Total, 48 species of those published in the “Handbook.”
Subsequently, 5 additional species (and one marked variety), all belonging to 4 of those same genera, have been discovered in that same small area of woodland by me, and described in the Trans. N.Z. Inst., vols. xi. and xii., viz.:—
Making in all a gross total of 53 species of ferns found growing together in a very small plot of ground, being several more than the whole number of species of ferns found in the British Islands. And I have good reasons for believing that the following additional species may yet be found there also, as I know they are growing in profusion not far off, viz.,—Lomaria nigra, Polypodium cunninghamii, Adiantum diaphanum.
Of one thing respecting this beautiful and justly-prized order of plants I feel pretty certain, namely,—that there are several still unknown and undiscovered species yet to be found in New Zealand.820 For I am yearly becoming more and more convinced of the correctness of my old belief821 in the very circumscribed locality of not a few of our New Zealand plants; and, therefore, as the many still unexplored mountains and valleys, forests and plains of New Zealand come to be visited and known,—especially to men of science,—their many botanical novelties will become known also; though I much fear that cattle and fire, and introduced plants, will certainly destroy many. Such, indeed, has been the case here already in not a few places in Hawke’s Bay.
1882 Descriptions of a few new indigenous Plants.
Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 15: 320-339.
[Read before the Hawke’s Bay Philosophical Institute, 9th October, 1882.]
Class I. Dicotyledons.
Genus 1. Carmichælia, Br.
Carmichælia corrugata,823 sp. nov.
An exceedingly small glabrous shrub, 2–3 inches high; branches leafless, 1–2 inches long, 1 line wide, mostly simple, rarely forked, flat, linear, obtuse, striated (almost ridged) and grooved longitudinally, slightly flexuous,  each branch bearing 4–5 alternate equidistant denticulations, each with a dry scarious ciliated bract. Flowers large, 3–4 lines long, purple with darker veins; standard pointleted; wings half the length of the standard; style bearded at tip; peduncle slender, 9–12 lines long, bibracteate, 1- (rarely 2-) flowered; bracts ciliated: pedicel 2 lines long, bracteolate at base; calyx large, broadly campanulate, more than 1 line wide, ciliate and hairy at margin, with 2 broad obtuse ciliated bracteoles adpressed at base; teeth very long: pod oblong-elliptic, 4–5 lines long (exclusive of beak), 1½–2 lines broad, turgid, corrugated on one suture (mostly the lower) with 8–9 thick closely formed wrinkles; beak straight, 1½ lines long: seeds rotund, 5 in a pod.
Hob. Dry stony plains, Renwicktown, near Blenheim, South Island; Mr. F. Reader.
This species, in its dwarf size and general appearance, resembles C. nana, but it differs widely from that species in its flower and pod; it is also not so robust a plant. In its peculiarly thick and wrinkled pod (whence its specific name) it differs from all the species of Carmichœlia known to me. Some of its short branches bear a flower from each notch or denticulation.
Order XXXIX. compositæ.
Genus 1. Olearia, Mœnch.
Olearia marginata,824 sp. nov.
A robust shrub of low diffuse growth; branches, leaves, petioles, peduncles and heads of flowers thickly covered with tawny-yellowish wool: branchlets very stout, straight, smooth, and bare of leaves for 5–7 inches; leaves oblong, sub-obovate (sometimes roundish and narrow oblong), 2½–4½ inches long, 1½–2 inches broad, very stout, entire, very obtuse and emarginate, tapering towards base, sub-verticillate, 4–9 crowded together at ends of branchlets far apart, sometimes (but rarely) a single pair opposite; margined all round above the upper surface for ½ line wide with thick wool; midrib thick and flat towards base, and densely woolly for about 1 inch from petiole; veined; veins prominent, opposite and sub-opposite, diverging and parallel, apparent on both sides; veinlets anastomosing; the upper surface of old leaves glabrous, glossy, pale yellowish-green; petioles very stout, ¾–1½ inch long, channelled above, much dilated at base and sub-clasping; young leaves densely covered with coarse wool, at first their upper surface is ash-coloured, but with tawny-yellow under surface and margins: peduncle very stout, axillary and sub-terminal, 2½ inches long, 3 lines broad, of a uniform thickness throughout, compressed, channelled, soft flexible not woody, drooping, with 3–7 leafy half-clasping sessile and decurrent bracts below the head; head (alabastrus globular) 1–1¼ inch broad, densely  imbricated in 7–8 rows; outer scales large, broad-oblong, obtuse, and with peduncle clothed with lighter reddish-yellow wool; inner scales 6–7 lines long, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, acute, longitudinally ribbed, glossy within; receptacle convex, 10 lines broad, deeply and coarsely pitted; pits square, the alveolar-like ridges even, a little higher at the angles.
