Thallus sub-cæspitose, with a few small scales at the base, erect, flat, 1–1½ inches high, main stem 1–3 lines wide and unbranched below, sub-palmate and dichotomous above, very smooth and slightly convex on the upper surface, rugulosely pitted on the lower, edges entire, whitish beneath, light green above when living, but a dull olive-green when dried; upper branchlets numerous, very narrow 1/30—1/40 inch wide, sub-linear-clavate, ultimate segments cuneate-truncate, obconic, and spathulate, narrower at bases, having a sub-articulated appearance like some species of Corallina. Apothecia very small on slightly raised hemispherical receptacles just below  the edge of the ultimate segments, usually two apart—one at each angle, sometimes three on a broad, and one only central on a narrow, segment; at first light brown, closed, with a finely puberulent covering, afterwards the minute ostiole opens, and the black shining capitulum is protruded.
Sometimes the thallus is largely coloured bright red on both surfaces, as if red ink had been splashed over it; this colour is permanent.
Hab. On trunks of Fagus solandri, forests near Norsewood, County of Waipawa; 1880–84: W.C.
Obs. I have known this pretty species for many years, but always (until this year) barren. Specimens that I had long ago sent to England in that state, were supposed to be small ones of S. australe, Laur. (S. compressum, Ach.), but I never could bring myself to believe it, the difference being so great between them, especially when closely compared together in a living state. It is, however, very rarely found in fruit, like some of its European congeners.
2. Sphœrophoron (?) stereocauloides, Nyl.
Plant ascending, bushy, diffuse, 8–10 inches diameter; height 4–5 inches; main stems very stout, sub-cylindrical, ½ inch circumference near base, 6–8 springing separately from one root-stock or thick and flat broad disc 1 inch diameter; spreading, prostrate, naked below and adhering by fresh large rooting discs; much and thickly branched above, transversely and finely fissured; branches flattish, sub-flabellate, and dichotomous, naked here and there on upper and under surfaces but not on the sides; general colour greyish-white, stems more white with a light pinkish tinge; branchlets numerous crowded, densely covered with many short compound spurs or branchlets, composed of cylindrical and sub-angular obtuse and clavate fibrils that are patent sessile and fascicled, and sometimes coalescent, bearing at tips small black circular soredia. Apothecia large, globular, 1–3 lines diameter on tips of branches, mostly solitary sometimes 2–3 together, much broader than branch or peduncle, which is naked, sub-terete and lacunose, 1–2 lines long; receptacle cernuous, smooth and naked or slightly lacunose on the outside, bursting irregularly, containing numerous globose black rough spores entangled in a mass of thin flat hairs; “diameter of spores .01 mm” (Dr. Knight). Sph. robustum, Col.
Hab. Stony declivities in hilly forests, west side of highway, Seventy-mile Bush, County of Waipawa 1882: W.C. And on east slopes of Ruahine Range (same county): 1884: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs. This fine Lichen has given Dr. Knight and myself some study and research. Believing it to be another new species of this small and peculiar genus, I early referred a specimen of it to Dr. Knight’s superior judgment, who agreed with me that it was a new species, and closely allied to Sphœrophoron stereocauloides of Nylander. Subsequently, however, on my  forwarding larger and better specimens to Dr. Knight, and on his re-examination of them, he found the plant to be identical with the species named by Nylander (supra), which Lichen Dr. Knight had himself sent in 1868 from New Zealand to Nylander, and it was published by him in the “Flora,” No. 5, 1869 (a French serial). Notwithstanding, from that work being so little known here (Dr. Knight, the original publisher of the plant, not having republished it), and the plant itself so fine and rare and new to us—with, also, some differences as to size, etc., between Dr. Nylander’s and my own measurements and descriptions—I bring it now forward, together with Dr. Nylander’s description, kindly transcribed for me by Dr. Knight, from the foreign botanical work above-mentioned.
“Sphœrophoron stereocauloides. Thallus ei pallidus v. albidus, dendroideoramosus, teres, (altit. 10–12 centimetrorum et trunco primario basi crassit. circiter 2 mm.) cortice sat conferte transversim supra diffracto, ramis et ramulis fibrillis teretibus, divisis vel ramosis conferte minutis; apothecia in receptaculis subglobosis inclusa; sporæ globosæ vel subglobosæ, diam. 0.008 ad 0.01 mm. Legit Dr. Knight.”
