Stem stout (nearly as thick as a goose-quill), erect, reddish (light brickred), 10–16 in. high, 3–4 scarious bracts below, leafy in the upper half; leaves 6 in number, membranous, glabrous, shining, slightly spreading, alternate, 5–7 in. long, ½ in. broad, linear-acuminate, obscurely 2-nerved longitudinally, a little shorter than the flower, sessile, vaginant, very stoutly keeled, midrib thick 1 line wide, reddish. Flower membranaceous, striped white and green, rather large, 2–2¼ in. long including tails of sepals but excluding ovary, erect, lower lip of perianth ascending, ½ in. broad below  furcation, ending in two long and fine red tails 1¼ in. long, dorsal sepal with a very long red caudate apex much longer than the petals, and but a little shorter than those of the lower lip; petals somewhat falcate with a sharply produced abrupt angle on the upper edge, shortly acuminate and red-tipped, but without tails; labellum included, or but slightly exserted, oblong, emarginate, deflexed, 7 lines long, 3 lines broad, glabrous, membranous below and thickest at tip, striped green and white longitudinally with a dark red central line running towards tip, and there ending in a thick red callus not extending to margin; appendix more than 2 lines long, curved upwards, flat, bifid, and rather largely fimbriate (not villous), fimbriæ penicillate at tips; column taller than lip, wings large, each produced upwards in a long erect subulate point at the front angle, and downwards in an oblong auricle finely ciliated on the inner margins, white with a green transverse band. Ovary large, 1–1¼ in. long, sub-cylindrical, green, strongly 6-ribbed. Tuber large, white, rotund but much pitted and irregular, nearly an inch in diameter, resembling a very small and young round potato; rootlets several and stout, some proceeding from the stem 2 in. above the base.
Hab. In low forests, banks of streams descending from the east flank of Te Ruahine Mountain Range, 1847–1852; W.C.: also, in the forest at Te Aute, 1882; Mr. C. P. Winkelmann: and also in the forests at Hampden, 1882; Mr. S. W. Hardy: all localities in the Hawke’s Bay district, North Island.
Obs. I.—A truly fine species having affinity with Pt. banksii (and long overlooked as belonging to it), but differing from that species in several important particulars—such as “Pt. banksii—leaves numerous,produced much beyond the flowers, narrow, grassy; lip linear narrow; sepals and petals produced into very long filiform tails”—Flora N.Z.: and “labelli laminaobtusa”—Brown, Lindley, Cunningham, etc., etc.
Obs. II.—The whole of this truly natural genus, as represented in New Zealand, wants skilful revision from living specimens, or from good floral specimens preserved in spirits; particularly with reference to the formation, etc., of the delicate wings of the column, which vary in the different species; and which, while well worked up by Sir J.D. Hooker in his Flora Tasmaniæ (and subsequently by Bentham in his Flora Australiensis), seems to have been overlooked in both the Flora N.Z., and the more modern “Handbook.”
Order II. Irideæ.
Genus 1. Libertia, Sprengel.
Libertia orbicularis,834 sp. nov.
Rhizome and leafy base of stem very short; leaves almost radical, suberect, membranaceous somewhat sub-rigid in age, narrow linear-acuminate,  10–15 inches long, ¼ inch broad, margined white, many-nerved, finely serrulate at tips. Scape, stout, erect, 12–22 inches long, 1½ line in diameter, closely marked throughout (together with panicle and bases of ovaries) with very fine and small longitudinal red lines, bracteated with 2 foliaceous bracts nearly equidistant, lowest bract 5–7 inches long, margins of bracts finely serrulated at tips. Panicle, loose, 5 inches long, bearing 12–18 flowers, disposed in distant sub-corymbose sub-panicles of 2–5 flowers, bracts ovate acuminate; pedicels ½ inch long, each with a small scarious bracteole at base. Perianth, ¾ inch diameter; petals white orbicular, 4 lines diameter, retuse at apex, unguiculate with a very narrow unguis, spreading, slightly concave; sepals 2 lines long, elliptic, obtuse, tufted at apex with a few small spreading hairs, concave, coloured green and pink on the outside; stamens stout, connate with styles about 1 line from the base; anthers, oblong-ovate, obtuse, yellow; styles flat, slightly channelled, spreading; stigmas, minutely penicillate. Ovary (immature) 5 lines long, triquetrous, broadly obovate, truncate at apex. Seeds (mature) globular, very slightly and minutely pitted.
