966 WC: “Cat. of Hymenoptera,” etc., by Professor Hutton, p. 128; where, however, it is named Rh. antipodum, Smith: this name, Professor Hutton informs me in a letter, must yield priority to the other.
967 Inc. sed.
968 WC: The numbers in this paper attached to both orders and genera are those of the “Handbook of the N.Z. Flora.”
971 Possibly Hydrocotyle elongata A.Cunn.
972 Centella uniflora (Col.) Nannf..
973 Hydrocotyle novae-zeelandiae DC.
974 Possibly Raukaua anomalus (Hook.) A.D.Mitchell, Frodin et Heads.
975 WC: For description of this plant (without flowers), see “Trans. N.Z. Inst.,” vol. xvi. p. 328.
976 Alepis flavida (Hook.f.) Tiegh.
978 WC: This, also, I had only found in fruit, in the autumn; Sir J.D. Hooker, in the “Handbook N.Z. Flora,” has placed it under A. quercifolia.
979 Olearia ilicifolia Hook.f.
980 Olearia arborescens (G.Forst.) Cockayne et Laing.
1004 Possibly Distichophyllum rotundifolium (Hook.f. et Wilson) Mull. Hal. et Broth.
1005 Not found.
1006 Not found.
1007 Calyptrochaeta cristata (Hedw.) Desv.
1008 Fossombronia perpusilla (Col.) Steph.
1010 Symphyogyna hymenophyllum (Hook.) Mont. et Nees.
1011 Symphyogyna hymenophyllum (Hook.) Mont. et Nees.
1014 Megaceros pellucidus (Colenso) E.A. Hodgs.
1015 Sphærophorus melanocarpus var. australis. f. vividulus (Col.) Murray.
1018 WC: As this is a species nova, and possibly but little known here among us, I may remark that, in form and appearance, it is much like those sp. nov. of the same genus from Queensland, recently described by Berkeley and Broome in “Transactions Linn. Soc. London,” 2nd series, Botany, and figured in tab. 46, vol. i., and in plate 14, vol. ii.
1019 Like unto a man that is an householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old. Matthew 13: 52.
1020 What was hard to suffer is pleasant to remember. Seneca (Hercules furens 656). Colenso’s own translation.
1021 WC: The day—50 years ago !—that I left my native Home for New Zealand.—W.C.
1022 WC: From sea-weeds with which they were densely covered.
1023 WC: I have particularly emphasised “salt”;—this was for some time our greatest want; we could not relish our unsavoury pork for want of it, and were beginning to feel the need of it. At length we hit on the plan of boiling down sea-water; the natives of the place having a tolerably good-sized iron pot, which they lent us. At first, however, we were puzzled with the mixing of the two salts,—crystals of Sulphate of Magnesia (Epsom salts) and of Chloride of Soda (common salt),—which made our Salt terribly bitter; but this we ultimately got over by watching for the exact moment of crystallization, as the salt of Soda crystallized earlier than that of Magnesia, and so, by quickly removing the pot from the fire, and pouring away the bittern, we succeeded in getting a little tolerably edible salt, at which we rejoiced! but it required several boilings and evaporatings to obtain even a small quantity; partly, perhaps, owing to the freshness of the sea-water along shore. When we got our salt and added to it the green fruit of the N.Z. Pepper (Piper excelsum), we wonderfully improved our cooking of pork! For plates and cups we used the large shells of the Paaua (Heliotis iris), plugging the holes with bits of wood; while, for not a few of other little common things, we realized, that “Necessity was the mother of invention.”
1024 WC: I may here also briefly mention how we came to be in want of water. During the first gale our large body of Maoris had to be battened down below in the hold (as we were also in the cabin), while confined there they were sadly in want of water, and finding the spare and full watercasks, pulled out the bangs to get at the water, and in the darkness and disorder lost and could not replace them,—and so the water all ran out! A scene followed when it was found out by the Captain.