Order VIII. Fungi
Genus 69. Xylaria, Fries
1. Xylaria polytricha,1016 sp. nov.
Sub-succulent, fleshy, black and densely hairy; hairs rigid, patent. Stem 1 inch long, cylindrical, rather stout. Receptacle obovate, and spathulate, 6–7 lines long, 3–4 lines broad, thickish, margins sinuate above, tip obtuse, deeply and broadly grooved on one side, obtusely keeled on the other: some specimens are shortly 2-lobed at top, lobes cylindrical, tips round; others have a small obovate and sessile head, or lobe, springing laterally from stroma low down; perithecia not visible; hairs (sub lente) brown-black, lanceolate, twisted, acute.
Hab. On the earth among mosses, etc., at Glenross, near Napier; 1884: Mr. D. P. Balfour.
Obs. A species having affinity with X. castorea, Berk., originally discovered in forests in this same locality; and also with a few of Montagne’s South American species.
1884 A list of Fungi recently discovered in New Zealand.
Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 17: 265-269.
[Read before the Wellington Philosophical Society, 1st October, 1884.]
Last year (1883) I detected several peculiar and interesting Fungi in the woods and glens of the Seventy-mile Bush, Waipawa County, that were new to me; these, with a few others already known but rare, I exhibited at  two of the ordinary meetings of the Hawke’s Bay Philosophical Institute held in 1883; and although I knew the genera of some of them, yet in order the better to ascertain their generic and specific distinctions and positions in this very intricate Orderof plants, I forwarded specimens to Sir J.D. Hooker at Kew. From him I have lately received a list of them, kindly drawn up by that eminent fungologist, Dr. Cooke, which list I now give, together with a few brief and plain popular notes concerning those species now for the first time found in this country.
And here I may observe, that out of 26 distinct species forwarded in this little lot to Kew, 21, belonging to 20 genera, have been now detected in New Zealand; yet of these no less than 19 species are known from other countries, mostly the Old World; so that there are only two really new species in the whole lot!
This circumstance, however, is neither strange nor unexpected; for in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles an account has been given by M. Montagne of the Fungi transmitted from Juan Fernandez by Bertero, consisting of 56 species; of these there is scarcely more than a third which are not referable to well-known European species,—and only one which requires the formation of a new genus for its admission. So, also, of those numerous species of Fungi described by Sir J.D. Hooker in the “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” a large proportion of them are European and cosmopolitan.
Sir J.D. Hooker, in his accompanying letter to me, remarks on this curious incident, saying:—“While many of them are already well-known to science from other countries; on the other hand, almost all the species you have now sent are new to the islands of New Zealand, and thus give an idea how vast a number of widely distributed forms remain to be collected.”
1. Polyporus exiguus,1017 sp. nov.
A small semi-stipitate flabellate whitish fungus, of horizontal growth, among mosses, on the bark of old trees near their bases; wet woods near Norsewood, Waipawa County; 1883: W.C.
2. P. formentarius, Fr.
This species of fungus is the real Amadou or German Tinder, and is very generally distributed over the globe. Berkeley says of it (Introduction to Crypt. Botany) that “it is one of the few undoubted instances of fungus occurring in a fossil state. In the Kew Museum a British specimen may be seen together with one from Sikkim, the accordance of the two being quite perfect” (p. 252). Again: “P. fomentarius not only supplies Amadou, but has been manufactured into coarse clothing” (p. 364). And, such being the case, it almost leads me to doubt the specific identity of the New Zealand plant, because this plant is excessively hard and tough to cut  or break—requiring an axe; and while it grows to a tolerably large size, 5–7 inches, flat, irregular, and overlapping (stratum super stratum), it is not very thick; evidently of slow growth, perennial and aged, of a bright yellow-brown colour, and somewhat resembling a slab or cake of ginger-bread. Owing to its excessive hardness, I could only with my knife secure a small portion as a specimen. On trunks of Fagus solandri, but not common; dry hilly woods near Norsewood; 1883: W.C.
8. Hydnum alutaceum, Fr.
A tawny prostrate effuse plant, growing in large patches on bark of trees; woods, with No. 1; 1883: W.C.
4. Irpex zonatus, B. and Br.
A small tawny-orange semi-stipitate sub-flabellate fungus, often gregarious and imbricate, and sometimes prostrate and effuse (apparently 2–3 vars.), growing among mosses and dead logs, same forests with the preceding (Nos. 3 and 1); 1883: W.C.
