618 WC: During this year (1880) it has also been found, by a member of our Institute, growing inland, west from Hawke’s Bay, on the hills near the River Mohaka.
619 WC: In “Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science,” Vol. II., p. 165. I find that Sir J. Hooker, in his description of this fern in his “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora,” p. 383, has quoted me as having published it as a Grammittis. This, however, is an error.
620 Hymenophyllum minimum A. Rich.
621 WC: I am aware that Dr. Hooker, in his “Handbook of the New Zealand Flora,” under H. minimum, says,—”Middle Island, Otago, Hector and Buchanan;” but I am not certain whether that information was obtained from specimens or from a letter. Be this as it may, Dr. Hooker also says (l.c.),—“North Island, on roots and stumps of trees, D’Urville, etc.;” which is, I think, an evident error, and it is almost certain that the French Botanists must have obtained their specimens in Tasman’s Bay (“Hâvre de l’Astrolabe”) on the south side of Cook Straits, where they spent some time and obtained many novelties. Moreover, who the other Botanists or collectors can possibly be (included in the “etc.” of Dr. Hooker), who found the H. minimum (A. Richard), in the North Island, I cannot imagine. I know that the Cunninghams did not detect it (Allan, C., in the specific description of it in his “Specimens of the Botany of New Zealand,” merely copying from A. Richard); and as I have already mentioned, I never found it, although I always sought it most assiduously.
622 I love Plato, I love Socrates, but I love truth more (attributed to Aristotle).Colenso here refers to his friendship with JD Hooker, author of the Handbook.
623 Probably Hymenophyllum scabrum A.Rich.
624 Has been identified with Pteris cretica L.
626 A further 15 pages were added and appear in the Appendices to the Journals, House of Representatives, 1882, G-2.
627 WC: For Part I. see “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XIII., p. 38.
628 WC: Particularly in the matter of charms, spells, invocations, exorcisms, etc.;—also, owing to their allusions (often by a single word) to still more ancient events, persons, (ancestors and semi-deities), and things; and to their largely abounding in ellipses and aposiopesis;—as I have formerly observed when on this subject.
629 WC: But the most famed and civilized nations of antiquity were, in this respect, quite as bad,—e.g., the Assyrian and Egyptian “Records;” and Polybius, (who had himself seen the savage doings of the Romans), says, “when a town is taken by storm by the Romans, not only human beings are massacred, but even dogs cut in two, and other animals hewn limb from limb,” (x. 15.) Note, also, Saul’s slaying of the Amalekites, (1 Sam. xv.)
630 WC: “Essay on the Maori Races,” “Trans. N.Z. Inst.” Vol. I., § 29 of Essay.
631 WC: See “Paikea’s Spell,” in the Story of Ruatapu and Paikea. (infra.)
633 WC: There were several chiefs and personages of ancient days named Uenuku; some of them bearing an additional suffix to distinguish them. One is said to have dwelt at “Hawaiki” before the so-called migration hither. (See Grey’s “Polynesian Mythology,” p., 123, etc.) Uenuku is, also, a name for the rainbow.
634 WC: One of the genealogies gives twenty-eight generations, (viz., three additional names). This may be owing to an early branch, commencing with the son of another wife. (See Appendix, Genealogy).
635 WC: Not, however, the present Porangahau, but a place of the same name north of Table Cape.
636 WC: A few explanatory remarks on this spell are here offered:—
v. 1 & 12. All sacred fires were necessarily fresh kindled, and that by fire then and there obtained by friction.
“ 2. Meaning, in accordance with national customs and observances.
“ 3–6. Showing the high rank of the deceased lady.
“ 8, 9. By (or according to,—in conformity with), Hineikukutirangi, etc.
