Western australian wildlife management program no. 21 Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Esperance District



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Flowering PeriodJune - November
Distribution and Habitat
G. phillipsiana occurs near Norseman and in an area about 170 km to the north-east.  It grows on moist red sand, near
granite outcrops.  Associated genera may include 
Eucalyptus, Acacia and Allocasuarina, with Triodia scariosa.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 1
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1a
Norseman,N Esp
Dund
VCL
18.11.93
500+
Good
1b
Norseman,N
Esp
Dund
MRWA Rd Res.
19.7.79
1
Disturbed
2a
Sinclair Soak,SE 
Esp
Dund
-
5.8.80
Frequent
-
2b
Sinclair Soak,SE
Esp
Dund
-
9.8.80
-
-
3
Woodline Hills 
Esp
Dund
-
12.9.70
1
-
4
Norite Dyke 
Esp
Dund
-
9.65
-
-
5
Cardunia Rocks 
Gold
Bldr
?Pastoral Lease
16.9.78
Occasional
-
6
Zanthus-Cocklebiddy
?Esp
?Dund
-
10.64
-
-
Response to Disturbance
Unknown
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Unknown
Summary and Recommendations
The area where it is known to grow, i.e. between the Eyre Highway and the Trans Australian Railway, is relatively
remote and has been poorly surveyed.  This species may extend to over 300 km east or north-east of Norseman, as one
specimen has been collected "between Zanthus and Cocklebiddy".  Further survey is required.
References
Elliot and Jones (1986).

107
Gyrostemon ditrigynus A.S.George
GYROSTEMONACEAE
An erect shrub, 80-120 cm tall and 30-60 cm wide, which divides into 3-4 branches near ground level.  Young branches
are sticky.  Leaves are alternate, linear (3-5 x 0.2 mm), without stalks, smooth and have a hooked apex.  At the base of
each leaf are 2 tiny, triangular-shaped stipules.  Female and male flowers are on separate bushes; small (<1 mm), single
flowers are borne on short (<1 mm) stalks in leaf axils.  Female flowers are light green and sticky; the ovary has 2 or 3
cells.  Male flowers are similar to female flowers, but have a single whorl of 7-10 stamens.  Fruits are 3 mm long.
Flowering Period:  October - November
Distribution and Habitat
Gyrostemon ditrigynus is distributed between Kulin and Dingo Rock, a distance of about 350 km.  It is a coloniser after
fire and soil disturbance, growing in well-drained sandy loam in mixed open shrub mallee, associated with 
Eucalyptus
cylindriflora, E. eremophila, E. forrestiana and E. transcontinentalis.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 1
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Mt Ridley,NE 
Esp
Esp
VCL
14.11.80
Very common
Post-fire
2
Mt Ridley,NE 
Esp
Esp
VCL
5.5.81
Common
Post-fire
3
Dingo Rock,E 
Esp
Esp
VCL
8.83
-
Post-clearing
4
Ninety Mile Tank 
Esp
Dund
VCL
17.10.74
-
-
5
Kulin,E Nar
Kulin
?Rd 
Res.
29.9.72
-
-
6*
Ninety Mile Tank,E 
Esp
Esp
VCL
17.9.93
1 000s
Post-fire
7*
Clyde Hill,NE 
Esp
Esp
VCL
15.11.93
5+
Post-dist.
8*
Clyde Hill,NE 
Esp
Esp
VCL
15.11.93
20
Post-dist.
* = new population
Response to Disturbance
G. ditrigynus is a disturbance opportunist.  After fire it will rapidly recolonise an area, regenerating from seed.  More
than two years after a hot fire (January 1991) east of Ninety Mile Tank, thousands of flowering plants were found.
North-east of Clyde Hill plants were located in one area that had been chained (but not burnt) as a fire break and in
another area where soil had been ripped; it was not found in nearby undisturbed woodland.
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Unknown
Summary and Recommendations
In May 1993, a survey north-east of Mt Ridley failed to relocate either population nos. 1 or 2.  Monitoring of post-fire
populations is required to determine the longevity of 
G. ditrigynus.  Further opportunistic survey is required.
References
George (1982), Newbey (1983).

