with minute fimbriated perigonial leaves on the midrib upper surface, running nearly the whole length of their branchlets.
Hab. On shady sides and hollows of decomposing and damp limestone rocks and cliffs, hills, at Petane, near Napier, September, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton; most profusely bearing fruit.
Obs. This plant differs much in appearance from all other known indigenous species of this genus; it often presents a very peculiar appearance from its densely-clustered and regular manner of puckered contracted growth, a patch of it extending a few inches each way without break; at such times its regular form reminds one of the thickly-compacted small involute petals of a double Dahlia—and of the leaves of a small variety of our Dichondra repens closely compacted in growth, sometimes met with in patches on our dry upland heaths. It also grows over and on other frondose and larger Hepaticæ (as Marchantia), while minute Hepaticæ (Jungermannia, sps.) often grow over it. It bears fruit plentifully—some plants, or patches, bristling with capsules, while others alongside are wholly barren. Some of the larger specimens resemble in habit Steetzia lyellii. A smaller and still more densely-compacted variety has also been noticed, which is similar though reduced in all its parts.
11. S. marchantioides,944 sp. nov.
Plant procumbent, creeping, of irregular shape and growth, but somewhat spreading out into a circular form from a centre, adhering strongly to the soil; fronds pale green with a very broad and dark midrib, 1–1½ inches  long, 1½–2½ lines broad, simple, and branched once twice forked, linear, much sinuate and waved, brittle, margins entire, densely clothed below with brown rootlets, dilated at apices, which are round emarginate, and sometimes 3-lobed through extension of midrib; fructification on the upper surface; involucre usually trifid and sharply laciniate, sometimes 2–3 involucral scales scattered on a frond; calyptra large 2–2½ lines long, sub-stipitate, tubular, sub-infundibuliform, slightly rugulose with large and stout tuberculated fimbriæ; mouth oblique or bifid, sometimes 1–2–3 on a frond both below and above forks; peduncle 6–12 lines long, stout; capsule 1 line long, cylindric, obtuse, black, bursting in a round mass; valves narrow, slightly cohering at tips; spores black, circular, and muricated; elaters red-brown, geminate, twisted very closely, pointed at tips; cellules large, broadly-oblong, usually sub-quadrangular, but irregular in shape and size.
Hab. On clayey soil, damp shaded sides of watercourses, near Norsewood, 1880: W.C. Also at Petane, near Napier, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton; sometimes creeping over stems of the larger mosses.
Obs.—This is a very peculiar-looking species, and one that, in its barren state, I should scarcely have deemed to belong to this genus, looking more like a Marchantia in habit, or even an Aneura (especially A. imbricata, sp. nov., mihi, infra), in the almost total absence of any central nerve. It serves, however, in its frond and habit as a natural approach towards those two allied genera. It is very distinct from all our other known species of Symphyogyna. When creeping over the stems of mosses it adheres but loosely and at intervals. It is so extremely brittle in texture that it is difficult to preserve or procure a good specimen. It is also a scarce species.
Genus 32. Aneura, Dumort.
1. Aneura alba,945 sp. nov.
Plant small, erect, densely compact, of dwarf moss- or scale-like growth, much resembling the small horizontal scales of some species of Cladonia; frond whitish or greenish-white, 3–4 lines long, main stems creeping, flattened, thickish, shining, under a lens microscopically bullate, sub-orbicular and cuneate in outline, sub-palmate, digitate and irregularly laciniate, lobes obtuse and retuse, abounding in fruit, sometimes a capsule to each lacinia, margins entire; areolæ rather large, confused not clear; involucre small, subovate, jagged, roughish; calyptra 2 lines long, much tuberculated especially at tip before bursting; tubercles in little lumps or fascicles; mouth nearly entire; peduncle 2–3 lines long, stout, striate; capsule ½ line long, narrow-oblong, purple-black, shining, striate.
Hab. Growing with mosses among grasses and other small herbage, shaded banks, Scinde Island, Napier, 1883: W.C.
