Tree erect, 12–14 feet, fastigiate, much branched; bark scaly with many small cracks and a whitish epidermis; branches long, slender, glabrous, roughish, bark dark reddish-brown; branchlets puberulous, with star-like pubescence. Leaves rather distant, glabrous, very variable in size and shape, mostly, however, lanceolate on the main and flowering branches, 2–2¾ inches long, acuminate, sometimes truncated at tips, cuneate, very finely reticulated and dotted, sub-membranaceous, light green above and lighter green below, sharply and deeply serrate, teeth acute; petioles ½ inch, flat above, and (with peduncles and calyces) thickly clothed with star-like pubescence. Flowers numerous, white, 1 inch and more in diameter, axillary and lateral, fascicled, mostly 3–4 together, sometimes 2, and also only 1; peduncles ¾ inch, jointed about the middle; calyx cup-shaped, 5-lobed, lobes large, deltoid-acuminate, acute with a knob at tips, 3-nerved, purplish-green; petals 5, connate at base, oblong, 7 lines long, 3 lines wide, oblique, obtuse, each petal deeply one-notched on the right side near tip, veined, glabrous, hairy within near base, spreading, incurved; filaments 5-adelphous, spreading, 2 lines long; anthers (filaments and styles) white, reniform, sub-versatile; styles 6–7, stout, flexuous, shaggy; stigmas capitate, large, flattish at top, papillose, slightly coloured, yellowish; ovary included sunk, 6–7 ridged, pubescent.
Hab. Skirts of woods and thickets, Norsewood, Matamau, and Tahoraiti, County of Waipawa; 1883–84: W.C. Flowering in March and April.
Obs. No two trees can be more unlike in their foliage than this is in its young and in its mature state; and not only so, but the same tree in the leaves on its older and flowering branches, and in those on its younger and lower branches; these latter, like those on the young trees, are under an inch long, rhomboid, trilobed, sub-orbicular, etc., but always deeply serrate and sub-fascicled, generally four together and all of various sizes. On the flowering branches also, the lowest leaves are invariably small. I have long known this plant in its young and leafing state, and had always supposed it to be a variety of Plagianthus betulinus, A. Cunn., which it much resembles. When in flower it has a striking and elegant appearance, and it remains a long time in full blossom; it will make a handsome garden tree or tall shrub. Not unfrequently 5–6, or more, standards rise from the one root, all about the same size, forming a little compact clump. The bark of the older trees is often completely covered with handsome crustaceous lichens. 
Order XXXIII. Umbelliferæ
Genus 1. Hydrocotyle, Linn.
1. Hydrocotyle concinna,971 sp. nov.
Plant creeping, slender, pilose, soft, forming dense beds. Stems 2–3 feet (and more) long, rooting at nodes. Leaves membranaceous, green, distant, generally 1, sometimes 2, springing from a node, sub-orbicular, 8–10 lines diameter, roughish above with glandular pubescence of large flattish white and pink hairs, with a few larger and pink coloured ones scattered on the veins, deeply 5-lobed, lobes regular, broadest at apices, sub-tri-laciniate and sharply toothed, teeth long and curved; petioles 3 inches long, slender, finely striate; stipules large, broadly ovate, laciniate. Peduncles axillary and lateral (from nodes), erect, slender, much longer than the leaves, 4–6 inches long, pink-striped, thickly clothed with weak curved hairs; umbels 20–22-flowered; flowers radiate on long glabrous pedicels sub 2 lines long, each bearing a few scattered erect hairs and mostly in a single line; involucral leaves and bracteoles numerous, ovate-linear, laciniate and pointed; flowers greenish-white tinged with pink, red-striped on the outside; petals ovate, obtuse, spreading; calyx tube raised, tuberculate, dark-red; styles diverging, sub-clavate; stigmas capitate, red, minutely pencilled. Fruit orbicular, at first semi-transparent, echinate, light brown, carpels with one rib on each face.
Hab. In dense rather dry forests, on the ground. Seventy-mile Bush, County of Waipawa; 1878–84: W.C. Flowering in March.
Obs. This is a truely graceful species, neat, pretty, and uniform in all its parts. I have long known it, and though I had early considered it to be new, and often brought away specimens, I never found time to dissect, examine and compare it, until the autumn of 1884, when I did so leisurely in its native forests. Sometimes the young immature and unfolded leaves present a highly curious appearance; sessile at the nodes in small globular woolly masses, with their green cut and plaited margins fringing their tops; reminding one of young hazel-nuts. I believe it to be the work of some insect, having found the darkish-yellow larvæ snugly ensconced within.
2. Hydrocotyle uniflora,972 sp. nov.
Stems creeping, rooting at nodes, whence also spring the leaves and peduncles fascicled. Leaves glabrous, entire, orbicular-truncate, or oblong-orbicular, always truncate at base, 5–7 lines long, rounded at apex, finely and regularly crenately toothed (3–4) towards base, and often with one small acute tooth at or below the two corners, 5-nerved, green, often purple above and covered with very minute white dots as if stippled margins purple, sometimes largely and loosely hairy below at base and on the nerves, veinlets  closely anastomosing; petioles 1½–3 inches long; stipules large, membranous, veined, entire. Peduncle 1–1½ inches long, slender (two are often united below near base, and thus become bi-peduncled), sometimes largely pilose. Involucral leaves two, sub-orbicular or orbicular-ovate, sessile and half-clasping, glabrous, veined, purple stained or margined, very membranous. Flowers single, sessile (rarely two together, and when so then one is shortly pedicelled), petals rather large, ovate, sub-acute, purple, reflexed. Fruit large, sub-orbicular, compressed, 2 lines diameter, obsoletely 3–4-ribbed, tops purplish with a few loosely scattered hairs.
Hab. Wet sides of slopes, gullies near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1884: W.C. But not common.
Obs. A species having pretty close affinity with H. asiatica, Linn., but differing in several particulars.
3. Hydrocotyle intermixta,973 sp. nov.
Plant very small; stems short, creeping and rooting interlaced underground. Leaves orbicular with a narrow deep sinus, 3–4 lines diameter, thickish, much veined, dark green, sparsely pilose on both sides with long succulent scattered hairs, 5–6-lobed, lobes short, broad, sub-tri-laciniate, cut, obtuse; petioles 4–5 lines long; stipules delicately membranous, reticulated, sharply laciniate. Flowers in small globose heads, 9–10 (sub 12), minute, red, sessile, petals incurved, obtuse; styles short; peduncles 7–8 lines long, erect, striate; involucral leaves small, obovate, obtuse. Fruit very small, shortly pedicelled, glabrous, turgid, broader above than below, shining, dark brown; carpels sharply keeled on back, 1 rib on each face, and a deep hollow between the two lateral ridges.
Hab. On dry open hills near Matamau, Seventy-mile Bush, County of Waipawa; forming thick little patches among short grasses and mosses, and other small plants, scarcely visible without close search; 1880–84: W.C.