5. Stereum lugubris, sp. nov., Cooke.
This is a most peculiar and elegant plant; pileus 1–8 inches broad, sessile, lateral, thin, rumpled, and zoned above with alternate grey and black bands, growing profusely and closely imbricated, sub-horizontal and pendulous—resembling small epaulettes,—a pretty sight. On dead trunk of Fagus solandri, in river bed (high and dry) near Norsewood; but though very plentiful there, only noticed on that one tree;1018 1883: W.C.
6. Dictyonema æruginosa, Ag.
A small effuse horizontal species, over-running mosses, etc., belonging to a curious and tropical genus, long considered to be an Alga. In woods, with Nos. 1 and 2; 1883: W.C.
7. Cyphella discoidea, Cooke.
A small circular fungus adnate on long-rooted cat’s-ear (Hypochœris radicata), in fields, Napier; 1881–83: W.C.
8. Clavaria acuta, Sow.
A curious minute stipitate white clavate fungus, growing in little patches among Hepaticœ, but not common; on earth, sides of shady cuttings near Norsewood; 1883: W.C.
9. Tremella albida, Huds.
A small erect white foliated gregarious fungus, gelatinous when fresh; an rotten logs, in wet dark woods near Norsewood; 1883: W.C.
10. Puccinia malvacearum, Corda.
On leaves of mallow (Malva sylvestris), in my paddock, Napier; 1881–83: W.C.
11. Tilmadoche nutans, Pers.
A curious minute simple stipitate fungus bearing a globular head of perithecia, having a greyish semi-metallic appearance when fresh and before bursting; growing in small patches among Hepaticœ, etc., on rotten logs, open skirts of woods near Norsewood; 1882: W.C. Glenross 1883: Mr. D. P. Balfour.
12. Aspergillus glaucus, Lk.
On fruit of black currant (Ribes nigrum); gardens, Waipukurau; 1882–83: W.C.
13. Fusisporium miniatum, B. & C.
A minute cinnabar-red fungus, sessile, gregarious in round dots, on dead logs of Fagus solandri, in river-bed near Norsewood; 1883: W.C.
14. Peziza (Hymenoscypha) scutula, P.
A minute stipitate fungus, parasitical on leaf of Knightia excelsa; wet woods with No. 9; (apparently very scarce); 1883: W.C.
15. Solenia candida, Fr.
A peculiar looking small horizontal effuse scurfy whitish fungus, full of transverse fissures, spreading on rotten logs; woods, with preceding; 1883: W.C.
16. Xylaria filiformis, Fr.
An extraordinary plant! at first horizontal, of effuse pink or pink-red hyssoid growth, and forming vermicular-like markings, adhering closely to dead leaves (matrix); afterwards erect long wiry black and flexuose (like stout hairs), bearing large moniliform perithecia: originally found on west flank of Ruahine mountain range, emerging from dead leaves of Coriaria ruscifolia, but barren; 1850: W.C.: and in fruit at Glenross; 1883: Mr. D. P. Balfour.
17. Sphærostilbe cinnabarina, Tul.
A minute orange-red circular and convex sessile fungus, found growing gregariously in little scattered masses about roots of living trees, woods near Norsewood; a curious and elegant plant; 1883: W.C.
18. Valsa (Fuckelia) turgida, Fr.
A peculiar looking large prostrate spreading whitish fungus, the stroma (resembling the crustaceous thallus of a lichen of the Graphidei tribe) having scattered dark-umber linear perithecia, 1–2 lines long, erumpent and bursting; on the bark of a dead tree, dry hilly woods near Norsewood; (only one large patch noticed) 1883: W.C.
19. Antennaria scoriadea, B.
This peculiar fungus assumes two forms:—1. When young, spreading in long dark ribbon-like lines over mosses, etc., as if laid on with a brush; very plain when wet but scarcely visible when dry: 2. On bark of living  trees, bristly, black, horizontal, 1–1½ inches long, of dense bushy growth, perennial, bearing moniliform fruit. Woods near Norsewood, also near Matamau; 1883: W.C.