Hab. Dry rocky hills, Renwicktown, near Blenheim, South Island. Mr. F. Reader.
This is in many respects a remarkable species, and is certainly pretty closely allied naturally to O. insignis, Hook., to which South Island species (unknown by sight to me) I was at first inclined to assign it, mainly through my not having specimens with fully opened flowers, and from their having been gathered in the known neighbouring localities of that plant. I had, however, several large specimens in full leaf, and with unopened heads of flowers nearly mature; and also an old head of the former year, but without a single floret remaining. On closely examining my specimens, I found them to differ in so many important points (vide descrip., supra) from O. insignis, that I could hesitate no longer over them.
Its very peculiar and curiously margined leaves, together with their being subverticillate and densely clothed with coarse matted, almost floccose, wool,—and the soft flexible nature of its stout compressed and bracteate peduncles (which softness and flexibility they still retain in their dried state),—are striking characters.
In some particulars this plant has affinity with some of the Australian species of this genus.
Order XXVII. Halorageæ.
Genus 3. Gunnera, Linn.
Gunnera strigosa,825 sp. nov.
Plant low creeping, very diffuse, rooting at ends of runners and forming nodes, 2–6 inches apart; branches terete, hispid, coloured brown. Leaves upright and spreading, radical from nodes, 5–14 arising from a node, darkish-green, rough with minute whitish points, ¾ inch diameter, cordate, auricled, 5-nerved, which are each again forked at the tips with veinlets, anastomosing, nerves red-brown and very prominent below, 5–7-lobed, lobes crenate, mucronate; petioles ½–1¼ inch long, somewhat stout, channelled; strigose with flat adpressed linear white hairs, which are sub-acute and apiculate, and scattered on both sides, particularly on midrib and nerves petioles and runners, which are sometimes quite hoary with them. Flowers monœcious on long slender scapes (or peduncles), 3–4 inches long, 2–3 times longer than the leaves, 2–5 scapes to a plant or single node. Male flowers above in a simple spike sometimes occupying 5/6 of length of scape, produced alternately and distant; petals, 0; stamens, 2, sessile  or nearly so above, but pedicelled and diandrous below, the pedicels of these few lower ones 1–2 lines long, a little longer than the filaments, with an ovate-acuminate concave bract at their base, and a pair of minute bracteoles at the junction of the filaments with the pedicel; the upper ones also each having three small bracts at its base, one outer and two inner; bracts and bracteoles sparsely ciliated; anthers broadly cordate, apiculate, thick, dark-coloured. Female flowers produced below at base of scape, and for a short distance up it, those at and near the base subpaniculate and subcapitate on short branchlets each containing 3–5 flowers on very short pedicels, crowded; those few above on scape sessile or nearly so and distant, each flower bracteolate at base much as in the male flowers; ovaries, ovate, glabrous, their 2 calycine lobes bearing a few white strigose hairs; styles 2, very long, three times or more the length of ovary, subulate, spreading, densely hairy (pubescent-hirsute), hairs light brown, with some of the flat white strigose hairs scattered among them. Fruit, globular, about 1 line in diameter, glabrous, bright-red, bearing the two persistent calycine lobes of the ovary, which are divergent and black; drupes closely compacted into a head as big as a small cherry.
Hab. On clay banks in forest between Norsewood and Danneverke, Hawke’s Bay district, North Island, flowering in November, 1881–1882: W.C.
Obs. I.—The broad white and flat hairs plentifully scattered over this plant attracts at first sight the eye of the observer; under a microscope they present a peculiar vermicular appearance. The pair of minute bracteoles at the base of the pedicelled filaments of the lower male flowers,—and also within the larger outer bract of the upper and sessile ones,—seem to supply the place of calyx, unless we consider the outer single and larger bract as such, and then those inner and smaller ones as petals. In two or three instances I have noticed a still larger single bracteole (resembling the outer bract) on one of the pedicelled stamens, immediately below the anther.
