Plant a small diœcious parasitical diffuse shrub; branches long, straight, terete, jointed, 2 feet–2 feet 6 inches long, bark light greenish-grey, somewhat scurfy, not smooth; branchlets opposite, sub-compressed, densely covered with light-brown obtuse patent rigid sub-glandular pubescence; young leaves and flowers enclosed in dark brown scale-like bracts, 2–4 lines long, deltoid and obovate, obtuse with fimbriate margins, 3-nerved, middle nerve long, lateral ones short. Leaves (male plant) few, opposite, distant, sub-rhomboid and rhomboid-obovate, obtuse, 3 inches long, 2 inches broad; (female plant) leaves much smaller, sub-rhomboid and broadly oblong-lanceolate, 1½ inches long, ¾ inch broad, sub-membranaceous, not thick or fleshy, green, smooth, not shining, undulate, decurrent nearly to base of petiole; petioles short, under 2 lines long, and with midrib thickly pubescent, margins sub-sinuate, slightly scaberulous or sub-papillose (of young leaves minutely pubescent-ciliate); veins prominent above, veinlets anastomosing. Flowers terminal on short axillary branchlets, panicled; panicles short, dense, having, in the female plant especially, a sub-umbellate appearance, about 1 inch long, each containing 6–12 flowers, peduncles and pedicels pubescent, sub-panicles and pedicels bracteolate at base, bracteoles linear-ovate, about 1 line long, recurved, caducous; lower sub-panicles bearing 2–3, sometimes (but rarely) 4 flowers each: male flower on much larger  and more open panicles than the fem., petals 4, spreading, 4 lines diameter, somewhat sub-spathulate or sub-obovate, obsoletely 1-nerved, light yellowish-green, tips sub-cucullate and slightly pubescent-ciliate; filaments spreading, rather longer than the anthers; anthers broadly-oblong, apiculate; pedicels 3 lines long, jointed: female flower glabrous, shining, very small, 1 line diameter, petals 4 (sometimes 3 or 5), linear-lanceolate, acute, obscurely 1-nerved, spreading and reflexed, tips obtuse incurved, margins minutely pubescent; light yellowish-green; style long, exserted; stigma capitate, large, sub-globular, depressed, obscurely lobed, light-yellow. Fruit a drupe, broadly-elliptic, smooth, pink thickly spotted or splashed with dark pink, retaining large discoidal scar from style; pedicels 1½–2 lines long; pulp very viscid; the panicle becoming very much elongated when in fruit.
Hab. Parasitical on Panax arboreum, Petane Valley, near Napier, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton; flowering in September, and bearing the ripe last year’s fruit at the same time.
Obs.—It is not without some considerable amount of hesitation that I announce this plant as a sp. nov. of this peculiar and variable genus of (hitherto) only one species; but it differs so much in bark and leaf, in flower and fruit, from T. antarctica, that I cannot but consider it to be truly distinct. In its general appearance also it widely differs, being a much larger plant of more straggling growth, while the constant and great difference in its dark-coloured and more oblong-shaped fruit, and undulated adult leaves (resembling those of Myrsine d’urvillei) is apparent at first sight. I have had plenty of good specimens for examination. The plant emits a peculiarly strong odour in drying (reminding me of that of green figs when peeled), remaining fixed for some time in the many thicknesses of drying papers.
Order XXXVIII. Rubiaceæ.
Genus 1. Coprosma, Forster.
Coprosma concinna,905 sp. nov.