20. Hemiarcyria serpula, Rtfi.
This is a most curious small fungus; a substance that, at first sight, might well be taken for some small smooth worm, coiled up and hybernating; it is orange-coloured, smooth, vermicular (in size, like small pieces of vermicelli, or coloured silk cord), soft and tender, so as to make it difficult to preserve a good specimen. Found under large foliaceous lichens (Stictæ), on rotten logs, dry elevated woods near Norsewood; (but scarce); 1883: W.C.
21. Chroolepus aureum, Ag.
A curious small reddish woolly convex and spreading fungus, forming little cushions, adnate on lichen (Thelotrema) on bark of living Dacrydium cupressinum; forest between Matamau and Danneverke, Waipawa County; 1883: W.C. (N.B.—The colour changes to light green in drying and keeping.)
The following more or less rare Fungi (but already collected in New Zealand, see “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora”), were also in the lot, viz.:—
Polyporus australis, Fr.
Thelephora pedicellata, Schw.
Stereum lobatum, Kze.
Guepinia spathularia, Fr.
Secotium erythrocephalum, Tul.
1884 In memoriam. An account of visits to, and crossings over the Ruahine mountain range, Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand; and of the natural history of that region; performed in 1845-1847: cum multis aliis.
Daily Telegraph Office, Napier. iv, 74 p.
“For out of the old feldis, as men saith,
Comith all this newe corne from yere to yere;
And out of oldè bokis, in good faieth,
Cometh all this newe science that men lere.” Chaucer
“Similis—patrifamilias, qui profert de thesauro suo nova et vetera.” Bibl. Sacr.1019
— “Quæ fuit durum pati meminisse est.” Sen.1020
to the early settlers in hawke’s bay, (who have also experienced both privation and toil inseparable on the first settlement in a wild and uncivilized country,)
—and particularly to those of them whom i have with pleasure personally known,
and to their descendants,—
is this little book heartily dedicated by their pioneer in this land,
w. colenso. napier, may 15th,1021 1884.
As one who, walking in the twilight gloom,
Hears round about him voices as it darkens,
And seeing not the forms from which they come
Pauses from time to time, and turns and hearkens;
So walking here in twilight, O my friends!
I hear your voices, softened by the distance,
And pause, and turn to listen, as each sends
His words of friendship, comfort and assistance.
* * *
Not chance of birth or place has made us friends,
Being oftentimes of different tongues and nations,
But the endeavour for the self-same ends,
With the same hopes, and fears, and aspirations.
Therefore I hope, as no unwelcome guest,
At your warm fireside, when the lamps are lighted,
To have my place reserved among the rest,
Nor stand as one unsought and uninvited.”
It is probable that some who may read this little book may very properly wish to know, why these two Papers were not published in the annual Volume of the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute for 1879? seeing they were written purposely for and read to the Members of the Hawke’s Bay branch of the Institute at their ordinary meetings in 1878. This question can be briefly and truly answered.
The two Papers were duly forwarded to Wellington to the Manager of the New Zealand Institute; who, some time after, informed the Hawke’s Bay Society, that the Board would only publish an abstract of them. This, however, could not be agreed to by myself as well as by the Society; and the Manager was officially informed, that the Hawke’s Bay members of the N.Z. Institute greatly wished to have them published in their entirety; and, that if it were a matter of money (the cost of printing the whole), the surplus expense would be readily met by them: this overture was also refused by the Board. And, after some further delay, the two Papers were obtained from Wellington.
In their original state they were not so long as they are now; most of the copious Notes, and a few of the poetical extracts have been added; at the same time nothing has been omitted. The Poetry has been mainly taken from my favourite modern poet, Longfellow, (whose bust has lately been placed in Poet’s Corner,) in the hope of their beautiful and expressive thoughts and language striking a latent and sympathetic chord in the hearts of some of our young Colonists; and possibly inciting them to seek to know more of the beauty of Poetry, and in particular of that of our National British poets. And it is still further hoped, that the Notes (particularly those in the Appendix,) will be especially appreciated by the Settlers of Hawke’s Bay.— In my longer journeys I always carried a few choice books with me, and among them a pocket edition of one of our Poets:—Ossian, Milton, Dryden, Pope, Thomson, Gray, Goldsmith, Burns, Wordsworth, Keats, Shelley, Byron, Walter Scott, Longfellow, Tennyson, &c.