2. A. bipinnatifida,946 sp. nov.
Plant prostrate and sub-ascending, straight and sub-flexuose, somewhat crisp, very brittle, 1–2 inches long, flat, linear, simple and 2-branched at base, bipinnatifid, main stem 1 line wide, margins entire, lobes or sub-branchlets opposite, sometimes sub-opposite or alternate, 1–3 lines long, ½ line wide, linear, pinnatifid sometimes simple, ultimate lobules very obtuse, retuse emarginate or slightly crenulate, tips sub-incurved; colour green; involucre springing from upper part of plant, large, irregular, torn; calyptra 3–4 lines long, cylindrical, white, clavate, papillose and finely pilose; mouth deeply toothed with 4–5 triangular teeth; peduncle 1 inch or more long; capsule cylindrical, oblong, finely striate, purple before bursting, rich chestnut-brown after; valves oblong-lanceolate, acute, 1-nerved; elaters and spores adhering in long pencilled masses at tips.
Hab. Among small herbage, mosses, etc., wet shady grounds, Scinde Island, Napier, August, 1883: W.C.
Obs.—A species near A. palmata, Nees; but still nearer to a Cape Horn species, A. alcicornis, Hook. fil.
A. filicina,947 sp nov.
Plant terrestrial, gregarious in small compact patches, dark green. Frond stipitate, erect, arising from a dark, creeping, rooting, rhizome, sub-coriaceous, somewhat rigid, brittle, broadly obovate, sub-tripinnate, 1½–2 inches high, ¾–1 inch broad, pinnæ opposite, rather distant, sub-bipinnate, sub-flabellate, much cut, lobes linear, narrow, truncate, laciniate, recurved, main rhachis nearly 1 line wide, apex truncate, branched nearly to base, stipe very short; cellules large, pentangular-orbicular, evidently two series or strata in the middle of lobes; involucres numerous, scattered underneath, mostly below axils of upper laciniæ, and on main rhachis near top, composed of small sub-quadrangular whitish scales, each having a minute spur-like projection at its outer upper corners, truncate at top very minutely incised; calyptra near top of frond, 2–2¼ lines long, cylindrical, whitish, minutely pubescent in transverse rings or lines, pubescence brown, a minute contracted brownish pencilled tuft at apex before opening, mouth (open) truncate and bifid; 2–3 calyptræ often very close together; mature fruit not seen, but only within calyptræ, capsule linear-oblong, blackish.
Hab. On wet clayey banks near watercourses, shaded forests, Norsewood, 1879–1883: W.C.
Obs.—A pretty species, evidently allied to A. prehensilis, Mitt.; hitherto only met with in a few detached spots, and there not plentiful, and rarely in fruit. The involucres have a sub-lunate appearance, reminding me of the outline (in miniature) of the cauline leaves of Drosera lunata. 
Aneura orbiculata,948 sp. nov.
Plant large, spreading, growing flat on rotten logs and over small mosses and Hepaticæ, in irregular oblong patches of 8–10 inches, adhering strongly; thickish, glabrous, light green, branches short effigurate, loosely imbricate, lobes 4–8 lines wide, orbiculate in outline, deeply crenate, hyaline at edges, spongy underneath with numerous short obtuse semi-rootlets. Calyptra ½ inch long, stout, cylindric, fleshy, greenish-white, lacerate at top, top and edges disposed in minute tuberculated lumps, sparingly setose, hairs light-brown, more thickly set at top, some 3–5 together subfasciculate but diverging (as in prickly pear). Fruit stalk (seta) 1¼ inches long, white, shining, finely striated, striæ twisted. Capsule large, 2 lines long, brown, oblong-lanceolate, splitting crosswise; valves spreading, pencilled at tips; elaters cohering.
Hab. In wet shady woods, between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1876, etc.; in fruit, April, 1883: W.C.
Obs.—A very handsome plant, but rarely found in fruit; without fructification it might well be taken for an Anthoceros.