1025 WC: On that occasion Bishop Williams and myself travelled together to Te Wairoa (Clyde of the present day) when we separated; the Bishop going overland to his home at Poverty Bay, and I going to mine in the far North, by a long inland circuitous and unknown route; first to Waikare Moana, Ruatahuna, and Te Whaiiti; thence, returning again to the E. Coast, to Whakataane, Maketu and Tauranga; and thence again inland by a zig-zag route from coast to coast,—to Waikato (down the river to its mouth) and by beach to Manukau, thence to Kaipara, Waipu and Whangarei,—on to the Bay of Islands and Te Waimate. A copy of my dotted track on this occasion, which I had taken by compass and mapped, with the names and positions of places and rivers (till then unknown), was sent by Bishop Selwyn to London, and was subsequently engraved and published by Arrowsmith in the maps of New Zealand.
1028 WC: The question may reasonably arise,—Why did I make such a bad selection for a residence, seeing that at that early period I had the whole land open before me?—But there was no choice in it! And it was only after some days spent in talking over it, with the five principal chiefs of the S. side of Hawke’s Bay and their relatives, that we (Bishop Williams and myself) got that small piece of land (10 acres) assigned at all. And it was gravely and perhaps (as things then were amongst them) judiciously decided, that I could only have a piece allotted me there; such being a tabooed spot (as I have already stated), and so belonging to them all, and therefore in residing there I should be equally open to them all; for if I had been located on a better site near to one of their pas, then I should be considered as belonging to that sub-tribe resident therein, and so not free to all,—especially in their often jealous squabbling among themselves; and as to my residing any where inland—away from one of their pas—such was not to be thought of, and could not be allowed. At the same time, my business was to be as much as possible among the bulk of the people.
1029 WC: In those days the only narrow maori track inland lay on that side of the lake. No maori then lived at Te Aute, which was all a dense extensive forest; neither was there any road or track that way, from Te Aute (where Te Hapuku’s pa and marble bust is) to Kaikoura and Waipawa.
1030 WC: We had gathered it together at the Kerikeri waterfall in the Bay of Islands in 1838.
1031 WC: See Note B, appendix.
1032 WC: That is, The spring, or water of weariness,—or, of being quite worn out!
1033 WC: Of these two Orchids I have recently (1882) made two new species, Earina quadrilobata and Dendrobium Lessonii, having last year re-discovered them growing pretty profusely and in flower in a few spots in the “70-mile Bush.” (Vide Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. XV., pp. 325-328, for full description.
1034 Nature is greatest in little things.
1035 WC: The present well-known old chief, the head of his sub-tribe, Paora (= Paul) Kaiwhata; who was then a fine strong young native, and one of my baggage-bearers on that memorable occasion, and not unfrequently carried me on his back through the deeper waters of the river. He, also, accompanied me in a similar capacity on several journeys to Patea, Palliser Bay, and elsewhere, in after years, and did good and voluntary service to the Church Mission.
1036 WC: That is, Touch and break gently.
1037 WC: In after years I crossed and recrossed this pass several tunes, the last time being in May, 1852,—and always, by taking care and only travelling in the summer season, without loss or great danger. On two occasions, however, we met with little adventures, which may be here mentioned as illustrations of the place. One happened in returning late that season from Patea; we had seen from where we were at Maketu (a village of Patea), that snow had fallen on the range, (which fell as rain where we then were,) and so we had to wait a few days until it was melted; this taking place we started. On the pass, however, I, in boots, slipped down a yard or two, but holding my ground through my long and tough maori spear, which I invariably carried, was helped out.—The second also happened in returning to Hawke’s Bay on another occasion,—when one of my maoris, who had often gone with me, seeing the pass looking so clear and firm and tempting, with the sun, too, shining on it, took a run down the high slope from the W. side leading to it, and keeping too much down was carried off his legs by the treacherous wet and slippery debris! for a moment we feared for him, but I called out to him to stop, if possible, and make no exertion, when, by joining hands and ropes and with my tent poles, we got him safely up on surer ground. He had a good fright, however, which was also salutary to him, and to all—for the future. I had ample proof of the deceptiveness and danger of the place; which fully bore out all the old maori relations of it.
1038 WC: From Scott’s “Marmion”, Introduction to Canto II., altered to suit the scene.
1039 WC: Or rather the small blanched bases of the leaves, which affords a scanty nutriment.
1040 WC: This is another plant I had long been looking out for, as it was originally discovered by Forster in the S. Island, when here with Cook, and on it he had established his genus Banksia, in honour of Sir Joseph Banks, (B. Gnidia) and it had not been met with since.