Obs. II.—As a species this plant has pretty close affinity with G. monoica, Raoul; but, although monœcious like that species, is quite distinct; this is very clearly shown by comparison with his own full description with plate containing dissections, as given in his Choix de Plantes, p. 13, tab. 8. It is also allied to another New Zealand species, G. prorepens; to the only Tasmanian species, G. cordifolia; and to the Fuegian species, G. magellanica.
Order XXXVI. Loranthaceæ
Genus 1. Loranthus, Linn.
Loranthus punctatus,826 sp. nov.
A large bushy glabrous shrub, main stems 1–1½ inch in diameter. Branches terete, with light-grey bark filled with fine longitudinal cracks;  young branchlets semi-compressed, always dark red, very minutely roughish but not villous. Leaves opposite, decussate, distant, 6–8 lines apart, 1–1½ inch long, 6–8 lines broad, petiolate, broadly-lanceolate elliptic and subrhomboidal, obtuse, very coriaceous; colour a lively light green, both surfaces covered with very fine pale spots, midrib and veins obscure, primary veins opposite, veinlets reticulated, margins rough and coloured red with minute tubercles. Flowers light-vermillion red, single, suberect, expanding freely, 1¼ inch long, axillary on short stout peduncles. Calyx-tube conical, 2 lines long, limb very shallow, with 4 small teeth at the angles of the corolla. Corolla 4-angled at base and throughout two-thirds of its length, up to the insertion of the filaments, broadest at base, gradually contracted upwards, terete and swollen above. Petals somewhat linear, free, semitransparent, 2 lines broad at base, constricted at one-third of length from apex and there 1 line broad, obtuse and subspathulate at top, and grooved within for the anther. Filaments stout, flat. Anthers long, linear. Style very long, longer than anthers, straight. Stigma dark red, globular, slightly cleft, and finely papillose.
Hab. Parasitical on Fagus solandri (and other trees), Forty-mile Bush, near Norsewood, Hawke’s Bay district, North Island; flowering in November, 1876–1882: W.C.
Obs. I.—This is a fine bushy species, very full of branches, leaves, and flowers. It extends 5–6 feet each way in front from the tree in which it grows, and sometimes runs 9–10 feet in length, clasping the tree right round in several places, and thus appearing as if it were composed of two or three separate plants. Its leaves are usually disfigured with small round and raised hard swellings, which lumps appear on both sides, always punctured on the one side; sometimes 2–6–8 on a single leaf, the work of some insect.
Obs. II.—This plant has been long known to me, but, I fear, too often confounded with L. tetrapetalus (from my not having before seen it in its proper season of flowering, and through lack of close examination), to which species it is nearly allied, and in many respects closely resembles. Dissection, however, reveals its important differential characters, as given above.
Order LIII. Scrophularineæ.
Genus 7. Veronica, Linn.
Veronica trisepala,827 sp. nov.
Shrub small, glabrous, 2–3 feet high, with habit of V. buxifolia. Branchlets pubescent, transversely and regularly scarred 2 lines apart; hairs very thick and short, reddish, patent; bark light-reddish-brown. Leaves opposite, decussate, 4–8 lines long, 1½ lines broad, glabrous, not shining, oblong-lanceolate  acute, sub-dimidiate, sub-falcate, entire with 2–3 cuts or slight notches on each side near apex, thickish, opaque, under a lens thickly studded with very minute white spots on the under surface, somewhat concave, veins obscure, midrib strong, not keeled, petiolate, petioles 1 line long, slender. Flowers, sub-terminal and sub-capitate in corymbs much longer than the leaves, on 2–6 axillary peduncles ½ inch long, peduncles and pedicels pubescent, each peduncle or rhachis bearing 6–8 branched peduncles, each branched peduncle with 8–10 pedicels 1 line long, all bracteolate, bracteoles light-green, sessile, rather large, ovate-acuminate, obtuse and slightly ciliate. Sepals 3, about 1 line long, rather longer than tube, glabrous, very obtuse, margined, ciliate, upper sepal large and bifid. Corolla white with a faint tinge of light-blue, 4-lobed, spreading, 2½ lines long, 3 lines broad, lobes ovate, obtuse, tube under 1 line long. Stamens, filaments, and style equal, exserted, longer than corolla. Stigma simple. Anthers rather large, light-blue. Capsule (immature) 2 lines long, more than twice as long as the calyx, broadly elliptic, acute, flattish, glabrous, style persistent, long.