Aneura imbricata,949 sp. nov.
Plant spreading, flat, in patches of 4–6 inches, effuse, adhering pretty closely, sub-membranous, brittle, glabrous, green; branchlets or compound sub-foliaceous scales very numerous, irregular, laciniate, semi-convex, imbricated, ultimately much overlapping, lobes 3–4 lines broad, sub-orbicular in outline, margins sinuate, waved, and crisped, largely crenate, translucent, with very many short whitish-brown filiform rootlets issuing in pencils beneath, from middle of scales, and strongly adhering to those below; calyptra whitish-brown, erect, 4–6 lines long, cylindrical, stout, 1 line diameter, glabrous, having a broadly gibbous base; mouth bifid, slightly toothed and tuberculated with a few small scattered tubercles; capsule not seen.
Hab. On soil and on rotten logs, on the immediate low sides of deep water-courses, ravines, dark shaded woods, near Norsewood, October, 1883: W.C.
Obs.—A species having pretty close natural affinity with A. orbiculata, mihi (supra), but very distinct; their differences, however, are better and far easier seen in comparing the two plants while fresh, than can be described in words. Some allowance must be made for description of calyptra, as those seen (several specimens) were more or less slightly damaged through recent heavy rains flooding the channels where they grew.
Genus 37. Fimbriaria, Nees.
Fimbriaria gracilis,950 sp. nov.
Plant gregarious; frond single, procumbent, 3–7 lines long, 1¼ lines wide, linear-oblong or linear-obovate, sinuate, incurved, edges thin and finely  crenulate, apex obtuse, sometimes (though rarely) emarginate and trifid, when trifid bearing 2 peduncles, light green, minutely and regularly papillose, with a continuous conspicuous purple band-like margin; midrib below stout, turgid, with diverging purple crescent scale-like markings, and a few fine hairy rootlets. Female receptacle sub-conical obtuse, 2–3–4-lobed, purplish-brown dotted with whitish spots, scarcely subpapillose, naked below except a few long white straggling hairs within perianths and immediately around apex of peduncle; perianths white, elliptic-conical, sometimes orbicular in outline and much depressed at tips, 12–14-fid; segments linear, flat and wrinkled, cohering at apex, hyaline and shining, netted, cellules irregular, sub-oblong-quadrangular; peduncle ¾–1½ inches long, subflexuose, finely striated, shining, tetrangular and purple below, cylindrical and white above; spores deltoid- and rhombic-orbicular with netted intra-margins, edges entire.
Hab. On pebbly (conglomerate) and limestone strata, shaded banks, hills, various localities, Hawke’s Bay 1870–83: W.C. At Petane, near Napier, September, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs.—An elegant little species, pretty closely allied to the other described N.Z. species of the genus, particularly F. drummondii, from which, however, it is quite distinct.
Fimbriaria pallide-virens,951 sp. nov.
A very small plant of densely compact growth and habit. Fronds much branched, tender and sub-succulent, undulate, very slightly papillose, light green above, whitish-green below, midrib stout with numerous fine rootlets, cellules appearing (when held between the eye and the light) as if disposed in feathery falcate lines diverging from midrib; branches 1–1½ inches long, dichotomous, sub-imbricate; branchlets ½–¾ inches long, 3–4 lines wide, oblong and broadly obovate, bi-tri-fid at tips, margins finely crenulate and hyaline. Female receptacle small, convex, smooth, pale green, with minute and faint white dots, 2–3–4-lobed, lobes broad, spreading, obtuse and retuse, margins entire or slightly sinuate, naked below; perianths globose, 6–9-fid, segments small, distant, deltoid-acuminate, sometimes two are joined together from base slightly diverging at tips, scarious, soon expanding; capsule large, early exserted, brown-black, bursting circumcissilely; spores rather large, orbicular and sub-stelliform, muricated; peduncles 1–1¼ inches high, rather stout, purple below, greenish-white above, sub-erect, flexuous.