1041 WC: Discovered by me 2 years before on the mountains of Huiarau, during my second long journey through the interior; but there only as a shrub 4–5 feet high, being at a much lower altitude.
1042 WC: Having mentioned this, I may be permitted also to add, on the authority of our great English Botanist Sir J. E. Smith,—that Linnæus having taken a plant of our British Furze with him to Sweden, always lamented that he could scarcely preserve it alive through a Swedish winter, even in a greenhouse.
1043 WC: But probably secured in following years.
1044 WC: It may be worth recording for the N.Z. Colonist, and with the hope of encouraging the acquisition of specimens under difficulties, that of those specimens of Alpine plants obtained with difficulty on this occasion,—drawings of nearly 50 have been published, by Dr. Hooker, in his Flora Novæ Zelandiæ, and by his father Sir Wm. J. Hooker, in his Icones Plantarum, and Species Filicum; and, further, for many years those specimens were the only ones known of those plants to the Botanists of Europe.
1045 WC: Now, at date of publication, upwards of 32 years! Tempus fugit!
1046 WC: This story was too good to be lost, especially to a fighting race like the Maori, and the joke was long kept up at the expense of the poor fellow!
1047 WC: My bearers, too, having been warned, some by experience and some by hearsay, took with them on this occasion sundry old cast clothing to use as defensive armour. Dr. Hooker, in his Hand Book N.Z. Flora, (1864), says:—“There are apparently two varieties,—both are called” [down S.], “Spear-Grass,” and “Wild Spaniard”. Sir D. Munro states, that it forms a thicket impenetrable to men and horses.” p. 92.
1048 WC: Taramea being the Maori name of this plant; meaning, The rough spiny thing; not unlike, in meaning, that given to it by Forster.
1049 WC: In a subsequent journey I brought away living plants of Aciphylla (with several other mountain novelties), which did pretty well in my garden at the Station at Waitangi for some 2–3 years, until a heavy flood came, when they (with many other Alpine plants) were submerged and killed by the thick deposit of silt. Five species are now known, and described by Dr. Hooker. Dr. Lauder Lindsay has also subsequently fully described Aciphylla Colensoi, with coloured drawings and dissections in his “Contributions to the Botany of New Zealand”,—a work that I have only very recently seen.
1050 No one attacks me with impunity.
1051 WC: This plant was first described by Dr. Hooker in his Flora Antarctica, vol. I, as Sieversia albiflora; where a drawing of it is also given.
1052 WC: Plates of several of these Grasses are also given by Dr. Hooker in his Flora Novæ Zealandiæ.
1053 WC: Some time ago I received a letter from a friend, a Naturalist, travelling in the South Island; in it he says:—“For the first time I had some idea of the importance of those Grasses Poa Colensoi and Festuca duriusculo to the stock feeder. Thousands of acres of poor stony land are covered, or, correctly speaking, carry little else than these Grasses, mixed sparingly with Trisetum Youngii, Raoulia, Gentian, and Aciphylla Colensoi; but the stock feeding on such pasture is everywhere in good condition.”
1054 WC: Said, by Dr. Hooker, to be a depauperated variety of Festuca duriuscula; found also on the mountains in the South Island.
1055 WC: Named by me S. botryoides, from its clustered fruit; but altered by Professor Babington, to its present name. And now, (1884,) finally removed to the genus Pilophoron (P. Colensoi) by Dr. Knight.—Trans. N.Z. Instit., vol. XVI. p. 400, with a drawing.
1056 WC: In after years I travelled several times to and from Patea by this route, but always made, whether going or returning, 108 wadings. To make sure of their number, I always tied a cord to the button-hole of my coats and every crossing made a knot in it. Wishing to find an easier route to the interior, having also tried several, I tried one leading from near the gorge in the Manawatu river, by the rivers Puhanginga, Oroua, and Rangitikei,— having been induced to do so from the representations of some old Maoris of Manawatu,— but that took me more than twice as long on my journey to Patea, and gave me, in two days, 237 wadings! we sustained much hardship on that occasion, in the dense forests on the W. side of the Ruahine range. After my return from this first journey, I suffered more than 2 months from sciatica brought on by those wadings in that icy river, bivouacking, and want of proper nourishment.