Hab. Dry sides of stony hills, margins of forests, between Norsewood and Danneverke, Hawke’s Bay district, North Island; flowering in November; W.C.: and, at Pohue, high hills near Petane, Napier; Mr. A. Hamilton.
A species having pretty close affinity with L. ixioides and L. grandiflora, but differing in its truly orbicular petals, tufted sepals, pencilled stigmas, globular seeds, and finely serrulate bracts and leaves; it also has affinity with the Australian species L. paniculata.
Order VII. Liliaceæ.
Genus 3. Cordyline, Comm.
Cordyline diffusa,835 sp. nov.
A large tufted diffuse herb. Leaves suberect and drooping, 4 feet 3 inches–4 feet 6 inches long (including petiole), 2½ inches broad, lanceolate, acute, margins entire, flat or slightly revolute, striated, many-nerved (40 each side of midribs), veins oblique, subcoriaceous, glabrous, midrib very stout, white, wide and flat on the upper surface, green round and very prominent on the lower, and vanishing several inches below apex, when young membranaceous and of a pleasing green, but yellowish-green when old and much torn at the tips; petiole 8 inches long from base of contraction of the blade, very stout and clasping. Scape very stout 2½ inches in circumference, somewhat triquetrous at base, angular and channelled above, smooth. Panicle (several from same plant) suberect and drooping, 4 feet long, including scape which is 6–7 inches long to lowest branchlet), very loose lax and diffuse, broadly ovate in outline, composed of several scattered and alternate subpanicles, 18–20 inches long,  and 8, 6, 4 inches apart, each with a large foliaceous bract at its base, the lowermost bract being 2 feet 6 inches long. Flowers (unexpanded) on very short pedicels almost sessile, scattered on the upper parts of the simple and distant filiform and subflaccid branchlets, which are 3–7 inches long, (no flowers on their lower portions save one, sometimes two, in the axil of the branchlet), crowded towards the tips in spike form, apparently small, three lines long, white tinged with blue on the outside of perianth at tips, segments nearly equal, linear-oblong, concave, obtuse and incurved at apices. Style one line long, stoutish, somewhat channelled towards apex; stigma trifid, spreading, each tip slightly bifid and papillose. Filaments stout, short. Anthers yellow, long linear obtuse. Three scariose bracteoles at base of pedicel, the lowermost two lines long, nearly the length of the unexpanded flower, deltoid-acuminate, strongly one-nerved, the intermediate one small and often nerveless, and the upper one also small and one-nerved, nerves brown; sometimes the middle and upper bracteoles are united, and then they form one broad bicuspidate bracteole. Ovary (immature) glabrous, subrotund, slightly angled, many-seeded.
Hab. On cliffy exposed edges, dry hilly forests between Norsewood and Danneverke, Hawke’s Bay district, North Island, 1881–1882; flowering in November: W.C.
Obs.—This plant grows in large clumps, much like the larger terrestrial. Astelia (e.g. A. fragrans, mihi, infra), and the narrow-leaved species of Phormium (P. colensoi). It seems to have close affinity with C. banksii, (originally detected by me in the neighbouring forests), but is not arboreous like that species; as well as with C. pumilio, in the free disposition of its panicle and its herbaceous habit.
Cordyline sturmii,836 sp. nov.