Hab. Among and creeping over mosses, Hawke’s Bay; Glenross, Mr. D. P. Balfour, growing densely: Petane, Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs.—A strikingly pretty little species, nearly allied to F. tenera, Mitt. 
Genus 39. Anthoceros, Micheli.
Anthoceros muscoides,952 sp. nov.
Plant forming small dense moss-like patches, often circular, 2–3 inches diameter; light-green above, whitish-green below possessing there a blanched appearance; branchlets or fronds all erect, very compact and crisp, ½ inch high, narrow below, very much dilated above, much laciniate and jagged at margins, each branchlet usually incurved sub-cyathiform with involucre arising from the central lacinia, sometimes two on a branchlet; involucre cylindric, margin of mouth slightly scarious and slightly erose; capsules numerous, 2–2¼ inches long, at first erect acute and coloured green, brown at tips, black flaccid and drooping when mature; valves 1½ inches long, obtuse; columella exceedingly filiform, and, with spores, black; gemmæ circular, scattered, immersed in substance of frond; rootlets numerous, fine light brown.
Hab. On damp shady sides of cuttings in white indurated clay hills, road, Seventy-mile Bush, Waipawa County, 1883: W.C.
Obs.—A well-defined and truly elegant little species.
Order VII. Lichenes.
Genus 5. Sphærophoron, Pers.
Sphærophoron polycarpum,953 sp. nov.
Thallus foliaceous attached at base, sub-erect, branched, effuse, under 1 inch high, loosely imbricate in growth like large irregular scales, light green above white below, branches and lobes broad dilated or narrow, laciniate and crenately toothed. Apothecia at the edges of laciniæ or teeth, or sub-marginal below, many (8–00) on a frond, circular, light brown at first, with a narrow flat thalline border, afterwards black and hemispherical, becoming oblong and sub-confluent in age, capitulum girt by a narrow entire rim.
Hab. On trunks of aged Fagus trees in large patches, projecting horizontally, sub-alpine forests Ruahine mountain range, 1846–1852; always barren; but near Norsewood, bearing fruit plentifully, 1883: W.C.
Order VIII. Fungi.
Genus 10. Polyporus, Fries.
Polyporus (Mesopus) nivicolor,954 sp. nov.
Plant glabrous, wholly pure white including stem, shortly pendulous, growing closely together, sometimes 3 or more springing from the same root and subimbricate. Pileus fleshy, thickest in centre thin at edges, sub-orbicular, oblong or reniform, 1–1½ inches diameter, concave and subcupshaped below, convex and obsoletely zoned and veined above, margin distinct, delicately thin, irregularly but neatly crenate and subincised, revolute; stem a continuation of pileus, short, thick, obconical, nearly central; pores rather large, subrotund and angular. 
Hab. On decaying logs, in dense forests between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1883: W.C. Only observed in two spots, yet there plentiful.
Obs.—A beautifully white species, graceful bivalve-shell-like; naturally allied to P. phlebophorus, Berkeley; a plant also discovered in forest 60 miles further south by W.C.
Genus 23. Aseroe, Labill.
Aseroe corrugata,955 sp. nov.
Stipes sub-cylindrical, stout, 1½ inches long, obconical, 1 inch wide at top, ½ inch wide at base, smoothish or slightly rugulose, sub-translucent, nerves reticulated, a rectangular hole at centre of base, 2 lines long and 1 line wide; colour white. Rays of pileus 6, of a brilliant red colour, darker within, conniving, 1¾ inches long, 2 lines broad at base, deeply transversely and irregularly rugose and wrinkled on both surfaces, but more so on the upper side, the outer lower margins angled and broad as if ribbed, each ray continuous with stipe on the outside and forked at ½ inch from its base, and thence bearing a deep central groove downwards to stipe, very acuminate, subulate towards tips which are twisted, a tolerably large irregularly shaped hole at the base of each bifurcation on the upper side; the large central aperture above in the pileus at the bases of the rays is 6-angled with small papillose portions of the rays projecting into the centre. Volva small, globular or broadly obovate, about an inch in diameter, rugulose, sessile, dark umber-coloured on the outside, white within; roots central, long, white, spreading and much branched.
