Document Name: 20170125_TUN_Fig1-1_Biol Report
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Animal Plant Mineral Pty Ltd (APM) was engaged by TGN to design and execute vegetation and fauna surveys
to facilitate approval of the Mt Mulgine Project. The scope included a Level 2 vegetation survey and Level 1
fauna survey. The time of the survey was not optimal for annual flora and, though collections of annual flora
were made, the focus of the current survey was on the mapping of vegetation of the Project area. Additional
survey work is proposed following significant rainfall in 2017.
The methodology for the biological survey was determined by Principal Ecologist Dr Mitchell Ladyman and the
survey scope was then ratified through liaison with the Department of Parks and Wildlife (DPaW).
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Species considered to be of national conservation significance are protected under the Environmental
significant impact on a species of national conservation significance must be referred to the Department of
Environment (DoE) for assessment. In WA, all native flora and fauna species are protected under the Wildlife
Conservation Act 1950 (WC Act). Flora and Fauna species that are considered rare, threatened with extinction
or have high conservation value are specially protected by four schedules in this Act (see Appendix 1). The
DPaW also classifies some flora under four different Priority codes and fauna under five different Priority
codes (Appendix 1).
Some species of fauna are covered under the 1991 Australian and New Zealand Environment Conservation
Council (ANZECC) Convention (Commonwealth(Cth)), while certain birds are listed under the 1974 Japan and
Australian Migratory Bird Agreement (JAMBA) (Cth) and the 1986 China and Australian Migratory Bird
Agreement (CAMBA) (Cth). More recently Australia and the Republic of Korea agreed to develop a bilateral
migratory bird agreement similar to the JAMBA and CAMBA. The Republic of Korea-Australian Migratory Bird
Agreement (ROKAMBA) was entered into force in 2007. All migratory bird species listed in the annexes to
these bilateral agreements are protected in Australia as Matters of National Environmental Significance
(MNES) under the EPBC Act 1999.
The Project lies within the Shire of Perenjori. Land use in the area is predominantly pastoralism, in particular
grazing. The Project tenements are partially located within the former Warriedar pastoral station, which is now
managed by the DPaW. Some conservation areas are present in the broader region, along with unallocated
crown land and crown reserves (Desmond and Chant, 2001). The Project area contains no registered Aboriginal
heritage places and two ‘other heritage places’. Ethnographic sites and isolated artefacts have been identified
within the Project tenements. No European heritage places are within the Project area.
The Project is located within the bioregion Murchison of WA on the Yilgarn craton, which is characterised by
hot dry summers and cold winters.
The nearest Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) weather station is at Paynes Find (BoM Site Number: 007139),
approximately 70 km east of the Project area. The Paynes Find station has been recording rainfall since 1919
and temperature since 1975. Average monthly and annual rainfall and temperature are presented in Table 1-1.
Recorded data suggests that the Project area is likely to receive close to 289 millimetres (mm) of rain on an
annual basis and experience temperatures ranging between 5.5 degrees Celsius (°C) and 37.3°C (the lowest
and highest monthly averages recorded) (BoM, 2016a). January is the hottest month with a mean maximum
temperature of 37.3 °C and mean minimum of 21°C. July is the coolest month with a mean maximum
temperature of 18.5 °C and mean minimum of 5.5°C (BoM, 2016a) (Table 1-1). Figure 1-2 illustrates the Project
area is subject to climate typical of the region, with hot summers and wet winters.
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The Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia
IBRA) (version 7.1) classifies the Australian continent
and Cresswell, 1995). The mapping completed by Beard (1975) provides the basis for the IBRA bioregions. IBRA
mapping (Version 7.1), places the Project within the Yalgoo Bioregion.
The Yalgoo Bioregion is characterised by low woodlands to open woodlands of Eucalyptus, Acacia and Callitris
on red sandy plains of the Western Yilgarn Craton and southern Carnarvon Basin. Mulga, Callitris,-E. salubris,
and Bowgada open woodlands and scrubs occur on earth to sandy-earth plains in the western Yilgarn Craton.
The Yalgoo Bioregion is further subdivided into the Edel (YAL01) and Tallering (YAL02) sub-regions. The Project
lies entirely within the Tallering sub-region, one of the few sub-regions not previously described by IBRA.
Mean Rainfall (mm)
Mean Min Temp (°C)
Mean Max Temp (°C)
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The land system approach to the management of rangelands results from the identification of recurring
patterns of topography, soil and vegetation and involves their use in land use and catchment planning. Four
land systems have been mapped within the Project area by Payne et al. (1998):
Basalt and greenstone rises and low hills, supporting eucalypt woodlands with prominent
saltbush and bluebush understoreys.
Low greenstone rises and stony plains supporting halophytic and acacia shrublands with
patchy eucalypt overstorys.
Granite hills with exfoliating domes and extensive tor fields supporting acacia shrublands.
Rugged greenstone ranges with dense casuarina and acacia shrublands.