1057 Life has given nothing to man without great labour (Horace). Colenso’s own translation.
1058 WC: “At the close, Dr. Spencer proposed, and Mr. J. A. Smith seconded, a unanimous vote of thanks to Mr. Colenso for his very interesting Paper, which was also earnestly supported by the Rt. Rev. Chairman (the Bishop of Waiapu), and warmly accorded by the meeting, with a further particular wish, that the same should be recorded.” Ext., Proceedings, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1878, vol. XI. p. 570.
1059 By persevering, succeed.
1060 WC: See Note C, Appendix.
1061 WC: Roots, however, which I obtained and planted at the Bay of Islands, subsequently flowered. Vide, “London Journal of Botany,” 1844, vol. III. p. 19.
1062 WC: “Lond. Journal of Botany,” 1844, vol. III. pp. 20, 21. I don’t how under which of his three species of this genus in the “Hand Book”, Sir Joseph Hooker has placed this (to me) very distinct plant,—I mean, distinct from the other N.Z. species,—possibly under C. thymifolia; but quæ. I have long been convinced of our having four, or, perhaps five species of this genus in N.Z.
1063 WC: In the “Hand Book”, not in the Flora N.Z.
1064 Described in Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science, 1844, vol. II. p. 166.
1065 WC: See, “Trans. N.Z. Institute,” vol. XIV. p. 53,—for some remarks on this plant.
1066 WC: A modern Ecclesiastical writer has pleasingly said, (in writing on the Apostle Paul,) “We can hardly believe that he who spoke to the Lystrians of the ‘rain from heaven,’ and the ‘fruitful seasons’, and of the ‘living GOD who made heaven and earth and the sea’, could have looked with indifference on beautiful and impressive scenery.”—As that of Tarsus, with the river (Cydnus, and the mountain heights of Taurus. (Conybeare and Howson.)
1067 WC: Some 2–3 years after this, a party of Natives from the interior bringing some pigs for sale at Ahuriri,—several of the animals went over this cliff and were killed; this, however, was not the first time of such happening. The wonder with me was, how they managed to get them along at all! But not long after that, on the Maoris getting horses this track (with many other similar ones) was completely abandoned.
1068 WC: On one occasion I was shut up here on the W. side of the Mohaka in time of flood for nearly 3 days, with very little to eat! While we were there waiting the subsiding of the waters, another travelling party of Maoris arrived, also from the interior, who were going in the same direction to the coast; after consultation we managed to cross and to escape, by collecting with no little trouble dry raupo (Typha) leaves and flax flower-stalks, wherewith to make a big moki, or catamaran,—also, green flax leaves to twist into ropes. Having finished our huge unwieldy raft, which occupied more than a day in making, it was thrown into the river, and towed up through the still water a considerable distance, to allow for the strength of the current, now very great, besides we all feared the waterfall below; then, our baggage, myself, and dog being on it, it was dragged and shoved and drifted amid much uproar to the opposite shore, the natives swimming and propelling! Taken altogether, with the dark frowning cliffs on either side, it was a scene worthy of a sketch.
1069 WC: An undescribed plant, a small tree of upright growth, discovered by me in a wood near the sea a little N. of the East Cape, in 1841, and referred by me to this genus, has leaves 10in, in length. Unfortunately, though I saw several trees there, none were either in flower or fruit; and I have never since met with it. (Vide, Lond. Journal Botany, 1844, vol. III. p. 8.)
1070 WC: A large number of them will be found in the “Hand Book Flora N.Z.”
1071 WC: Vide “Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science”, vol. II., p. 234; “London Journal Botany”, vol. III., p. 19, 20; also, Hooker’s Icones Plantarum, tab. 630, 631.
1072 WC: Viz. On Easter Day, 1839. From this little stream, which runs over the rocks into the sea, close to the celebrated Reinga, or Spirits’ Leap into the lower world, (according to their legendary belief,) they (the spirits) take their last draught of earthly water ere they mount the ridge and take their final plunge into the realms below! my dog, on that occasion, had the hardihood to do as I did, and to quench his thirst there! to the great indignation of some of the Natives.