These female personages were great ones of old; Hineikukutirangi was often invocated on their going to the deep-sea-fishing. This name means the young-lady-who-drew-the-heavens- (or skies, or clouds) together, (? to prevent the storms and squalls from bursting forth): see the charm recited over Rongoua (p. 11), line 6, and note thereon; where, I think, these two personages are also alluded to: see, also, a similar sacrifice made by Uenuku (p. 15), and note the like names of his two mysterious ceremonial garments.
“ 10, 24–29. Celestial signs, of warring clouds, etc., are here referred to, as finally denoting approval. See Notes 2 and 4 to Paikea’s spell (p. 21).
“ 13, 14. “Towards the west,”—the quarter of the setting sun, and of death, etc. See Essay on the Maori Races, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. I., § 39.
“ 15, 16. Indicating his being a strenuous upholder of their ancient traditions, customs, etc.
“ 17. As said by the hero Whakatau,—War-song, 3, p. 68, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XIII.,—and always meaning the opposite.
“ 22, 23. May mean oneness of action; i.e. what I am doing here on earth is also now being done in the sky.
637 WC: The word used here is a curious and uncommon one, especially in this sense, and, as such, it is almost obsolete. Primarily it denotes the soft, prized, central parts of the Maori gourd (hue), of a water-melon, etc., though it has several other allied root-meanings.
638 WC: Heralds, or messengers, on such high occasions, acted in a very careful and formal ceremonious manner, and only (at first) answered the questions put to them by the chief of the place. Instances have been known where they have been severely beaten, and wounded, and even killed! at the first outbursts of grief and passion, for their sudden and abrupt relation of bad tidings. Hence, such news was almost invariably carried by a relative or a chief.
639 WC: By “the property (taonga) lying on the ground,” I understand the fruits of the karaka trees, which were rigidly preserved, and were gathered up in large quantities to be stored for food in the late autumn season. (See “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XIII., p. 25, last paragraph). The close of Tawheta’s passionate sentence may have reference to his slain sister, or to the women who would be sure to come thither in the karaka gathering party. At all events, the meaning is,—a full, stern, and dreadful revenge!
640 WC: “70” (passim) always means a large and fully complete number for that particular purpose; sometimes, when a very large number was required, it would be twice 70 = 140; and, also, 170; but always so as to take in the 7 unit.
641 WC: “Quietly down:”—Notice here the very great influence of Rongoua’s firm faith in his simple charm! (See the story of Houmea, (infra), p. 26). It was a desperate step to take, but his only possible chance of saving his people from destruction.
642 WC: Uenuku saying, “Art thou,” etc., meaning, Is it possible that Tawheta is come at last to see me! Tawheta, in reply, saying, “Thou thyself!” meaning, Thou alone by thy conduct wert the cause of our being so long estranged from each other.
643 WC: This second interjected reply of Tawheta (who was still within the house, and who, according to etiquette, had no need then to speak), was, I think, mainly made to amuse his own party there with him.
644 WC: Of this charm, verses 4 and 13 are used to infuse hope and strength, and to assure the unity of the powerful and the weak. (See Paikea’s spell, (infra) v. 5.) v. 6 no doubt refers to the two female personages mentioned before in Uenuku’s spell, (supra,) vv. 8 and 9—see note there; v. 8 is a beautiful and strongly expressive metaphor tersely given in the original; v. 10 the “demon,” = atua, foe; vv. 11, 12, “internal parts,”—i.e. inner parts of the head; a severely fractured skull was common in the desperate hand-to-hand fights and massacres of old, where heavy clubs and stone axes were the weapons, and not unfrequently the sufferer recovered. (See Proverbs 155, 156, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XII., p. 137.
645 WC: There could be no fear, on the part of Uenuku, that Tawheta, or any of his party, would come out of the reception house while he was absent, as such would be against all custom, etc.