Hab. In forests, Te Aute, Hawke’s Bay, April, 1883: Mr. C. P. Winkelmann. Woodville, from settlers there: W.C.
Obs.—Among several good specimens, one has 7 double rays; another has two stipes, united near to the base of the pileus, thence diverging and bearing together 8 double rays, one of them being very broad and divided into 4 single rays. According to the Woodville settlers, this species is fatal to their cats; they say that their cats eat it, being fond of it, and die soon after. This plant is evidently allied to our two other New Zealand species, A. rubra and A. hookeri (as well as to the few known foreign species), but is abundantly distinct from them all.
Genus 27. Geaster, Micheli.
Geaster coronatus,956 sp. nov.
Outer peridium about two inches diameter, expanded, flattened at base, thickish, divided half-way down into 7 pretty equal broadly triangular obtuse sub-erect segments, semi-papillate and dark brown on the outside, blackish-brown and densely pubescent on the inside, with a continuous raised border at their inner bases; inner peridium ¾ inch diameter, globular  and smooth, sessile, perfectly free all round, reddish-brown, darker towards the top, and there thickly covered with minute black dots, having a depressed orbicular coronula 2 lines diameter, roughish, slightly rising in the centre with a small plain ostiole.
Hab. On ground, forests near Norsewood, 1883: W.C.
Obs.—A species having some affinity with G. archeri, Berk., a Tasmanian species.
Geaster affinis,957 sp. nov.
Outer peridium sessile, 3¼ inches diameter expanded, flat on the ground, marked with 2–3 concentric rings on outside near base, thin, light brown and smooth outside, divided into 8 narrow deltoid-acuminate acute segments, cut down nearly to the base, segments roughish and darker-brown inside; inner peridium 1¼ inches diameter, globular, light tawny, sessile, free to base, with a ridge running round the inside, about 3 lines below bases of segments, at top a small coronula, 3 lines diameter, subplicate, mouth elevated, large, conical, more than 1 line diameter, laciniated.
Hab. On ground, elevated woods, at Glenross, 1883: Mr. D. P. Balfour; and other places near Napier, 1883: W.C.
Obs.—A species near to G. tenuipes, Berk.,—also a Tasmanian species.
1884 Description of a small lizard, a Species of Naultinus, supposed to be new to Science. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 17: 149-151.
General Colour.—Above light brownish-black or dark grey, spotted with small dark spots; six broad dark-umber zig-zag, or double VV, shaped bands across the body, and nine similar ones across the tail, 15 in all, and  regularly placed, having lighter scales in the anterior angles; a dark line from the lower angle of eye to that of mouth, and another from the upper angle of eye to over the ear; a narrow dark transverse band from eye to eye in front, and a cross dark band (St. Andrew’s Cross) on vertex; below of a light-greyish colour with small dark spots.
Vertex depressed; eyebrows very prominent (porrected) with 2–3 rows of dark pointed scales, upper row black: snout very obtuse; on both upper and lower lips, 11 large greyish scales on each side of the rostral ones which are much larger, but the upper rostral is larger than that of the chin, and extends to the nostrils; two large scales immediately above the upper rostral one, and four similar scales around each nostril; nostrils circular; aural apertures oblong, large. A number of small pointed simple glassy teeth in both jaws; tongue roundly-spathulate, very long and extensible, thin, deeply emarginate, red; the palate salmon-colour. Body narrow and round, back arched, not broad and flat as in N. pacificus. Toes all regularly barred with blackish lines; the fourth toe is the longest on each foot, and at a great distance from the fifth one on the hind feet, the soles also of the hind pair are large and flat. Its tail is very prehensile, so that it can curl its tip around a lead pencil, or a quill, and swing thereby; it can also hang by a single toe-nail (which are exceedingly sharp pointed and curved) and so remain for a short time; it also leaps well and fearlessly from a height of 2–3 feet. Length—head and body, 4 inches; tail, 4½ inches–8½ inches.