Plant arboreous, 14–15 feet high, diameter of trunk at base 8 inches; bark—of lower trunk brownish and slightly rough and cracked,—of branches grey, smoothish, with darker regular markings from scars of fallen leaves, but not rough; branched at top in 3 long erect branches. Leaves very closely set and numerous, squarrose, broadly-lanceolate, acute, sessile, 2 feet 6 inches long, 4 inches broad at the middle, sub-membranaceous, tender, easily broken and torn by the winds, etc., margins entire, flat, slightly sub-revolute, apices of young leaves tightly rolled upwards (in-curved), wholly green on both surfaces, obliquely closely and regularly nerved, midrib 0, nerved over the place of midrib on the upper surface by fine longitudinal nerves, finely sub-striate, the blade decurrent gradually to the base, with no apparent petiole, and there 1 inch wide at the narrowest, and 1½ inch at the extreme base, which is dilated, thick, half-clasping and sub-articulated. Flowers in a sub-terminal compact thyrsoid panicle, 20 inches long, 9 inches  broad, oblong, obtuse; rhachis and main branchlets stout, angled and channelled, glabrous, dark green, length of flowering stem below the flowers 5 inches, and 2½ inches in circumference, triquetrous, flat on top, sub-succulent not woody; sub-panicles rather distant on rhachis, not crowded, erect, alternate, disposed in a tristichous manner, each 6–9 inches long, axial branchlet always much the longest; bracts at bases of sub-panicles foliaceous, lowest 6½ inches long, 1 inch broad at the middle, ovate-acuminate, acute; bracteoles within bract at base of branchlet, short, broadly deltoid, acute, extending and sub-clasping around the base, closely including the 2–3 flowers there. Flowers numerous throughout on all the branches but not crowded, generally 3 together at lowest angle of junction of branchlet, 1 on each side and 1 above. Flowers, short pedicels, and very small floral bracteoles wholly white; pedicels bi-bracteolate; bracteoles very small, nerveless, less than a line long, the lower one deltoid acute, the upper somewhat cup-shaped and surrounding the pedicel on three sides, the margin irregular mostly with two small teeth or points. Perianth with a very slight greenish tinge on the outside before unfolding, 5 lines diameter, stellate; segments nearly equal, thickish, linear, obtuse, scarcely 2 lines long; sepals recurved; anthers linear, obtuse, small; filaments stout flat, linear, acute; style stoutish, cylindrical, slightly flexuose; stigma trifid; flowers fragrant. Fruit (ripe, of last year) reddish, glabrous, shining, bearing the persistent remains of the perianth, sub-globose, depressed at top, tri-lobed, 3 lines in diameter, each cell containing several (4–6) black, glossy, sub-reniform, sharply-angled and closely-packed seeds.
Hab. Forests, in the mountainous interior, near Lake Waikare, North Island.
Obs.—This fine new species of Cordyline, I may say, I have long known; and I ought to have described and published it before, having had ample living specimens, both flowering and fruiting, at command, in the nurseries of Mr. Sturm, at Clive, who, many years ago, brought the seeds of it from the mountain forests, and from them raised the plants in his gardens, where they have attained to a great height, if not to their full size. This description is mainly drawn up from plants of his own raising, aided by a young one of a few years old in my own garden, for the apices, etc., of the leaves, which in the larger plants are very rarely unbroken and torn. It is very distinct from any of our described New Zealand species of this genus, also from all other (known) published ones. A flowering panicle presents a fine sight, from the thick, solid, firm, and waxy appearance of its numerous white flowers, pedicels, and floral bracts, heightened by the dark-green back-ground of their stout glabrous branches. The leaves of this plant are very much broader and thinner than those of C. australis, and are, also, not  so erect above and drooping below, and present a much more squarrose and bulky appearance. Mr. Sturm very kindly brought me a large flowering branch from his tree, that I might have good specimens for examination and drying; I regret, however, that while it has some hundreds of leaves (a perfect crown) there is not one sound unbroken leaf among them! The stem portion of this branch brought to me is 2 feet long, 5 inches in circumference at the lower end, and 6 inches a little below the leaves; it is perfectly cylindrical and semi-succulent (something like a large and long cabbage stump), not woody, and has a smooth mottled ring, as described above; this branch was taken from the trunk lower down. Mr. Sturm further informs me that the said parent tree has annually for several years past produced one erect flowering panicle similar to this one (supra), only a little larger, and that the tree is now giving out several young branches (shoots) from above under its leaves, and also shoots from its trunk in various places; much after the manner of the other arboreous species of our New Zealand Cordylines.
