Plant large, loosely cæspitose in rather small isolated clumps, erect, dull green, sub-glaucescent, glabrous but not shining. Culms 3–5 feet high, cylindrical, stout, ¼-inch diameter, tips acuminate and sharp, very finely striate, pith continuous, each culm with several (4–5) membranaceous sheaths at the base, outer ones very small, innermost 8–10 inches long, appressed, very obtuse with a long hair-like mucro 2–3 lines long, sulcate, pale green above dark brown below; flowers lateral, numerous, pale, pedicelled and sessile, in close cymose heads and in sub-panicles on long sub-compressed and rigid peduncles, generally 3–4 main ones, one being much longer (2–3 inches) than the rest; bracts long, awned; bracteoles numerous, short, broadly obovate, sub-acute, sometimes acuminate, clasping, rugulose, pale; perianth lobes acute sub-acuminate, pale green with white membranous margins; stamens 6, anthers bright yellow; style short, distinct; stigmas 3, very long, stout, erect, twisted, spiral, plumose, light reddish-pink; capsule ovoid, pale, reddish at tips, shining, longer than perianth; seeds numerous, small, brown, turgid, oblong, irregular in shape, somewhat sub-lunate and gibbous, very finely striate and reticulated, testa produced at each end.
Hab. Sides of water-courses, Seventy-mile Bush, between Norsewood and Matamau, County of Waipawa; 1882: W.C. With other Junci, but not like them plentiful; flowering January and February.
Obs. In the flowering season its head of flowers presents a striking and pretty appearance, from their large and coloured pink stigmas and bright yellow anthers; very different from all our other Junci. Its affinity is, I think, with J. vaginatus, Br., and J. pseudo-cyperus, Linn.
Order XI. Cyperaceæ
Genus 13. Uncinia, Persoon
1. Uncinia nigra,998 sp. nov.
Plant large, densely cæspitose. Culms stout, erect, 3 feet long, triquetrous, smooth. Leaves of equal length, ¼ inch wide, squarrose, very acuminate with hair-like tips, many nerved, margins finely and closely serrulate, glabrous below, scaberulous on upper surface, keeled, generally 4 leaves on a culm, sheathing below 6–12 inches from base; colour light  green, brown towards base; spurious ligula bi-lunate or kidney-form. Spikelet 6 inches long, slender, upper portion 1½–1¾ inches male, bracts (often 3) leaf-like, long, outer 12–16 inches long 1 line wide, very filiform at tips, scabrid, crumpled towards top, fugacious; utricles decussate, distant on rhachis about 1 line apart, squarrose, black, 2½ lines long, spindle-shaped, truncate and striped at base, acuminate, shining; bristle 3½ lines long from tip of utricle, greenish; hook long, light brown, thickened and black at curve; glume narrow, narrower than utricle, linear-ovate-acuminate, 5½ lines long, obtuse, glabrous, shining, light brown with a thick central nerve, tri-nerved at base, fugacious; stigmas long, slender.
Hab. Skirts of low woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; March, 1884: W.C.
Obs. This plant wears a striking appearance when its fruit is ripe, widely different to that of its ripening state; for the light-coloured and long glumes having fallen away, the black and distant utricles stand out patent on the rhachis, which, in clear tranquil and undisturbed situations, arrests the eye immediately from their extreme novelty. The fruits, however, fall off at a very slight touch, often clinging disagreeably by their hooks to clothing, hair, etc.
Genus 14. Carex, Linn.
1. Carex quadrangulata,999 sp. nov.
Plant large, tufted, diffuse, dark green. Culms rather slender, 3 feet 6 inches long, drooping, smooth, glossy and finely striate, trigonous but 4-angled owing to the lower angle being double or channelled throughout, and scaberulous on both edges. Leaves shorter than culms, 2 feet 6 inches long, ¼ inch wide, channelled, linear, acuminate, margins and upper surface finely scabrid, keeled, keel scaberulous. Spikelets few, under 1 inch long, the lower 2 single, distantly spiked along the culm, the upper and terminal one a short compound panicle, bearing the male spike at top, slender, 1 inch long; peduncles 3, 1½–2 inches long, erect and nodding, filiform, compressed, scabrid, with 2 small adpressed sheathing brown bracteoles; the 2 lower bracts very long, 12–15 inches, foliaceous, sheathing, with a small transverse scarious bracteole below aperture of sheath on the outside. Glumes as long as the utricles, broadly ovate, bicuspidate, awned with a stout central nerve, membranous at margins, light coloured minutely striped with red. Utricles short, about 1 line long, broadly ovate, turgid above, flattish beneath, bicuspid, scabrous on both margins near tip, glabrous, shining, dark brown. Stigmas 3.
Hab. Sides of water pools, open parts of the forest, Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1884: W.C.
Class III. Cryptogamia.
Order I. Filices.
Genus 5. Hymenophyllum, Smith
1. Hymenophyllum melanocheilos,1000 sp. nov.
Plant very small, creeping, glabrous, very thin, light green, cellules large; rhizome filiform. Fronds rather distant on rhizome, upright, simple and bifid, elliptic, linear and spathulate, obtuse, ¼–¾ inch high, about 1 line wide, margins often thickened, black and shining; laciniate-serrate, serratures distant, sometimes dark and rigid, and shining like margins; midrib thick, glossy, dark like stipe, no lateral veins; stipe short, 1–2 lines long, not winged, glabrous, dark brown. Involucre single at tip of frond, elliptic, free, less than 1 line long, flattish, slightly convex; valves free to base, margins entire, black bordered; borders shining; receptacle included; sori few, large.
Hab. Woods, Whangaroa, County of Mongonui; 1884: Mr. R. W. Rowson.