In my originally writing these two Papers, and in preparing them for the Press, it has again been my aim, to stir up the younger folks among us to the [iv] study of Nature’s works, with which we are profusely surrounded, and wherein is a rich mine of intellectual wealth! Of these studies it may be truly said in the impressive words of Cicero, (as I myself have proved and am now daily proving,)—“Hæc studia adolescentiam alunt, senectutem oblectant.” = These studies invigorate youth and solace old age.
“Ye who love the haunts of Nature,—
Love the shadow of the forest,
Love the wind among the branches.—
* * *
Ye whose hearts are fresh and simple,
Who have faith in God and Nature;
Who believe, that in all ages
Every human heart is human,—
That in even savage bosoms
There are longings, yearnings, strivings
For the good they comprehend not;
That the feeble hands and helpless,
Groping blindly in the darkness,
Touch God’s right hand in that darkness
And are lifted up and strengthened;—
Listen to this simple story.”—
MEMORANDUM OF MY FIRST JOURNEY TO THE RUAHINE MOUNTAIN RANGE, and of THE FLORA OF THAT REGION.
[Read before the Hawke’s Bay Philosophical Institute, May 13th, 1878.]
with additional and copious notes.
—“One is useful to science, however, not only by work finished but also by work begun. I will therefore make a commencement, though I may advance but a few steps.”
Hist. Nat. Gen. des .Règnes Organiques. Isid. St. Hilaire.
“Pleon hemisu pantos.” = The half is more than the whole.
BEING the only European who has crossed the Ruahine mountain range, and that several times, (and at an early date in the, history of the Colony of New Zealand,) I have been often asked to give some account of what I had seen there.
It was in the summer of 1843 that I first saw this part of New Zealand (Hawke’s Bay). In that year the late Bishop of Waiapu (Dr. Williams) and myself—as Missionaries of the Church Missionary Society—left Poverty Bay in a small schooner for Port Nicholson (Wellington), intending to make the unknown and somewhat adventurous journey from that place overland and on foot back to Poverty Bay. (I having, also, only then recently arrived at Poverty Bay overland and on foot from Wharekahika (Hicks’ Bay); where, in landing in stormy weather, the ship’s boat was upset in the breakers, and I had to swim for life to the shore; and, shortly afterwards had the further consolation of seeing the vessel I had come in down the coast, that was at anchor outside, cut her cable, and sail away S. before the gale, leaving me behind!) But after a whole fortnight at sea, battling with the adverse winds and waves, and suffering no small hardship from want of water, to say nothing of peril, which on two  occasions was imminent, (ship in great distress, every sail torn to rags, passengers battened down, helm lashed, and ship given over!) we were glad to be landed on the shores—any where—and this was effected at Castle Point, then wholly unknown, entering the little cove with a narrow entrance of only a few yards directly under “the Castle”; and this we only just barely managed to do with extreme difficulty, after several hours severe pulling against the strong West wind blowing off the land in our very teeth! with only 3 oars, (one having early snapped in pulling,) and ten men, a large dog, and two big watercasks in the boat! At first, we had made the high perpendicular and weedy1022 cliffs of the islet (at high tide) Kapuaarangi, which forms the N. head of the little cove, and there, under its lee, we breathed a while, and our captain was for trying to scale the smooth and slippery precipice—all hands! not knowing what it might turn out to be to the N. and S. of that cliff, himself and his men (that I say not all in the boat) being quite worn out; and afterwards, when we had landed on the sandy beach and the boat drawn up, the captain climbed to the top of “the Castle” to see after his ship, and lo! she was hull down! which caused him greatly to despair. It was, indeed, a time to be remembered. Landing, we named with gladness this snug little place, “Deliverance Cove”; being, as we supposed, the first Europeans who had trod its sandy shores. Then we anxiously sought about for water, which we had for some days greatly needed, and only found it by digging in the sand at the base of the cliffs, to which spot our attention was drawn by some small water-. loving plants growing there;—little dreaming there was a small river a short distance further N. Our Captain having filled his two huge watercasks with water and sand, sailed away bravely before the wind into the main ocean in quest of his vanished ship! which he fortunately found. From that place, or rather from Mataikona,—a village where several Natives (nearly 100) were then residing, who received us very hospitably—though they had little to give us save pigs,— after a fortnight’s sojourn among them,—we travelled on slowly to Ahuriri in Hawke’s Bay, the present Napier. During our stay there we sadly needed several common necessaries,—as potatoes, flour, tea, sugar, soap, and salt!1023