Hab. On the north end of Te Kaweka mountain range, near Napier. Discovered by Mr. A. Hamilton, 1881.
Obs.—This is another elegant shrubby species of this extensive genus, so well represented in New Zealand, and one that is so plainly distinct as not to be easily confounded with any other of our known and published species; its nearest relation is, I think, V. diosmœfolia, a tall slender northern species of widely different habit, and characters. I have little doubt of this plant becoming, also, a favourite in gardens.
Class II. Monocotyledons.
Order I. Orchideæ.
Genus 1. Earina, Lindley.
Earina quadrilobata,828 sp. nov.
Plant, small, low, of densely compact growth. Flowering stems usually short and sometimes bare of leaves, erect and pendulous, 6–10 in. long, compressed, slender, woody, brittle, of a light brownish-white colour, irregularly blotched and spotted with black. Leaves sub-erect, narrow, linear, 2–3 in. long, 1½ line wide at broadest part near base, flat, acuminate, acute, alternate, distant, sessile, clasping, glabrous, sub-coriaceous, dark green, entire, margined with a white line which with the midrib are semi-translucent, peculiarly embossed or sub-keeled with a longitudinal impression (in alto) 2 lines long on midrib lower side, ⅓ in. from apex. Flowers distant, sub-distichous, nodding, in simple 5–6-flowered racemes or loose panicles, each scape bearing 3–4 slender and distant racemes, each flower bracteolate, bracteoles clasping, striated, obtuse with a point, or broadly sub-rhomboidal  with 3 teeth or points, the middle one being the largest and most produced,829 usually an additional abortive flower arising from the uppermost bracteole; pedicels very short and slender included in the bracteoles; peduncle and sub-peduncles, 1–2 in. long, with 3 imbricated scarious bracts at base. Sepals and petals whitish with a primrose tint of yellow, membranaceous, nearly equal in length, 2 lines long; sepals erect obtuse, central one ovate, concave, margins entire, lateral obovate, margins irregularly and slightly jagged; petals a little larger than sepals, ovate-acuminate, obtuse, apiculate, sub-pellucid, strongly 1-nerved, slightly notched at margin; lip, sub-membranaceous, undulating and crisped, deflexed, 2 lines long, oblong-deltoid, 4-lobed, lobes sub-conniving, rotund, margins even, apices erose, sinuses broad, apex of lip deeply emarginate with a small central triangular recurved point or mucro (emarginatus cum acumine); colour, pure darkish-yellow (apricot colour), with a small blotch of purple-brown at base. Capsule, oblong, obtuse, 4 lines long, 1½ line broad, broadly ribbed and striated, glabrous, purple-brown; perianth persistent.
Hab. Among and on rocky boulders of conglomerate, immediate base of the Ruahine mountain range, east side, plentifully, but not in flower, 1845, where it grew in dense patches like grass; also, on open stony acclivities in sub-alpine forests, and epiphytical on trees, near Norsewood, district of Hawke’s Bay, 1878–1881; flowering in November: W.C. Heights of Mount Kaweka, near Napier, 1882: Mr. A. Hamilton.
A species having close affinity with E. mucronata, but it is a much smaller and more graceful plant, with fewer and differently formed flowers.
Genus 2. Dendrobium, Linn.
Dendrobium lessonii,830 sp. nov.