A small erect shrub, 2–4 feet high, of irregular growth, thickly branched above, branches slender, spreading; bark smooth, yellowish-brown; branchlets short, opposite and decussate, but distant, spreading at right angles, filiform, arcuate, pubescent; leaves few, scattered, 3–4 lines diameter, sub-membranaceous, orbicular trowel-shaped and broadly elliptic, very obtuse, sometimes sub-apiculate, slightly sub-crenulate, glabrous, light-green dashed with yellowish spots, margined, foveolate beneath in axils of lower veins and midrib, blade abruptly decurrent, petiole 1 line long and (with lower half of midrib) hirsutely pubescent, veins (and margins) red, finely reticulate; stipules acuminate acute, pubescent. Flowers very small, membranaceous,  glabrous, greenish with purple spots: male, calyx excessively minute, corolla campanulate spreading, tubevery short, teethrather large, obtuse, minutely pubescent at tips; filaments long, scaberulous, anthers oblong-ovate, exserted, sub-apiculate, cordate at base; mostly singly, infra-axillary and below, and lateral: female, flowers excessively small, minute; calyx cup-shaped with 4 short teeth, very hirsutely pubescent, hairs white; corolla much smaller than male, about ½ line long, tube slightly funnel-shaped, teeth 4 oblong ovate, revolute, (sometimes only 2) pubescent; styles, 2, very long, spreading, flexuose, stout, densely pubescent. Drupes underneath on lateral branchlets, always under 2 or 4 leaves, globose, shining, 2 lines diameter, dark port-wine colour, often 4–6, sometimes 10–18, together in a dense semi-cluster; fruit-stalks very short, opposite each other on the branchlet. Stipules below the fruit, small spreading irregular, pubescent on both sides and ciliate, usually having a long connate pair, sub-spathulate or oblong rounded at tips and 1-nerved, clasping the fruit, like a little involucel; each berry bearing 2 seeds 1½ lines long, largely convex, sub-ovoid, slightly acute.
Hab. Dry woods between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, where it is plentiful, 1876–1883: W.C.
Obs.—Sometimes a shrub is met with bearing red berries (like small red currants in size and colour); a fully fruited shrub is a pleasing neat-looking object. As a species it will rank naturally near to C. tenuicaulis, rhamnoides, and divaricata.
Genus 2. Nertera, Banks and Solander.
Nertera pusilla,906 sp. nov.
Plant a very small perennial herb, low and prostrate, of densely compact (almost mossy) growth, closely intermixed with other small plants, setosely hispid with long white hairs, much branched below and creeping underground; branches woody, rooting at nodes; stems wiry, 1–2 inches high, erect, tips of branchlets level. Leaves sub-orbicular and broadly ovate, spreading, membranous with muricated white dots on upper surface, 1½–2 lines long, obtuse, slightly decurrent, hispid on both surfaces and coarsely ciliate; hairs flat with raised bases (glands) on upper surface; veins anastomosing; petioles slender, 1 line long, connate at base; Stipulesvery minute, linear, acute, entire. Flowers lightish-brown or yellowish, longer than the leaves, very few, solitary, scattered, sub-terminal and axillary, fugacious; corolla infundibuliform, 3½ lines long, hispid without and densely echinate at top, tube very slender; hairs white at first, reddish-brown afterwards; teeth rather large, acute; filaments very long, wiry, spreading, and twisting, white at first, black afterwards; anthers large, linear-oblong, much apiculate at tip, cordate at base, auricles acute sagittate; styles 2, exserted (but  not largely), one-third the length of filaments, very pubescent; fruit small, about 1 line long, very hispid, sessile, dry, oval, ribbed, truncate with minute persistent crown of 4–6 calycine teeth, 2 of them being usually much longer and opposite.
Hab. On dry upland heaths between Matamau and Danneverke (with Viola perexigua and Myosotis pygmæa), 1882–83: W.C.
Obs.—A species having close affinity with N. setulosa, Hook. fil.
Genus 3. Galium, Linn.
Galium erythrocaulon,907 sp. nov.
Plant small, tender, cæspitose, upright, usually 3–5 inches high, simply branched at base; stems below and rootlets bright red and naked, stems above membranaceous, ciliated or hairy, with distant, white, acute, recurved hairs. Leaves very small in whorls of four, sub-rotund-elliptic, ½–1½ lines long, 1 line broad or less, mucronate, very membranaceous, light green blotched with yellow, hairy on both sides, largely and distantly ciliate, spreading, sub-sessile, and very shortly petiolate, whorls distant on stalks, veins anastomosing. Flowers few, mostly solitary in axils of upper leaves, sometimes two on long divergent pedicels united together near base on a very short peduncle, very rarely three on one peduncle, and, when so, then bracteolated at junction, and the middle pedicel much the longest, simple peduncles and pedicels much longer than leaves, sometimes twice as long, upright; corolla rather large, 4-parted, pink, somewhat inflated and concave, segments broadly deltoid-ovate, 3-nerved, with three lines of erect minute pubescence within on the nerves, tips sub-acute incurved; ovarium glabrous. Fruit of two globose minute carpels, dark-brown, rugulose and finely muricated with black points.