646 WC: “Are they living, or are they dead?” Note here the last word! This Tawheta well understood, although he could only then have supposed that Uenuku entertained a suspicion of something evil,—as from a dream, warning, omen, etc.; for, according to correct Maori idiom and syntax, that saying of Uenuku should have been reversed (if spoken at all?)—“are they dead, or are they living?” –which would have had a very different meaning, and Tawheta would have remained quietly in the house of reception. Hence, Tawheta broke the rules of etiquette, and bounded forth boldly to meet the implied and concealed charge against him.
647 WC: This highly chivalrous (?) conduct,—or, rather, the noble trait in their character, never to allow the open public rites of hospitality to be infringed, (Uenuku, too, having loudly welcomed them into his village, or fort),—was sometimes strikingly exhibited. The Rev. S. Marsden of Paramatta, informed me (in 1834) of a notable instance which had taken place while some head New Zealand chiefs were staying there at his house. It happened that two of them had come to Sydney by different ships, one was from the Thames, and one from the Bay of Islands,—two tribes who were then at deadly feud in their own country, and so it would have been between those two chiefs on their suddenly and unexpectedly meeting there; but the one said to the other,—“Here, thou and I will dwell quietly, and eat, every day, at the same table together; but when we return to New Zealand I will attack thy fort, and will kill and eat thee:” and all this was carried out to the very letter. It was from the utter want of this feeling on the part of the British (in the Maori estimation), that the early colonists were so greatly twitted by the Maoris during the war of 1860-6; notably by the chief Renata Te Kawepo, in his upbraiding letter to the first Superintendent of the Province of Hawke’s Bay. (See, also, “Essay on the Maori Races,” “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. I., § 34, end.
648 WC: This sentence deserves to be more particularly noticed:—“Ki te kaainga o tini, o te mano o te rororo, o tini o te hakuturi:” lit. to the dwelling place of (the) many, of the numberless of the ants, of (the) multitude of the imps (elves, or fairies). A curious figurative sentence, not however uncommon nor untruthful in the olden time, showing the very great number of his people. (See Houmea, (infra), p. 27, and note there). The same simile of ants, to express a great number, is also used by the Greek and Roman poets: Theoc. Id. XV., 45. Virg. Æn. IV., 402.
649 WC: That is, in the autumn, when the sea would be calm.
650 WC: Tawheta’s daughter: a common practice. (See Vol. XIII, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” p. 40.
651 WC: War-parties by land generally went forth by untrodden paths, forming a trail of their own, and often a circuitous one; their object being always to reach the place they were going to attack without being perceived, or even suspected, and to carefully avoid treading on, or walking over, a kumara root ceremonially deposited in the common path. (See below, Art II, “Contributions towards a better Knowledge of the Maori Race,” part IV., Kumara).
652 WC: As the gods were (according to the ancient Greek mythology) up on Olympus. I have studied to mark the great difference in the modes of address between the priest and the demon. (See, also, between Uenuku and his son Ruatapu, p. 18):—a matter much too little attended to in translations.
653 WC: Notice, here, the change of her name, according to custom; and, at the same time, a play upon her former one as to its sound; her new name being also one of good omen,—lit. good-healing-of-the-sore, or wound.
654 WC: Here is also an addition made to the name of the leader of that band,—lit. prepared (or brought to pass) in the meeting in the open court,—which may have taken its origin from the prudent counsel he had given to Uenuku, which was also adopted, and led to victory.
655 WC: See “Contributions towards a better Knowledge of the Maori Eace;” Part TV.,— Legends concerning the Kumara Plant—Art. II (infra).
656 WC: Lit. the Sky-stitched (together), and the Sky-joined, or banded, or rafted (together); and, viewing the Sky as a personage, this may be taken in an active sense. See, also, Uenuku’s first charm, vv. 10, 24–29 (supra).