Obs. A very peculiar little species, and one of the smallest known of the genus. Its affinity is with H. marginatum, Hook. and Grev., of Port Jackson, Australia (a scarce and little-known fern), from which species, however, it is very distinct. It has also some affinity with H. parvifolium, Baker, an East-Indian fern of about the same size, but is, also, quite distinct.
2. H. lophocarpum,1001 sp. nov.
A climbing fern, mostly pendulous from upper parts of trees. Rhizome creeping, long, branched, hairy. Fronds rather distant on rhizome, glabrous, spreading, flat and slightly waved, transparent, light green when young darker in age, elastic and curled up when dry, rhombic- or ovate-acuminate, apical portion often narrow-elongate, usually dimidiate at base, 2¼–4 inches long, twice the length of stipe, 3-pinnatifid; pinnæ alternate, sometimes very close and sub-imbricate, the lowest pinna solitary and very short; rhachises, main and secondary, dark, flexuose, finely tuberculate and striate, winged; wing wide and mostly waved; secondary segments, sub-flabellate, not branched on the lower or outer side; veins dark; ultimate segments or lobes rather long, linear, obtuse, apices rounded, nerves green not extending to margin; margins entire; cellules large, of various shapes and sizes, mostly sub-orbicular and oblong. Stipe stout, 1–1½ inch long, blackish, shining, striate, roughish, narrowly winged to base, and (with rhachis) slightly hairy (very hairy when young); hairs scattered, long, brownish, tortuous, jointed and transparent. Involucres free, large, sub-orbicular, loose, rumpled or bladdery, wider than lobes, turgid, much larger than sori, confined to upper portion of frond  and extending to tip, but always supra-axillary and not terminal on lobes; valves free to base, convex, entire, sometimes slightly sinuate or uneven at tip, not toothed, largely crested, the upper one most so, with 3–4 erect lamellæ that are often high and nodding, and wider at apex than at base, not “spinulose” nor “spinuloso-dentate.” Receptacle very short, ⅓ length of involucre, peduncled, clavate, finely puberulous, with sporangia only around the tip; sporangia few, very large, sessile; sporules globular, green, and enclosed in a fine transparent white membrane, separate from the sporangium.
Hab. On trunks and main branches of trees, hilly forests in the interior, Seventy-mile Bush, County of Waipawa; 1860–84: W.C.
Obs. I. This fern has the same peculiar and strong though not unpleasant odour that pertains to a few other of our New Zealand ferns, and to some of our foliaceous Hepaticæ, which odour it long retains, as well as its elasticity. It also stains paper, leaves of a book, etc., in which it is kept, of a dark colour, often leaving a faithful outline impression. In exposed dry situations, in hot dry weather, this fern will be seen dry and completely rolled up; but on rain falling it again recovers and expands, like some mosses. It is generally found much gnawed and eroded by insects, more so than other species of the genus (allured, probably, by its powerful odour), so that it is rather difficult to obtain fully-developed uninjured specimens.
Obs. II. I have long known this fern, and had early supposed it to be distinct from H. polyanthos and sanguinolentum (possibly merely as a variety or “sport,” but still very distinct). During the last two years, however, I have been induced to pay more attention to it; to study and to examine it closely and repeatedly in the living state and in all stages in its native woods. An extra inducement thereto arose from my obtaining (in addition to the “Flora Novæ-Zelandiæ,” and the several commoner works or compilations of ferns,) Hooker and Grev. Ic. Filicum, Swartz (original) Synopsis Filicum, Beddome’s Ferns of British and Southern India. Van den Bosch Hymen. Java, and Clarke’s Review of Ferns of Northern India, drawn up and aided at Kew (Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1880: Botany, vol. i., part vii.), in all which works H. polyanthos and its allies and synonyms are particularly described and investigated. And the conclusion I have come to is, that this fern (H. lophocarpum) is really distinct from H. polyanthos and sanguinolentum, and also from their synonyms included as above. Indeed, in my opinion, there is no near affinity between this fern and H. polyanthos, Sw. (as that is fully given in description drawing and dissections by Hook. and Grev. in their Ic. Filicum, vol. ii., t. 128, which I take to be a type specimen of that species); H. polyanthos, Sw., being also a West-Indian (Jamaica) fern. Neither is there any close  relationship between this fern (H. lophocarpum) and H. protrusum, Hook.; which species Baker has more recently (in his “Synopsis”) united with H. polyanthos. While from H. polyanthos and H. polyanthos, β. minor (Bedd. Ferns Brit. India, tt. 280 and 306), H. blumeanum, pycnocarpum, and integrum, (Van den Bosch, Hymen. Java, tt. 36, 37, 38), which ferns Clarke unites with H. polyanthos, as being one species (?) and not even sub-varieties,—this fern of mine disagrees still more strongly. Of H. sanguinolentum I might say the same; but seeing it is not now recognized as a distinct species or variety by modern authorities, and omitted altogether by Baker from his “Synopsis;” while Swartz himself observed of it, that it was very near to his H. clavatum (another Jamaica fern), differing only in form and colour,—and both of these ferns were long ago included by Sir W.J. Hooker, in his “Sp. Filicum,” as forming but one species with H. polyanthos—I have no need to remark especially upon it.
In fine: this species (H. lophocarpum) differs from H. polyanthos and its several synonymous allies (supra), in outline, in appearance, in colour, in substance both of stem and lamina of frond, in shape of segments and lobes, in position form and appendages of involucre, in the receptacle and sporangia, and in its peculiar hairs. In its fresh natural and perfect state, it is one of the very handsome New Zealand species of this lovely genus of ferns. I have thus written largely on it, after a prolonged and patient investigation, for the sake of future working botanists.