Plant very small creeping, densely compact, under 1 inch long, 2 lines wide, branched, branches very short about ½ inch long, deeply pinnatifid or sub-pinnate, glabrous, glistening, light green; midrib or stem stoutish,  and clothed beneath with purple-brown rootlets; leaves or lobes, sub-flabellate, under 1 line diameter, very thin, transparent, minutely crenulate on upper margin, closely imbricated at base free above; involucral leaves paler, longer, and lacerate at tips; areolæ minute but prominent, sub-rhomboid-orbicular, more oblong in involucral leaves; stipule 0 perianth terminal and sub-terminal on short lateral branchlets, cylindric, oblong, whitish, mouth gaping, jagged, often two together closely adjoining at tip; peduncle rather stout, striate and septate, 3 lines long; capsule globular, minutely pitted, at first purple afterwards brown, bursting irregularly, 3–4 valves; valves sub-rhombic-ovate, lacerate, minutely reticulate.
Hab. Among mosses, etc., shady banks, Scinde Island, Napier; August, 1883: W.C.
Genus 26. Petalophyllum, Gottsche
1. Petalophyllum australis,1009 sp. nov.
Rhizome short, stout, fleshy, with fine hair-like rootlets. Frond single, procumbent, sub-rotund, 6–8 lines diameter, reflexed, sub-bilobed, largely lamellate waved and crisped above, nerved below, margin sinuate and finely crenulate, colour bright light green with reddish-brown margins; perianth large, bell-shaped, open, crisped, mouth much laciniate; peduncle stout, 1¼ inches long, white, succulent, very tender; capsule large, globular, more than 1 line diameter, dark brown, finely pitted, bursting irregularly and raggedly, bearing large brown tessellated markings; sporules circular and tuberculated elaters geminate, twisted and truncate.
Hab. Among mosses and Hepaticœ, Petane, near Napier; 1883: Mr. Hamilton.
Obs. A rather scarce, or, from its smallness, overlooked plant, possessing pretty close alliance with the single British species P. ralfsii, which it also resembles. I have only seen 3 specimens that I picked out from among mosses and Hepaticœ.
Genus 30. Symphyogyna, Mont. and Nees.
1. Symphyogyna crispula,1010 sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, single, stipitate, erect, dark green. Frond dichotomous, flabellate, 6–8 lines long, 9–12 lines broad, segments broadly-linear, 2 lines wide, very obtuse, deeply emarginate, distantly serrate above and in sinuses but not below, undulate and crisped, wide at base and broadly decurrent on stipe; cellules large, elliptical, nerves dark brown, stout, extending to base of apical notch. Stipe dark brown, ½ inch long, stout, flexuose, with fine rootlets at base. Involucral scale on upper surface at main forks and scattered on nerves, several on a frond, middle size, 1¼ lines wide, papillose, very laciniate; laciniæ irregular and transversely barred. Calyptra stout, 2 lines long, shortly peduncled, sub-clavate, finely papillose, light green, largely fimbriate at mouth; fimbriæ red, stout, truncate, barred. 
Hab. Bases of wet and shaded cliffs, sides of the River Mangatawhainui, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; May, 1884: W.C.
Obs. A species allied to S. melanoneuron and vulgaris (“Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., pp. 351, 352), but distinct from both.
2. Symphyogyna flavo-virens,1011 sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, densely gregarious and compact (like moss), stipitate, erect, single, very light green. Frond small, once forked, diverging and irregular, 3–4 lines long, 6–7 broad, sub-flabellate, each fork having 2–4 short segments, segments narrow, linear, about 1 line wide, round at tips and deeply emarginate, slightly and distantly serrate, much undulated and crisped, truncate and incurved at base concealing scale, not decurrent on stipe; cellules large, sub-quadrate-orbicular; nerves same colour as frond and not extending to base of notch. Stipe stout, flattish, sub-succulent, light pink, ¾–1 inch long, very flexuous, 2-nerved, thickened and rooting at base. Involucral scale on upper surface at main forks, 1–2 on a frond, very small, ovate, laciniate. Calyptra large, erect, 4 lines long, cylindrical, whitish, generally extending beyond margin of frond, mouth laciniate and fimbriate. Seta slender, 1 inch long. Capsule linear-oblong, apiculate, 2 lines long, dark brown, finely longitudinally striate.
Hab. Shady sides of hills, west side of Ruataniwha Plains, County of Waipawa; 1884: Mr. H. Hill.
Genus 32. Aneura, Dumort.
1. Aneura polyantha,1012 sp. nov.
Plant green, small, creeping, spreading, very flat, effuse, but often forming a circular patch about 1–1½ inches diameter, radiating from the centre: fronds flattened, thickish, scarcely branched, pinnatifid, lobes rounded, obtuse, crenately cut, generally broadest at apices and sub-flabellate. Calyptras very numerous, 20–40 close together, arising from the centre of the plant, sometimes 2–3-fascicled, above 1 line in height, brownish-white, cylindrical, minutely and much tubercled. Seta nearly 1 inch long; capsule linear-oblong, brown, smooth, segments rather long with numerous and large elaters at tips.
Hab. On denuded rotten branches, in dense wet woods near Norsewood, County of Waipawa May, 1884: W.C.
Obs. A pretty and very distinct little species: its numerous upright calyptras standing so close together give it a curious sub-coralloid appearance.
2. Aneura biflora,1013 sp. nov.
Plant spreading, effuse, crisp, waved and rumpled, sub-imbricate; branchlets 1–1½ inches long, sub-obovate, somewhat pinnatifid, lobes sub-rotuud, round at tips, finely and regularly denticulate, with numerous short brownish rootlets beneath. Calyptra 5 lines long, cylindrical, slightly  rugulose, broader towards top, hairy about tip; hairs short, patent; mouth small, contracted, much tuberculated at base, springing from frond in pairs, greenish-white at first, brownish-white in age.
Hab. Epiphytical on Hookeria (sps.) and other mosses and Hepaticœ, but easily separated; growing low down in sides of dark water-courses, hill forests, near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1883–84: W.C.
Obs. A species near to A. orbiculata, and imbricata, Mihi: “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi., p. 359.
Genus 39. Anthoceros, Micheli.
1. Anthoceros pellucidus,1014 sp. nov.
Plant prostrate, spreading, effuse, 2–6 inches diameter, densely imbricate, thin, transparent, fragile, crumpled, minutely tuberculate, light green, cells large, nerveless, with a few very fine rootlets at the extreme base: fronds ½–1½ inches broad at top, mostly narrow at base, sub-flabellate, more or less branched or deeply laciniate at top, irregularly lobed; lobes largely crenate or rounded at tips, margins free, sub-erect, finely and irregularly torn and sub-fimbriate; some fronds are very narrow, ½–2 lines wide, pinnatifid (like Aneura multifida). Involucre stout, conical, finely tuberculated near base, generally 3 or more arising from centre of a frond, 1–2 lines high, lips sub-bivalve, scarious. Capsule linear very narrow, almost filiform, arcuate, 8 lines long, light brown, dehiscing centrally on both sides and then margins reflexed, cohering at tips; columella exceedingly fine; spores light brownish-green; elaters large, numerous. Gemmæ, little oblong dark green bodies immersed and scattered in the frond. Apparently the seeds and filaments are at first contained in a thin transparent membrane around the columella, which is soon ruptured.
Hab. On rotten logs in dark wet woods, spreading over and adhering to other small Hepaticœ, mosses, dead twigs, etc., near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1882–84: W.C.