Hab. In forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1883: W.C. Also at Glenross, County of Hawke’s Bay; 1884: Mr. D.P. Balfour.
Obs. I obtained two fine living specimens of this lizard last summer while in those woods; and one since, a smaller one, also living, from Mr. Balfour; this last is still living, although it has not eaten anything since I received it nearly six weeks back. It has only taken at intervals of several days a very little water, and this when I put it into a wash-hand basin to take a swim; when, on taking it out, it invariably licks up a few drops. Hitherto it has refused flies, as food, which my other lizards always greedily ate; and I have supposed such might be owing to its hybernating season not being over. It is exceedingly quiet, and rarely moves about. Their peculiar and regular double VV dark and variegated bands are the same in all three specimens; but it is not from that fact that it derives its trivial name, but from a much more strange one (though not wholly unknown to the family), viz., it often changes its ground-colour of grey to a pink-red, and this it does sometimes three or four times in a day; the cause, however, of its doing so is wholly unknown to me. I have often tried, by altering its position as to light, and to heat (sun), and also by giving it a little gentle shaking (in its glass house!) if I could cause it to change its colour, but I  have never once succeeded; it seems to be entirely dependent on itself (possibly emotional), and not arising from any outward cause—nor from the time of day; neither is it regular in its changes. At first, I was a little astonished, and could scarcely believe my own eyes, until I had repeatedly proved the event; the change of colour is always equally the same, extending all over its body.
This lizard is also infested with a tiny red parasite, that sticks on between its scales in the outer angles of the thighs of its hindlegs, where it lives together in little clusters of 12–16. This parasite has a thickish body, rather soft, and is very difficult to remove entire. I suppose it to be an insect of the Hemiptera order. I have sent specimens of it to Professor Hutton at Christchurch, and to Mr. Maskell at the Museum, Wellington, for examination, etc.
1884 A description of some newly discovered New Zealand insects believed to be new to Science. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 17: 151-160.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 1st October, 1884.]
1. Bacillus coloreus,959 sp. nov.
Female; General colour light green; the two basal joints of antennæ (under-surface), the throat, and the upper long curved ends of anterior femora bright pink-red.
Head oblong, rather narrow, 8–9 short scattered muricated points on vertex; occiput broad, width of prothorax; maxillary palpi finely pubescent; antennæ 12 lines long, very slender, cylindrical, pubescent, composed of 22 joints, articulations pink-red, the basal joint large broad and flattish and green on the upper surface, the second basal very small, the rest large, brownish-green with a pink tinge, increasing in size to apex.
Body mostly smooth, 3½ inches long, stout, increasing in size to 3rd abdominal segment where it is 3½ lines wide, a narrow slightly-winged crease or fold with a light-yellow margin extending downwards from anterior legs, giving the appearance of double side margins to the abdomen, which is 19 lines long; a small triangular central dark-brown spot at occiput, another at lower end of pronotum, with a very narrow dark line  connecting them; a similar spot at lower ends of meso- and metanotum, and one at the lower end of every joint (sternites) of abdomen, these latter are reddish; prothorax 3 lines long, plain; mesothorax 8 lines long with a few scattered small green points and two larger ones (small spines) on the mesonotum; metathorax 7 lines long and (with mesothorax) broadest at the lower end.
Legs long, rather slender, triangular, striated; striæ pinkish-brown; 2 small spines at lower ends of tibiæ; tarsi very pubescent, tibiæ slightly so, also the anterior femora between spines; ungues large, divergent, glabrous, piceous: anterior pair, femora much shorter than tibiæ, and deeply excised at upper end for more than 2 lines; 5 coloured distant spines on lower outer margin, the upper outer margin sinuate and uneven, with a tubercle on each side under coxæ; coxæ large, stout, brownish, wrinkled: middle and posterior pairs with 4 small brown spines at lower end of femora. Ovipositor large, rounded and slightly pubescent; anal appendages thin at tips pubescent.