The Project area is located within the greater Yara Monger catchment. Some drainage flows to the west
although drainage the Project area flows in an easterly direction towards Monger’s Lake chain (Soil Water
Consultants, 2012). On a local scale, surface water generally flows west and north east from Mt Mulgine into
broader southern and eastern drainage paths respectively. Incised flow channels are common and the steeper
terrain results in less potential for flooding (Soil Water Consultants, 2012).
The Project area does not include and is not in close proximity to any wetlands listed as Ramsar sites
Much of the Mt Mulgine area has previously been surveyed to facilitate the expansion of mining by Minjar
Gold. Vegetation surveys have been undertaken by Woodman Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd (Woodman)
(2003 and 2007), APM (2011, 2012) and Terratree Pty Ltd (Terratree) (2013). A fauna survey of the area was
also undertaken by APM in 2012.
A summary of the surveys previously undertaken is provided in Table 1-2 below.
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Vegetation Survey of
the Highland Chief and
Monaco Areas, Minjar
Flora and vegetation
expansion of mining
Minjar Gold Project.
Bobby McGee Prospects
Flora and Vegetation
survey for exploration
Minjar Gold Biological
Mine Expansion. Flora
expansion of mining.
and Targeted Search for
Flora of Conservation
Riley and Trench.
Level 1 and 2 Flora and
Vegetation Survey and
Rare) species Stylidium
mapping for Stylidium
Austin, Blackdog, Bobby
McGee, Bugeye, Camp,
Keronima, M1, Monaco,
Silverstone, Trench and
Windinne Well Projects.
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The Project survey scope was designed by APM Principal Biologist Dr Mitch Ladyman. The flora and vegetation
survey and reporting was refined and executed by APM Senior Botanist James Tsakalos, with assistance from
Environmental Scientist Loren Kavanagh. The field fauna survey work was executed by Dr Mitch Ladyman and
Environmental Scientist Sarah Isbister, with the reporting component assimilated by Loren Kavanagh.
Technical review of the outputs were completed by Dr Mitch Ladyman and James Tsakalos.
A search of the EPBC Act list of protected species was undertaken using the Protected Matters Search Tool
(PMST) (DoE, 2016a) to identify flora, fauna and threatened ecological communities considered to be Matters
of National Environmental Significance (MNES). This search covered an area within 10 km of the centre of the
Project area (-29.17 S, 116.96 E). The results of the database search are presented in Appendix 2.
The NatureMap database (DPaW, 2016) was searched to produce a list of potentially occurring species within
10 km of the Project area using coordinates (-29.17 S, 116.96 E). This database has the most up to date species
list based on flora and fauna licence returns from numerous surveys conducted in the area. The results of the
database search are presented in Appendix 3.
A search of the Atlas of Living Australia (AoLA) (AoLA, 2016) was also undertaken to produce a list of fauna
potentially occurring within a 10 km buffer of the Project area using coordinates -29.17 S, 116.96 E. The results
of the database search are presented in Appendix 4.
A request was made for a search of the DPaW database for Threatened and Priority flora and fauna and the
presence of Threatened Ecological Communities (TEC) or Priority Ecological Communities (PEC). This search
was conducted based on a single point approximately centrally located in the Project area at -29.17 S, 116.96 E
and included a 10 km buffer for flora, 35 km buffer for fauna and 30 km buffer for ecological communities. The
results of the flora and fauna database searches are presented in Appendix 5 and Appendix 6 respectively.
The vegetation field survey was undertaken from 8 to 12 of November 2016. Field personnel included Botanist
James Tsakalos and Environmental Scientist Loren Kavanagh. The survey was designed in accordance with
Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) Guidance Statement No. 51 (EPA, 2004a) and EPA Position
Statement No. 3 (EPA, 2002) and was intended to comprise a Level 2 survey with respect to vegetation
mapping and analysis, with intention of additional survey following mesic conditions to capture annual species
and targeted rare flora survey.
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Prior to commencing the fieldwork, aerial photography was used to determine potential quadrat locations in
the Project area. Aerial photos were carried during fieldwork to confirm boundaries and extent of plant
communities and landforms and to assist in refinement of the placement and positioning of quadrats.
A total of 38 quadrats were established in patches of visually homogenous vegetation types. Each quadrat was
20 m by 20 m as outlined in the Technical Guidelines for Flora and Vegetation Surveys for Environmental
Impact Assessment (Freeman, Stack, Thomas and Woolfrey, 2015). The following information was collected at
each quadrat using a standard recording sheet:
Soil type and colour;
Surface rock cover;
Estimation of age since last fire;
Vegetation condition (Keighery, 1994); and
All vascular plant species present, height and foliage cover.
formal identification using combination of dichotomous keys, published descriptions, occurrence records and
were compared against specimens housed at the Western Australian Herbarium to ensure correct
identification. Table 2-1 below describes the Keighery vegetation condition rating scale.