657 WC: The word mokopuna may mean, great great grandson, etc., or lineal descendant.
658 WC: A very similar proceeding to the first sacrifice, mentioned in the beginning of this story, only with different ceremonies. This custom was of universal application among the New Zealanders; hence, in war, it was of great importance (on either side) to seize the first prisoner for this purpose. Uenuku seems to have laid his plan well, by anchoring his canoes in the way he did, to bring the desired end so readily to pass. The student of Ancient History will know how extensively this custom was practised, both in the Old World and New (Mexico); the two things seem generally to have gone together,—the bloody offering (or the life), and the offering by fire; blood being, at all times and in every zone, supposed to be fitted to appease the gods! Sir Walter Scott has well worked upon this ancient belief in his poem of “The Lady of the Lake,” Canto V.,—the combat between FitzJames and Roderick
—–“Which spills the foremost foeman’s life, That party conquers in the strife.”
It is even said, that the Highlanders under Montrose were so deeply imbued with this notion, that, on the morning of the battle of Tippermoor, they murdered a defenceless herdsman, whom they found in the fields, merely to secure an advantage of so much consequence to their party.
659 WC: Plenty of patterns of their hair so adorned are given in the plates of Cook’s “Voyages,” and in Parkinson’s “Journal,”—passim. (See Proverb, No. 130, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XII., p. 133). When their heads were thus dressed they did not lay them down on pillows of any kind for several nights, lest they should disarrange them, but managed accordingly. This curious practice was also largely followed by other Polynesians. So in Africa, and, also, very anciently in Europe. (See Keller’s “Lake Dwellings of Switzerland,”; pp. 175, 501, 565).
660 WC: This ceremony was always performed by a chief of rank, or by a priest (tohunga); Uenuku was both; the head being pre-eminently sacred (tapu), and never to be touched save by a tapu person.
661 WC: I have sought to keep up in a translation the great difference in the modes of address here used between the father and the son; (see, also, p. 14, and the note there).
662 WC: In this dialogue three things are to be noticed: 1. Uenuku’s quiet way of giving a gentle hint to his son, which tends to show that hitherto, throughout childhood and youth, no such great distinction had yet been made. 2. Ruatapu ought to have understood his father’s meaning (see a similar mode of speaking, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XIII., p. 42, and note there); he knew, as well as his father, that he could not possibly use one of his elder brothers’ combs, as all were tapu, and each one strictly confined to its owner’s own private use. 3. Uenuku’s last words were very bitter and galling to the young man, and, no doubt, were spoken openly before all; and as they were spoken in highly figurative language I give them here in the original, with a strictly literal translation and full explanation:—“Ehika, naku tonu koe; he tama meamea koe nahaku; he moenga rau-kawakawa, he moenga hau!” lit. “O, sir, thou art indeed my own (son); thou art a son of inferior rank begotten by me; a begetting—or sleeping, or cohabiting,—(among) the leaves and branches of the strong-smelling kawakawa shrub,—a begetting, etc.—out of doors in the high wind.” The strong smell of the kawakawa (Piper excelsum) was particularly unpleasant to the New Zealanders; the whole also meaning, that Uenuku’s taking Ruatapu’s mother to wife was done without any festivities,—without any gifts of fine-woven mats for bedding,—and without a bride’s house and other formalities. (See “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XIII., p. 45, bottom).
663 WC: The word may mean—younger sons.
664 WC: See proverb, No. 181, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XII., p. 140.
665 WC: For the common regular diversons of the evening, when the fires were lighted in their large houses.
666 WC: Paikea has now twice firmly asserted his descent from (beings of) the sea,—and he is not the first of the ancient Maori heroes who has done so. Of those four names of his ancestors here given by him, all are found in the Genealogical Roll (appended); but the first (Rongomaitahanui) and the last (Te Aihumoana) are, also, mythically known as ancient sea-demons (atua), and, so far, pre-historical. Paikea is also the proper name of a species of whale. I saw one about 34 years ago, which had been driven on shore here in Hawke’s Bay in a severe gale; it was very long, with a sharpish snout, and its white belly was regularly and closely longitudinally fluted throughout. Its appearance reminded me strongly of the plate of Balæna boops in Rees’ Cyclopædia.