The eggs of this insect are peculiar and worthy of a full notice. They somewhat resemble the seeds of a flowering garden-pea; being slightly sub-4-angled in compressed parallelograms 2 lines long and 1 line broad, of a reddish-grey or light chocolate colour, a transverse section, being linear-elliptic; their ends truncate with margins produced and rough, one end convex and one end umbonate with a little produced central boss or blunt mucro; the shell is crustaceous, slightly hardish, roughish, and much furrowed irregularly with impressed angular markings rather prettily disposed; one of the lateral edges is smooth, produced a little and thickened, having near the narrower end of the egg a large ovate depression with a raised little seam around it, resembling also the hilum of a leguminous seed: nine eggs weigh two grains.
A female, that I kept alive for some time under glass, laid 54 eggs in a fortnight, in the latter half of June; this she did by merely dropping them, without moving or showing any solicitude. She lived for three weeks, feeding on the bark of the young branches of arbor-vitæ (Thuja occidentalis), which she greedily ate, gnawing it off all round very cleanly. The fæces were plentiful and regularly formed in small narrow cylindrical brownish roughish rolls, 1½ lines long, somewhat resembling the withered tips of the branchlets of the shrub on which she lived.
Hab. At Pourerere, E. Coast, near Blackhead, County of Waipawa; 1884: Mr. Wm. Scott.
Obs. I. I have subsequently (two months later) received from Mr. Scott another living specimen of this insect, also a female, and precisely agreeing with the former one received from him. This second specimen, however,  was not pregnant (very likely had laid her eggs before capture), she would not eat and only lived a few days. And again, since writing the foregoing, I have received from him a third specimen, this one being a male; it is smaller and slenderer and more smooth, but agreeing in every other particular.
II. As a species it is apparently allied to B. hookeri, but very distinct. In its many and bright colours, the configuration of its head and anterior femora, it approaches species of the allied Australian genus Phasma (Diura).
2. Bacillus filiformis,960 sp. nov.
Colour fulvous irregularly variegated with brown.
Head dull-grey, sub-triangular, broadest in front, convex at vertex, smooth; eyes very prominent at angles, neck narrow; antennæ setaceous, 1½ inch long, very roughly pubescent, brownish-yellow ringed with 23 black knobbed joints (reminding of a miniature stem of Dendrobium lessonii), apical joint longer than each of the three following, and the middle joints longest, with a small whitish protuberance on each horn about the middle.
Body very slender, length 4 inches, breadth 1 line, a little more at joints of abdomen; prothorax very small, 2 lines long, smooth, with a central longitudinal ridge; mesothorax 11 lines long, with several large spines above and below; metathorax 10 lines long, one pair of spines above, four below; spines distant, stout, coarse, black; abdomen knobbed at joints, two spines below first segment, with a small tubercle under each joint on the sides; appendage broadly triangular, tips finely pilose; anal extremities obtuse, thickened.
Legs very slender, striate or sub-angular, pilose; ungues small, pubescent: anterior pair, two small spines at lower end of femora, tibiæ tetragonal, 1¼ inch long, much longer than femora: middle pair, with six stout black spines at lower end of femora, and one very small spine on the inner margin at ¼ of the length from coxæ, and a small elevated spine on outer margin of tibiæ at ¼ of the length from the basal joint: posterior pair with two small spines at the lower end of femora.
Obs. A peculiar dry-looking, rigid, slender form. Apparently a scarce species; only one perfect specimen seen.