Plant epiphytal and terrestrial; an erect and pendulous, diffuse slender shrub, often much-branched; branches 6 inches to 4 feet long, wiry, terete, hard, and brittle; main stems ⅓ of an inch in diameter; colour of stems and branches, some darkish-umber-brown, and some bright yellow, glossy and horny, ringed with dark scar-like joints, ½–1 inch apart, under the dry scarious sheathing leaf-bracts, which long remain. Leaves, alternate, ¾–1¼ inch long, 1–2 lines broad, 3–6 lines apart, sub-linear-lanceolate, or sub-ovate-acuminate, broadest near base, sessile, spreading, often falcate and twisted, coriaceous, semi-rigid, smooth not glossy, pale or yellowish green, margins entire, obscurely 10-nerved, midrib sunk and obsolete, somewhat concave, suddenly slightly thickened on the under side 1–3 lines from apex, with a slight corresponding notch in each side, tip obtuse, vaginant, sheaths  truncate, longitudinally and regularly striated, and finely corrugated transversely. Flowers, white, membranaceous, few, scattered, usually 2 (sometimes only 1, very rarely 3) in a short loose raceme on a stoutish erect peduncle shorter than the leaves, always bursting at a right angle from the internode in the branchlet, and generally alternating with the leaves, never axillary nor opposite to a leaf; peduncle glabrous, shining, with 2–3 rather distant sheathing bracts, truncate and obtuse; pedicels, 2–3 lines long, bracteoles sheathing, acute; perianth nearly 1 inch in diameter, open, expanding, segments of equal lengths; sepals, ovate-acuminate, 5-nerved, margins entire, upper one the smallest, the 2 lateral ones with a very small round spur at their base; petals recurved, oblong-ovate, obtuse, with a minute point, margins also entire; labellum 3-lobed, the 2 lateral lobes small, oblong, obtuse, conniving, margins finely notched; middle lobe large, longer than broad, veined, sub-rotund (or sub-panduriform or broadly obovate), apiculate, margin sub-crenulate with a slight notch on each side, sides conniving, and 4 longitudinal elevated and shining green (or yellow-green), lamellæ near the base, which are bluntly toothed or crested; column slightly winged near apex, light green; pollen masses yellow. Ovary, 2–3 lines long, green, shining, obscurely striate.
Hab. In forests, Norsewood, Hawke’s Bay district, North Island, high up in the forks of pine trees (Podocarpus spicata), and sometimes on the ground in dry stony hills under Fagus trees, flowering in November; 1879–1882; also among rocks near the sea at Cape Turakirae (the south head of Palliser Bay), 1845–6: W.C.
Obs. I.—The main branches of this plant are often very regular and spread out flat, bearing a bi-tri-pinnate frond-like appearance, from the side branchlets of equal length springing at about equal distances from the main stem; a few leaves on stout and strong young shoots are 1¾ inch long and 2¼ lines broad; the branchlets and peduncles shoot alike erumpent at right-angles with the stem. Although I have (rarely) seen a raceme bearing 3 flower-buds, I have never seen one with all three open, the upper one seemed to be abortive; which is also often the case when there are but 2. In some flowers (on the same plant) the 2 lateral lobes and the extreme base of the middle lobe of the labellum, the throat and column, are dark pink; in a few others the same parts are slightly speckled with pink.
Obs. II.—I have long known this plant, and, though I early obtained specimens with a few unopened immature flowers from the rocks at Palliser Bay in 1845, and subsequently assiduously sought for good flowering specimens, I never detected any such until 1881, when my long previous suspicions of its proving to be distinct from the northern form (D. cunninghamii) were fully confirmed—I having well known and very often admired  and gathered that elegant species in its native forests, where it is often to be met with. There is much however at first sight, and with only immature flowering specimens, to confound this species with that plant; indeed, it is only by careful examination of several fresh specimens, dissection and comparison, that their specific differences are perceived, which are chiefly in the labellum, its form and the number and size of its lamellæ (which in D. cunninghamii are always 5); the colour, too, of its flowers is widely different, these are also smaller and much fewer in number, usually only 2 on a peduncle, and never assume the panicle form; and also its dwarf terrestrial habit.
Obs. III.—I believe this plant to be identical with the D. biflorum of A. Richard, which was originally discovered by Lesson, the naturalist of the French expedition under D’Urville, in Tasman’s Bay, Cook Straits, in 1827, and published by Lesson and Richard, with a very full description and a folio plate, in 1832; and, therefore, I have great pleasure in naming it after its original discoverer. That New Zealand species, however, was confounded by them with D. biflorum of Swartz, (then a very little known species, discovered by G. Forster when with Captain Cook in the Society Islands), which species, though very nearly allied, bears only two lamellæ on its labellum. On R. Cunningham re-discovering831 the Northern New Zealand plant, (which now bears his name,) it was described by Lindley with a plate,832 as being quite distinct from the D. biflorum of Swartz. Lindley, however, believed Richard’s New Zealand South Island plant to be identical with Cunningham’s North Island one, D. cunninghamii. And I think that Sir J.D. Hooker, subsequently adopting Dr. Lindley’s opinion, also believed Richard’s South Island plant to be the same as our Northern one; which it certainly closely resembles at first sight in many particulars, although Richard’s life-size plate with dissections shows a difference, particularly in its 4-crested labellum.