I have very great pleasure in naming this plant after Mr. F. W.C. Sturm, its discoverer and fortunate raiser, who honourably deserves it; Mr. Sturm is a well-known botanist and very early energetic settler here on the East Coast and at Hawke’s Bay.
Order VII. Liliaceæ.
Genus 5. Astelia, Banks and Solander.
Astelia fragrans,837 sp. nov.
Plant terrestrial, large, robust, bushy, spreading, suberect, and slightly drooping at tops. Leaveslinear-lanceolate, very acuminate, 6½ feet long, 2 inches broad about the middle, margins flat, entire, keeled, thickish (particularly at the main nerves), subrigid, glabrous on both surfaces, with a slight adpressed white scurf below, and some long loose white hairs at the bases, many-nerved, with 2 strong and thick equidistant red nerves or ribs more than 1 line wide running throughout, very stout, and largely prominent on both sides; colour light-green (and in age yellow-green), soon splitting and decaying at tips. Flowers in a panicle, dark green shining with purple segments, very fragrant, completely hidden among the leaves. Male: scape 2 feet long, very stout, triquetrous, 3 inches in circumference, erect, 9 inches to first branch of panicle, shaggy at base, with loose white hairs, ¾ inch long, flat, membranaceous and longitudinally veined, clothed above with adpressed matted hairs; panicle stout, open, subpanicles alternate, lowest with 7 branchlets, next 6, next 5, and so on, everywhere dotted with minute purple dots, which extend to pedicels and perianth. Flowers numerous, 6–7 lines diameter; on short stout bracteolate pedicels, scattered on angled and loosely-shaggy racemose spikes, 3–7 inches long; bracteoles on the tops of the spikes (in both m. and f.), much longer than their flowers; lobes of perianth closely reflexed to pedicel, large, ovate-oblong, obtuse, 2½ lines long, purple, finely striate, glabrous, slightly scurfy on the out-side; filaments robust, 2 lines long, stellate, patent, white, succulent; anthers oblong, dark brown; bracts of subpanicles very large and spathe-like, ovate-acuminate, the lowermost 40 inches long, and 3 inches wide at base, largely ribbed and veined as in leaves, also thickly coloured with minute purple dots, making them to appear wholly purple at their bases, and closely clothed below on both sides with soft adpreased white hairs; panicle and scape weighing 17 ounces. Female: scape 15 inches long, erect and stout as in male, 6 inches to lowermost subpanicle, which, however, contains but 6 branchlets, and so on decreasingly with the others; panicle shorter and more compact than in male (more thyrse-like), branchlets much shorter, subcompressed and less villous, almost quite glabrous, shining and wearing a subpapillose appearance, whole colour, including ovaries, a very dark green; segments of perianth very small, deltoid, obtuse, recurved, purple and striate as in male, the three outer larger than the three inner and imbricating at bases; ovary subrotund, ⅓ exserted, shining, slightly angular; style none; stigmas 3, large, distinct, orbicular, sessile, papillose; barren anthers very small, only just appearing at bases of segments; bracteoles purple and longer than in male; the whole female scape weighs 14 ounces, with ovaries immature.
Hab. In low wet boggy grounds, and on dry shady hillsides, in open parts of the forest near Norsewood, Hawke’s Bay district, North Island, 1876–1882; flowering October and November: W.C.
Obs.—This fine plant has been long known to me in its general appearance, having often seen it; but never until this year did I obtain good flowering specimens. The flowers, however, are completely concealed within its thickly set and long bushy leaves; in this respect differing from most of the other known species of this genus. Their fragrant honey-like smell (of both m. and f.) is very pleasing and lasting, and no doubt serves to draw the smaller insects to them.
Order XI. Cyperaceæ.
Genus 13. Uncinia, Persoon.
Uncinia horizontalis,838 sp. nov.