3. Bacillus minimus,961 sp. nov.
Colour light green. Body smooth, 8½ lines long, ½ line broad. Head 1 line long; antennæ 1 line long, pinkish, finely pubescent, composed of 9 joints, the lowest two light green, basal large flattish, the apical one longest linear-oblong obtuse. Thorax (notum) with a central pinkish longitudinal broad stripe, vanishing at sides; prothorax ¾ line long, slightly wrinkled; mesothorax 1½ lines, metathorax 1¼ lines, long; prosternum a triangular scale with a rounded apex.  Legs finely striate; two minute spines at the lower end of femora; anterior pair of femora with a long ridge on the upper margin; tarsi and tibiæ finely pubescent; lowest joint of tarsus flat, broad. Abdomen 4 lines long; anal appendages finely pubescent. Weight barely 2 grains.
Hab. On trees and shrubs, Norsewood, Waipawa County; 1884: W.C.
Obs. This interesting, slim, delicate, and fairy-like little creature, is by far the smallest species of the genus known to me; it differs in several respects from its congeners, particularly in its antennæ. It moves very slowly. At first I had supposed it to be merely the larval state of one of the larger species, but its fully developed antennæ, etc., forbid such a supposition.
4. Bacillus atro-articulus,962 sp. nov.
Female: General colour greenish-grey blotched with brown, bearing a slight iridiscent hue. Head ochraceous, oblong, 3 lines long, wider than prothorax, genæ gibbous, vertex depressed, a sub-lunate ridge between the eyes, with two small pits (foveolæ) between ridge and base of antennæ; nine large black spines on the occiput, and a single tubercle just above each eye; antennæ slender, pubescent, 10 lines long, composed of eighteen joints, apical one the longest; palpi pubescent. Prothorax 2 lines long, two black spines at lower edge of pronotum; prosternum smooth: mesothorax 7½ lines long, six spines in three pairs on mesosternum, several scattered and one large pair of black ones central on mesonotum, and a regular longitudinal row of five small spines on the pleura extending down to intermediate coxæ: metathorax 8 lines long, two pairs of spines on metasternum and three pairs on metanotum, with a similar row of five small spines on pleura extending to posterior coxæ. Abdomen rather stout, 1¾ inches long, mostly smooth, wrinkled longitudinally below; two short blunt spines above on apical end of each segment, decreasing gradually in size downwards; two small tubercles below at apical end of the first segment, the end of the sixth segment has foliaceous sides and one large central spine below, with a thick ridge running from it to the middle of sheath of ovipositor: anal appendages large bearing scattered black hairs. Legs rather short; all having a ridge of double black spines at the apical ends of femora, and two spines at apical ends of tibiæ, and all joints black at their apical ends, but the terminal joints of the tarsi are light glaucous-green; tarsi and ungues are very hairy, the tibiæ and femora slightly so; hairs black:—anterior pair, coxæ with two black spines below; femora 10 lines long with four sharp angles deeply sulcated between, bearing a single row of six large spines on the lower edge, the upper edge sinuous and bearing three minute and distant spines; the upper excised portion 4 lines long with an elevated sharp ridge; tibiæ of equal length, very slender, smooth; the basal joint  of anterior tarsi longer than those of the two posterior pairs: middle and posterior pairs, femora four-angled, narrow above broad and flat below with spines on all four edges; of the middle pair the femora and tibiæ are of equal length, 7 lines long, with an elevated spine on the outer edge of the tibiæ at the upper end: posterior pair, femora and tibiæ also of equal length, 8 lines long.
Hab. Seventy-mile Bush, near Norsewood, County Waipawa; 1883: W.C.
Obs. I may also note that this specimen had lost its anterior left leg, and that a new one was growing to replace it. This new leg is very small and slim, less than 1 inch in total length, but agreeing in all minute particulars with the right one, save that its more salient points were not fully developed. I suspect this loss of limb is a matter of rather common occurrence among the Bacilli,—from the great length of their slender legs, their habitat among the green leaves of trees in the exposed windy branchlets, and their known fighting and cannibal propensities. I have already noticed an instance of similar mutilation, in my description of B. sylvaticus (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xiv., p. 278).