667 WC: There is a meaning here in this action of Ruatapu which should not be overlooked. To retain one’s paddle (which was often highly carved and ornamented), in upsettings of canoes and in naval fights, was always an achievement, and a token of bravery, etc. Just as that of a young Spartan to retain his shield, or, in modern times, the colours, arms, etc.
668 WC: The very opposite feelings are to be here understood. Also in Uenuku’s Spell, p. 7; and in Whakatau’s Chant, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XIII., p. 68; and the last line of Songs, 1 and 4, pp. 65 and 70, l.c.
669 WC: For Space and Sky, see “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XIII., pp. 68, 69, etc.
670 WC: See the charm used for Rongoua’s fractured skull, p. 11, Uenuku.
671 WC: These two verses (7 and 8) require explanation. Here there are six high reasons given by Paikea for asserting his nobility:—
(1) “Son of a chief”—i.e., by both parents.
(2) “Properly begotten”—i.e., with betrothal, and parental consent, and every proper preliminary arrangement;—see Kapi’s wedding, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XIII., pp. 45, 46. (All this was wanting in the case of Paimahutanga, the mother of Ruatapu; see p. 18, note.)
(3) “Son above”—i.e., in and with the approval of the Sky.
(4) “Son abroad”—i.e., around,—in or with the approval of Space.
(5) “Son according to ceremonies duly performed—i.e., by the priests (tohunga), at the early naming,—the cutting of hair,—the arriving at puberty, etc.
(6) “Son according to the celestial signs”—i.e., these, such as are here referred to, were,—distant summer lightnings,—aurora australis,—peculiar red and other clouds, appearing on the horizon,—shooting stars, etc., etc.; and were always supposed and believed to have been given at, or shortly after, such ceremonial seasons, as tokens of approval, etc.
672 WC: The skid of Houtaiki.“Houtaiki is the name of one of Paikea’s ancestors. Here, however, an allusion is made to the canoe of Houtaiki getting safely drawn up on its skids on the shore; it is a very ancient story. It was also used to denote a fixed safe barrier, or bounds, which were not to be passed, as at Taupo, etc.; and, also, known as “te puru o Houtaiki”—i.e., stoppage, obstacle, barrier. “Te rango o Houtaiki” is one of the names of the low isthmus connecting Table Cape Peninsula with the mainland. The name of Houtaiki often occurs in poetry, in connection with that of Houmea (infra).
673 WC: Taane, the owner and creator of forests; (see “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XIII., p. 65;) here metonymically used;—“roots of Taane,”—i.e., of the trees of the forests. The strong westerly winds which often blow furiously in summer, sweeping down from the wooded heights and off the shore, East Coast, are here deprecated.
674 WC: Figurative, for a wooden canoe made out of a forest tree.
675 WC: One of Paikea’s ancestors.
676 WC: These two verses (25 and 26) are spoken of a canoe.
677 WC: These last three verses (27–29) may mean, either Paikea, or the canoe coming to save him; there is nothing in the original to indicate gender.
678 WC: A term curiously used here,—as it means the uninhabited barren wilderness, far away from the dwellings of man.
679 WC: Another of Paikea’s ancestors.
680 WC: Taane is now, at last, invoked, to make him just as a tree-trunk, or log of wood, that so he may float unconsciously to the shore; (see, also, verses 22, 51;) Taane, is, also, used figuratively, for the Mainland, and is always placed in direct opposition to his enemy the Ocean.
681 WC: Names of two more of his ancestors.
682 WC: See, also, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XIII., p. 59, bottom.
683 WC: Here, throughout (as has been before observed, “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” Vol. XIII., p.), only the persons themselves immediately concerned are mentioned; but it should be understood there were plenty of others,—plebeians, etc. A chief, for instance, could not go out alone to the deep sea-fishing in a large canoe.