Hab. Stony declivities, skirts of dry woods between Norsewood and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1879–1882: W.C.
Obs.—When I first detected this plant in 1879, I supposed it to be a small variety of G. umbrosum, although its rather large and pink flowers differed considerably from those of that species, which are minute and white; these characters, however, I thought to be abnormal. Subsequently (in 1882), on again meeting with this plant in another and distant locality, I gathered, examined and compared it, and now I believe it to be a distinct species. It is certainly distinct from A. Cunningham’s G. propinquum, as described by him in his “Prodromus” (a New Zealand and northern species, which I also knew at the North), which Sir J.D. Hooker has united with Forster’s G. umbrosum, as being identical with that plant. Moreover, Sir J.D. Hooker says (in his “Handbook”), that he doubts if G. umbrosum is really different from his Tasmanian species, G. ciliare;  however that may be, one thing is certain, that G. ciliare (of which Sir J.D. Hooker has given a drawing and dissections in his Flora Tasmaniæ) is very distant from this species, G. erythrocaulon.
Order XXXIX. Compositæ.
Genus 10. Craspedia, Forster.
Craspedia viscosa,908 sp. nov.
Plant a simple perennial herb, bearing a single slender unbranched scape; whole plant viscid. Leaves, 4–6 at base, flat, spreading, sub-spathulate, entire, sessile, lamina extending to scape, membranous, glabrous with minute raised viscid dots, very slightly ciliate with white floccose hairs, apiculate, olive-green, trinerved; veinlets anastomosing. Scape erect, 8–16 inches high, bearing 10–12 leaf-like ovate-acuminate sessile bracts, alternate at about equal distances, lowest the largest, 1½ inches long, and gradually decreasing in size upwards. Compound head of flowers broadly sub-conical, with hairs as long as (or longer than) florets, ½–¾ inch diameter, upright, greyish; corollas slender, usually 3 in a head, each 3 lines long, tube greenish, dilated at base, petals tinged with red; involucral scales ovate, acute, 1-nerved, scarious at edges, outermost thickly muricated with minute raised dots, and pubescent in the centre; pappus very numerous, main stems of plumose pappus very broad at their bases; achene linear-ovate, shining, strigillose, slightly subangular, with a thickened areole at base having a hollow central depression.
Hab. Open spots, and among Leptospermum shrubs, dry hills near Matamau (S.), Waipawa County, 1881–1883: W.C.
Obs.—This species differs in habit from the two more showy species (N.Z.) already described, in not bearing its compound head of florets globular like a ball; the head is always upright, even after flowering, and confined within its involucral scales.
Genus 14. Gnaphalium, Linn.
Gnaphalium parviflorum,909 sp. nov.
Plant a slender perennial herb, prostrate, spreading, sub-ascending, much branched, rooting at joints; forming dense little beds or cushions where undisturbed. Ultimate branchlets filiform, 6–9 inches long, very cottony; leaves sub-imbricate above and distant on stems below, 3–4 lines long, oval, apiculate with a short stout coloured mucro, entire, sessile, decurrent, very nearly wholly embracing the stem, alternate, regular, white and densely cottony below, very slightly so above, upper surface bright green, floccosely ciliated with white tomentum, midrib prominent and stout below. Heads of flowers few, solitary, 2½ lines broad on a filiform peduncle 2 inches long, terminal on branchlets, bearing 1–2 small bracts; involucral scales numerous, all green with golden coloured and shining scarious edges and tips, obscurely  nerved; inner, linear, glabrous, tips lacerate and ciliate with white cottony tomentum; outer, broadly oval, coloured with a carmine border round the green centre, and very cottony; tips of corollas tinged with red; receptacle concave, deeply and minutely punctured; achene very small, linear, finely scaberulous, truncate at base with an acicular central point.
Hab. With the preceding plant (Craspedia viscosa), 1879–1883: W.C.
Obs.—I have long known this plant in its leafing state, and have often sought diligently for its flowers, but failed in securing perfect specimens until this year. In its general appearance at first sight it closely resembles G. filicaule. It grows very thickly and luxuriantly where undisturbed, but only produces very few heads of flowers.
Order L. Boragineæ.
Genus 1. Myosotis, Linn.
Myosotis pygmæa,910 sp. nov.