Culms 10–12 inches long, slender, smooth, triquetrous. Leaves numerous shorter than the culms, 9–10 inches long, 1 line broad, flat, margins scabrid, tips obtuse. Spikelets 1–1½ inch long, 2 lines broad, tristichous, upper 3–4 lines male; bract, 4–7 inches long, foliaceous, very narrow (almost filiform), canaliculated and nerved, margins scabrid, with very fine longitudinal scaberulous rows running below on the nerves. Glumes 8 lines long,  lax, ovate-acuminate, keeled, with a green longitudinal stripe down the centre (afterwards brown), slightly transversely wrinkled, margins white chaffy. Utricle smooth, as long as the glume, ovate-acuminate, 3-nerved, swollen in the middle; bristle, excurved, twice as long as the glume, light-brown.
Hab. In Fagus woods, Norsewood, Hawke’s Bay district, North Island; flowering early in November, 1881: W.C.
Obs.—Plant wholly light green and very cæspitose, but spreading out flat in a circle, with the culms beyond the leaves.
Uncinia alopecuroides,839 sp. nov.
Plant, 2 feet 6 inches high, much branched at base, ascending, diffuse. Culms, 11–12 inches high, smooth, erect, leafy throughout with 4–5 leaves, trigonous (or multangular) with 3 raised longitudinal lines on each face. Leaves much longer than the culms, 1 foot 9 inches—2 feet long, 2 lines wide at widest part near base, linear, grass-like, flat, flaccid, very acuminate, dark green, nerved, striated, keeled, serrulate at margins, and finely and regularly scabrid on lines of nerves on both surfaces and on the midrib below, channelled towards tips, which are somewhat dilated and obtuse and thickly serrulated, at the base is a small broad sub-rotund bifid ligula; the short leaf-like bracts at the bases of the stems and the sheathing bases of the leaves are dark brown and regularly striated, the striæ broad and flat. Spikelet long, slender, terete, acuminate, 5½ inches long, the upper male portion 1¾ inch long, closely imbricated but less so at the base; bract of various lengths 1–5½ inches long, filiform, obtuse, 1-nerved, scabrid at edges and at the obtuse tip. Glumes narrow-linear-ovate, 2½ lines long, nerved, pale with a green central stripe, somewhat glossy, margins chaffy, tip membranaceous obtuse, white, with two brown crescent-like transverse bars, or bands, just below it. Utricle slender, lanceolate-acuminate, length of glume, pale, smooth; bristle longer than utricle, slender, pale, excurved. Stamens and anthers very long, linear. Styles spreading very rough (setose-like).
Hab. Forests, with the preceding species: W.C.
Obs.—From the form of its long spikelet, somewhat resembling that of Alopecurus agrestis, has been derived its specific name.
Genus 14. Carex, Linn.
Carex spinirostris,840 sp. nov.
Plant densely cæspitose. Culms leafy, obscurely triquetrous, slender, smooth, 10–11 inches long. Leaves much longer than the culms, 2 feet 6 inches–2 feet 9 inches long, ⅙th of an inch wide, linear-acuminate and very acute at tip, rather flat, sub-membranaceous, striate, keeled, drooping, dark-green, slightly scabrous, with finely and closely serrulated margins. Spikelets 7, slender, cylindrical, rich reddish-brown; 3 lower very distant, nearly 2 inches apart, 1¼ inch long (or more), and compound or subpanicled, unisexual, female, save 1 or 2 male flowers at the base, nodding; 4 upper crowded and shorter (except the top one which is 2 inches long), unisexual, male, but having a few female flowers at the top of spikelets. Bracts very long, 2 lowest foliaceous and much longer than the culm, the upper ones setaceous and reaching to about the length of the culm, all very scabrid; each bract having a pair of long membranaceous linear-oblong bracteoles (or sub-ligulæ) at base and clasping the peduncle. Peduncles filiform, wiry, angled, and scabrid. Glumes oblong, much longer and broader than the utricle, shining, truncate, and fimbriate at tip, nerved, edges membranaceous, cuspidate or awned, the beak, or awn, stout, green (some white), very long (1 line, and some more), very coarsely barbed. Utricle glabrous, sub-oblong-ovate, brown, bicuspidate, cusps spreading, barbed. Stigmas 3, light-brown, rough, half-exserted, spreading at tips. Filaments and anthers very long; filaments white, flaccid and much wrinkled; anthers linear, apioulate at tip, reddish-brown.