1073 WC: On another occasion, however, I was not so fortunate. We had been staying at Rotoaira, on our returning from Patea and Murimotu, and on leaving the village were assured that we should find canoes and natives here. On our arriving there were neither— not anywhere hereabouts, and we were sorely puzzled how to act, for the river was high, and the distance, back to Rotoaira long; we did, however, at last, get over safely, the baggage being the difficulty. I had to swim across with a newly twisted green-flax rope girt round me, lest I should be carried down by the strong current beyond the one narrow landing place among the dense bushy vegetation on that side of the river.
1074 WC: This had several times happened: notably during my long overland journey in 1841, from Poverty Bay to the Bay of Islands; when, in a terrible gale and at night, in the mountainous trackless and deep forests between Waikare Lake and Ruatahuna, my guide deserted! at a time, too, when we were starving, as well as hemmed in by the flooded rivers: that was on New Year’s Day, 1842; a time to be ever remembered by me! See “Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science”, vol. II., p. 259.
1075 WC: All now included under one species—A. fruticosa, by Sir Jos. Hooker, in the “Hand Book”.
1078 WC: I have several times mentioned “rice”: I was early led—taught by experience—to see the necessity of always carrying a few pounds with me on my long journeys. We had found the great benefit of it on our landing at “Deliverance Cove”, (p. 2,) as from it we (all hands) had made our first hearty meal on our finding of water. The natives, however, always preferred potatoes to rice; their remarks thereon forcibly reminding me of what I had heard at Home in my boyhood from our Cornish Miners and Farm labourers, that they preferred the dark-brown and hard barley to the soft white wheaten bread; saying they could not work on this latter. I wonder how it is now with them, in these days of high civilization!
1079 WC: Some years after in travelling this way, I found the natives had made a tolerable rustic bridge across, some 6 feet wide, and having a shaky parapet fence, the floor being strewed with manuka faggots; this was done for their one horse.
1080 WC: Of which may be here mentioned, Brachycome odorata; Olea lanceolata, and another undescribed species of Olea having hairy petioles; Calceolaria repens; Carex dissita; Agrostis parviflora and A. pilosa; Marchanta nitida, &c.
1081 WC: See Note E., Appendix.
1082 WC: Sophora tetraptera, of “Hand Book”.
1083 WC: I managed here better afterwards, by having new flax leaves and new strips of bark fastened to go up and down by. On one visit after heavy rain, when it was very slippery, and some portion of the earth from the cliff had fallen, I was carried down like a baby, on a native’s back; as I dared not trust to my own legs! This however was by no means the first time of my being so borne by them over dangerous and slippery places; not a few deep dark rivers having high banks, densely bushy, and the vegetation hanging down into the river, with a tree felled or placed to cross over on,—old, denuded of its bark, and slippery with vegetable fungoid slime,—have I had to cross, there being no other known way; when, after trying it without boots,—and also by sitting on it saddle fashion,—I have been obliged to give in, and to have recourse to a native bearer; also on the slimy edges of some cataracts;—and he never missed his footing. On such occasions I invariably used to shut my eyes during the whole time of transit, to keep myself and him the more steady.
1084 WC: See Note F., Appendix.
1085 WC: In visiting these localities in after years I was surprised to find such an extensive and formidable growth of English Docks (Rurnex obtusifolius) 4–5 feet high, and densely thick; so that in some places I could scarcely make my way through them. On enquiry I found, when some of these people had visited Whanganui, to sell their pigs, they had purchased from a white man there some seed, which they were told was tobacco seed! in their ignorance they took their treasure back with them, and carefully sowed it in some of their best soil, which they also had prepared by digging; and lo! the crop proved to be this horrid Dock,—which, seeding largely, was carried down by the rivers and filled the country. The same iniquitous trick had also been played with the natives of Poverty Bay, so early as 1837; when, at their pressing request, I visited some young plants they had raised from seed, fenced in and tabooed, believing them to be tobacco!!
1086 WC: The only other N.Z. species of Calceolaria (C. Sinclairii) was also originally discovered by me at the E. Cape, in 1841; and, subsequently by Dr. Sinclair at “Waihaki, in 1842”. (Vide, Hooker’s Icones Plantarum, tab. 561.)
1087 WC: It has since, however, been found in one spot on the same flank of the range, but lower down and much nearer to the W. Coast.
1088 WC: See Note G., Appendix.
1089 WC: Sir J. Hooker, in the “Hand Book” speaks of this species as “a small very straggling twiggy branched bush”; but I have generally found it to be a tall shrub, or even small slender tree, 12–15 ft. high, with long drooping branches: it is a much larger species than M. montana.