A very small strigose-hispid sparingly branched perennial (and annual) herb; stems, 1–3, short, ¾–1¼ inches long, prostrate, spreading from root; leaves few, radical petiolate, cauline sessile, obovate-spathulate, ½-inch long, very obtuse, thickish, mostly brownish-liver-coloured, strigose above with large rigid white hairs arising from muricated points, ciliated; the lower surface of radical leaves glabrous, green, midrib very stout; flowers solitary, axillary, sessile, 2–3 only on a branch in the axils of upper leaves; calyx large, inflated, hispid and ciliate with long white hairs, lobes very long, acute, spreading, ciliate; corolla pale yellow, tube cylindric, shorter than calyx, lobes rather large, rounded; stamens included; nut ovoid, convex on the one side and sub-carinated on the other with a slight compressed margin, turgid, obtuse, glabrous, shining, brown-black.
Hab. On dry upland open heaths (with Viola perexigua, supra), between Matamau and Danneverke, Waipawa County, 1882–83: W.C.
Obs.—This little plant grows sparingly there, though from its small size and retiring habit it is easily overlooked; besides it is very early dried up and withered. I think I have also found it nearly 40 years ago, but only as an annual, growing on the pebbly beach, a little above high-water mark, between Napier and the mouth of the river Ngaruroro. It seems to be allied to M. antarctica, Hook. fil., but is distinct.
Order LV. Lentibularieæ.
Genus 1. Utricularia, Linn.
Utricularia subsimilis,911 sp. nov.
A very small slender erect herb. Roots rather short, flat, white, semi-transparent, hair-like, with small scattered globular hyaline bladders, much fimbriated on the one side. Leaves few (2–3), basal, linear-spathulate, obtuse, 1-nerved, entire, 6–8 lines long; lamina short, about 1 line broad,  green; petioles white, semi-transparent, flat. Scape 2–3½ inches high, simple, filiform; flowers 1 (sometimes, but rarely, 2, only one such specimen seen), pedicels very slender, about ½ line long, bracts at top of scape 5, ovate-acuminate; sepals large, inflated, sub-orbicular in outline, the upper one very slightly sinuate, margins entire; corolla purple, strongly-veined, 3–4 lines diameter, upper lip small, cuneate, retuse, the lower one somewhat circular in outline (i.e., presenting the broad segment of a circle), entire.
Obs.—This species seems to have some slight affinity with U. lateriflora, Br., a Tasmanian species. Some allowance will have to be made for my description of the corolla of this plant, as I find it almost an impossibility to dissect it satisfactorily when in a dried state, particularly when the specimens have been closely pressed.
Order LXX. Cupuliferæ.
Genus 1. Fagus, Linn.
Fagus apiculata,912 sp. nov.
A tall handsome tree, 40 feet (and more) high, erect, of symmetrical shape; trunk 2 feet diameter; bark of trunk pale, smoothish; branches opposite, regular, horizontal, plane, spreading, bark darkish brown, studded with lighter coloured spots; branchlets pubescent. Leaves not crowded, rather distant, regularly disposed, sub-membranaceous, glabrous, broadly oblong-lanceolate, 1 inch long, entire, minutely crenulate, finely reticulated, margined, strongly apiculate, the point hard, obtuse, petiolate, slightly and finely pubescent on petioles and beneath; colour light-green; petioles 1–1½ lines long; bracts, outer glabrous, brown, shining, ovate-acuminate,—inner green, narrower and longer, obtuse, with scarious and ciliate edges. Male flowers lateral, on smaller slender branchlets, single, alternate, 2–4 (or more) near each other; peduncle slender, 2–2½ lines long, red, glabrous, or with a few weak scattered hairs; perianth cup-shaped, inflated, glabrous, whitish with pink margin, semi-pellucid, veined, largely 5-toothed, teeth obtuse; anthers 12–14, linear-oblong, apiculate, loosely exserted on long flat slender filaments, nodding. Female flowers (immature), small, axillary, sessile in axil of leaf above the male flowers, ovate, downy; styles brown, exserted.
Hab. In forests between Matamau and Danneverke, County of Waipawa, 1883: W.C.