Hab. In Fagus forests, near Norsewood, with the preceding Unciniæ: W.C.
Class III. Cryptogamia.
Order V. Hepaticæ.
Genus 30. Symphyogyna, Mont. and Nees.
Symphyogyna biflora,841 sp. nov.
Plant, terrestrial, gregarious, each plant simple, erect, stipitate, the largest under 1 inch long; roots short hairy; stipe 4–6 lines long, subflexuose, compressed, winged above, 2-nerved from the base of frond; nerves very distinct; frond, decurrent on the stipe, 3–5 lines long, 7–9 lines broad at base, mostly branching at base into two main divisions, each division once or twice dichotomous, symmetrical, kidney-shaped in outline, sometimes palmate, glabrous, pellucid, very finely reticulated; colour, light-green; segments linear, or linear-spathulate, 1 line broad, very obtuse, rounded at apex, deeply emargiuate with sides conniving, nerved to base of notch, margins finely serrate; teeth long falcate and transversely barred; sinuses rounded; fructification in axils of nerves near base of frond beneath, generally two on each plant, symmetrical; involucre a small narrow oblong scale in front of calyptra, jagged at margin; in a few of the largest plants, two additional involucres have been noticed, one at the base of each upper pair of nerves: calyptra tubular, 3–3½ lines long, bifid at apex, margins fimbriate: peduncle 1 inch long, erect, chartaceous, white: capsule 2 lines long, linear-oblong, cylindric, acute, 4-valved, abounding in long elaters; colour, rich red-brown. 
Hab. On clayey banks, “Seventy-mile Bush,” between Norsewood and Danneverke: W.C.; Glenross: Mr. D. P. Balfour; (North Island): near Blenheim (South Island): Mr. F. Reader.
Although at first sight this species may appear very near to S. hymenophyllum, S. flabellata and S. leptopoda, and also to my new species S. rugulosum, there are many points of distinction between them. It is a much smaller plant with a shorter stipe, each simple frond being also a perfect plant and not rising from a creeping rhizome,—which, those four species severally do. It further differs from S. flabellata, S. leptopoda, and S. rugulosum, in having serrated margins; and from S. hymenophyllum (which has serrated margins), in its serratures or teeth being much larger and closer, and in the divisions and outline of its frond, in the shape of its segments, their apices and sinuses, and most distinctly in its very minute areolation. Fortunately I have been able to examine a large suite of specimens, from Hawke’s Bay district, and from Blenheim (South Island); and am also well acquainted with all the known New Zealand species of this genus.
[Obs. In describing the fructification, I have added this word—“beneath”—for clearness; although it properly belongs to the generic description, which character, however, is not given in its place, in the short description of the genus in the “Handbook,” nor in the “Flora of New Zealand.” From my too closely following what is said in the “Handbook,”—at the close, under “Additions, Corrections,” etc.,—“a new arrangement of the New Zealand genera of Hepaticæ by Mitten,” (p. 752)—I fell into an error three years ago in describing, or rather in partly naming, another new and closely allied species, S. rugulosum, mihi;842 as there the genus is shortly characterized by Mitten as having the “Calyptra on upper side of often stipitate frond,” which, of course, can only mean its ventral surface; and Metzgeria, the next genus in sequence, is said by him to have the “Calyptra on the under side of frond,” Sir J.D. Hooker, however, in his “Key to the Genera of the New Zealand Hepaticæ,” (“Handbook,” p. 500), gives as a character of this genus,—“Involucre a toothed scale dorsal:” and so again, in his “Flora N.Z.,” vol. ii., p. 127,—Symphyogyna, Calyptra dorsal, etc.:” and in his “Flora Tasmaniæ,” vol. ii., p. 239, he further says, under Symphyogyna rhizobola, (which had also been erroneously described by Dr. Taylor as having its “Calyptra ventral,”) “the fructification is truly dorsal, as in all others of the genus.” And so it is stated in the “Synopsis Hepaticorum”: but all this I did not fully know three years ago, until after I had described S. rugulosum, (although at that time I had doubts about it, as my paper will also show), being led astray, as I take it, by the latest published authority on Hepaticæ.]