1090 WC: I don’t see where Sir J. Hooker has placed this species in his “Hand Book,” unless 1t be under Astelia Cunninghamii; but I never saw it epiphytical, and I think it will prove to be distinct.
1091 WC: Mr. Baker, I see, in his last edition of “Synopsis Filicum,” has united H. unilaterale (and several other species) with H. Tunbridgense; which species already had included within it not a few of our N.Z. Hymenophyllæ as varieties: to this, however, I cannot agree. No two species of ferns (in my opinion) are more truly distinct than the British species, H. Tunbridgense (including our N.Z. species, H. Tunbridgense, and its “varieties”—cupressiforme, Lab., and—revolutum, Col.,) with its single axillary and serrated involucre sunk in its frond, and this fern from Ruahine (H. intermedium, mihi, m.s.,) with its many free and pedicelled entire involucres. But I hope for an entire and natural re-arrangement of our N.Z. Hyrnenophylla ere long.
1092 WC: See Note B., Appendix.
1093 WC: Dr. Horsfield’s account of the peculiar little animal Madaus meliceps, only found on the tops of the mountains of Java,—and Sir C. Lyell’s remark thereon,—may be profitably consulted here. (Lyell’s Principles of Geology, 12th Ed., vol. II., p. 362.)
1094 WC: I find this Maori name is given in the “Hand Book” Index to Libocedrus Doniana, but I scarcely think any old Native would call a Libocedrus a Totara, the foliage in the two genera being so very different. The maori name for it, (like many other of their proper names,) is fit and expressive; lit.—Fuchsia-barked Totara.
1095 WC: This was not far from where Mr. Avison’s house is now.
1096 WC: I managed to bring living portions with me to the Station, and kept them alive for several months under glass, where they flowered abundantly and well.
1097 “Blattloss aber und schnell erhebt sich der zärtere Stengel,
Und em Wundergebild zeiht den Betrachtenden an.”—
Metamorphose der Pflanzen. Goethe.
1098 WC: Page 46. See Note B., Appendix.
1099 WC: Particularly in my Papers on “Nomenclature,” published here last year.
1100 WC: See Para-te-tai-tonga, = Dirt, or dregs, from-the-Southern-Sea,—the name of the higher mountain in the interior, always covered with snow: p.45.—Also, “Nomenclature,” p.16.
1101 WC: In the Hawaiian (Sandwich Islands) dialect k is frequently interchanged with t; and it is worthy perhaps of notice, that another romantic place among these mountains not very far away N. from this,—Kuripapango,—is supposed to derive its old proper name from a Hawaiian word. (Vide, “Three Literary Papers”, by W.C., p. 4: 1883.)
1102 He wrote to JD Hooker (29 October 1883), “I have just written a letter, & a paper on a Fungus, to Mr Marquand, the Hony. Secy. of a Socy. at Penzance, & have requested him, if it be published by them in their ‘Trans.’ to send you a copy.”
1103 WC: Transactions New Zealand Institute, vol. xiii. p. 30.No doubt they would have used more if they had been acquainted with vessels that would stand fire.
1104 WC: “Bush” is the common term for forests and woods in New Zealand.
1105 WC: At that time and for many years after, fungi and ferns, and indeed all cryptogams, always wore a fresh uninjured appearance through their not being in any way disturbed, there being no cattle in the country, nor roads, nor inland traffic of any kind.
1106 WC: Introduction to Cryptogamic Botany, p. 355.
1107 WC: I should however mention that in the spring of 1883 a large party of Maoris residing on the West Coast, near Mount Egmont, who had for some time been collecting and storing fungus there, sold the lot to an Auckland agent and general dealer, but took the whole total sum, upwards of £425, in hard cash.
1108 WC: A manuscript is preserved in the Morrab Library, Penzance (ER234) and is published here with permission. It was written as a communication to the Penzance Natural History and Antiquarian Society and was read by the secretary Mr E.D. Marquand on 19 March 1885. The Cornish Telegraph report of the meeting in the Society's minute book reads, “The paper was listened to with close attention, and at its close a vote of thanks was cordially awarded to the author, who is a member of the society and actively interested in its proceedings.”