Obs.—The discovery of this very distinct species of Fagus has much pleased me, as it supplies a required link between our known New Zealand species with large serrated leaves (F. fusca and F. menziesii) and our small entire leaved species (F. solandri and F. cliffortioides), and also between  them and the Tasmanian and S. American species, which all have serrated leaves. The growth, habit and general appearance of this species (F. apiculata); with its thin and scattered leaves and flattened spreading branches, is very much like that of the northern variety of F. fusca, from Kaitaia near the North Cape, which I have ever supposed to be distinct from the Fagus of the East Coast (Poverty Bay), as well as from the plant of Whangarei (Bream Bay);913 though at present those three (vars.?) are all classed under F. fusca. I have never, however, seen the northernmost plant in flower or fruit.
Class II. Monocotyledons.
Order I. Orchideæ.
Genus 3. Bolbophyllum, Thouars.
Bolbophyllum tuberculatum,914 sp. nov.
Plant epiphytal, forming irregular patches on upper forks of large trees (Dacrydium cupressinum); roots 2–3 inches long, stout; leaves linear-oblong, 8 lines long, 2 lines broad, acute, sub-apiculate, entire, glabrous, dark-green on upper surface, of a lighter-green below, and there minutely and closely dotted with round greyish dots, flat or slightly involute, thickish but not fleshy, having 8–10 parallel veins which are transversely netted, keeled; stipe stoutish, 1 line long; bulbs ovoid, 3–3½ lines long, turgid, ridged; ovary oblong, 2 lines long, glabrous, greenish-white, tuberculated in rows, tubercles blunt, reddish; scape 6–8 lines long, springing from rhizome below base of bulb, slender, turgid and sub-pyriform at base, reddish, muricated, bearing a short raceme of 2–3 flowers; flowers alternate, rather distant on short pedicels, ½ line long, each having a bract at its base; bracts sessile rather more than half-clasping, deltoid-acuminate with a produced stout obtuse tip.
Hab. In forests near Petane, Hawke’s Bay, 1883: Mr. A. Hamilton.
Obs.—A species very distinct from our long known and common B. pygmæum, Lindl.; apparently rare, though possibly confounded with that species. It is a much larger plant of similar appearance and habit. I regret that I have not yet seen new and perfect flowers.
Genus 9. Corysanthes, Brown.
Corysanthes hypogæa,915 sp. nov.
Plant very small, terrestrial, tender, succulent; leaf single, 5–8 lines diameter, membranous, shining, much veined, veins largely anastomosing with longitudinal dots in the interspaces, cordate-reniform, 3-lobed at tip, middle lobe produced, acute acuminate, side margins sinuate with a single notch on both sides near base, auricles large, distant, subhastate, very blunt; light green above, midrib and marginal spots purple; silvery below  and sometimes dashed with a purple hue; petiole ½–1½ inches long, white, often pinkish, with a sheathing truncate bract at base; peduncle short, 1–2 lines long, bibracteate close to base of flower, the front bract much smaller linear, the hind one ovate-oblong, both obtuse; flowers 3–4 lines diameter, much veined, dorsal sepal arched, closely clasping, subobovate-spathulate, narrowest at base, rounded and slightly sinuate or subapiculate at apex, green with a purple median line; lateral sepals and petals linear acuminate, very narrow filiform, upper pair ¾ inch long, lower pair hair-like, 4 lines long; lip large, dark blood-red above with darker stripes, greenish below spotted with red, bi-lobed at top, lobes rounded entire, 2–3 deep laciniations or ragged lobes below, with the sides much cut and jagged and incurved, a delicate circular bordered ear-like aperture on both sides immediately behind bases of petals.
Hab. Among mosses, steep cliffy sides of dry hills, Fagus forests near Norsewood, Waipawa County; 1880 (plentifully but barren); 1882 (a few capsules long past flowering); and 1883, September, in flower: W.C.
Obs.—I have known this plant for some years, but never found it in flower until the spring of 1883, mainly owing to its peculiar manner of growth, and its very early flowering; for while its one small leaf is spread flat on its mossy bed, its delicate flower is 1–2 inches below the surface, and never appears above during its flowering, though afterwards (in a few observed instances) its capsule is shown just above the surface, owing to the elongation of the peduncle after flowering, which habit is also common to the genus. It grows pretty thickly scattered in beds, showing its small glistening leaf just above the mosses and débris of fallen Fagus leaves (F. solandri), but flowering specimens are very scarce, not one plant in twenty bearing a flower. A species possessing close affinity with C. triloba, Hook. fil.