108
Halgania tomentosa (Helms) Ewart & Jean White
BORAGINACEAE
A woody herb, 15-30 cm tall, with wiry stems covered in short, white, felt-like hairs.  Leaves are thick, flat, oval-shaped
(6-10 mm long), alternate and covered in similar hairs to the stem.  Flowers are usually solitary at the end of stems, with
5 broad blue petals which are free almost to the base.  Calyx lobes are linear and covered with short, brown glandular
hairs.
Halgania tomentosa is similar to H. integerrima, however the latter has linear or oblong leaves which are very sparsely
hairy, and stems which may become hairless with age.  The distribution of the two species does not appear to overlap.
Flowering Period:  October - November
Distribution and Habitat
Halgania tomentosa is distributed from near Tammin to east of Ninety Mile Tank, a distance of approximately 300 km.
There is an additional disjunct population occurring near Newman in the Pilbara.  It grows in yellow-brown sand or
sandy loam with or without lateritic gravel in scrub or open heath communities and may be associated with 
Eucalyptus,
AllocasuarinaDryandra or Verticordia.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 1
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1a
Hatter Hill 
Esp
Rav
-
11.29
-
-
1b*
Hatter Hill,N
Esp
Rav
VCL
27.10.92
5
Good
2
Lake King,E 
Esp
Rav
?VCL & NP
20.10.64
-
-
3
Ninety Mile Tank,E 
Esp
Esp
VCL
10.10.66
-
-
4
Lake Cronin,E 
Esp
Dund
VCL
17.10.84
Occasional
-
5
Moorine Rock 
Mer 
Yil
-
9.11.62
-
-
6
Bodallin 
Mer
Yil
MRWA Rd Res.
15.10.90
15
Healthy
7
Nulla Nulla 
Mer
Yil
MRWA Rd Res.
15.10.90
20
Healthy
8
Chiddarcooping 
Mer
West
NR & Rd Res.
8.11.90
15+ 
Healthy
9
Tammin Mer
Tam
-
18.10.67
-
-
10
Boorabbin Gold
Cool
NP
17.10.85
-
-
11
Newman,N Pilb
-
-
16.10.66
-
-
* = new sub-population
Response to Disturbance
May be a disturbance opportunist.
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed not susceptible.

109
Summary and Recommendations
H. tomentosa appears to be widespread, but never abundant.  In the Merredin District, H. tomentosa was collected from
graded road verges, and near Hatter Hill it occurred quite close to the track, scattered over a distance of more than 4 km.
Further survey is required in tracts of vegetation adjacent to recorded occurrences for additional plants.  Its taxonomic
position relative to 
H. integerrima requires clarification.
H. tomentosa occurs in two conservation reserves.
References
Blackall and Grieve (1981), Ewart and White (1910), Mollemans 
et al. (1993).

110
Haloragis sp. Ravensthorpe (K.R.Newbey 8269)
HALORAGACEAE
An upright-spreading shrub, 20-25 cm tall and 40-55 cm broad, which divides near ground level into 4-6 spreading
branches.  The bark is reddish with fine ridges.  The stems, leaves and calyx are all densely covered with short, stiff
hairs giving a rough texture to the foliage.  Leaves are bright green, without stalks, alternate, narrow-elliptical (12-20 x
1.5-2.5 mm), roughly-hairy and have a small sharp tip; smaller leaves are entire while larger ones have 2 or 4 small teeth
towards the acute apex.  Flowers are borne singly or in pairs in leaf axils, and form leafy flowering spikes on the last 8-
12 cm of branches.  The bright, light green calyx has 3-4 inflated locules with 3-4 triangular-shaped hairless sepals.
Petals are hooded and pale brown.  Fruits are inflated and woody (2 x 1.5 mm).
This taxon has affinity with 
Haloragis digyna, but differs by being more foliose, more floriferous, and flowering in
autumn rather than November-December.  
H. digyna appears to be restricted to near coastal areas in Western Australia
and South Australia, whereas this species occurs inland.
Flowering Period:  March - April
Distribution and Habitat
H.  sp. Ravensthorpe occurs on well-drained, shallow sandy loams on a gentle undulating plain.  It is common (in
patches) in 
Eucalyptus transcontinentalis mallee, in an area burnt two years previously.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 1
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Coujinup Hill 
Esp
Rav
VCL
29.4.81
Frequent
-
Response to Disturbance
Probably regenerates well after fire.
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed not susceptible.
Summary and Recommendations
The known population is in a remote locality with difficult access.  Further survey is required.
References
Newbey (1983).

111
Hydatella australis Diels
HYDATELLACEAE
A small, tufted, annual aquatic herb, which has several lax, cylindrical leaves (to 25 mm) arising from the base of the
plant.  Separate male and female capitula are present on the same plant.  The flower heads are borne on stalks (3-5 mm)
and are composed of 2 (rarely 4) sheathing lanceolate bracts.  Male heads have 4-8 flowers with purple stamens exerted
beyond the bracts.  Female heads are more numerous and have 8-14 flowers, each with 4-10 stigmatic hairs.  The pale
brown fruit is ovoid (0.5 mm), wrinkled, with 2 or 3 obscure veins.
Hydatella australis (South Coast) and H. leptogyne (Perth) may be geographical extremes of one taxonomic entity
(Cooke 1987), although G. Keighery (personal communication) believes they are distinct taxa.
Flowering Period:  October
Distribution and Habitat
H. australis was collected by Diels from the Hamersley River in 1901, and more recently it has been collected from
granite rock pools near Cape Arid.  It grows in silt or mud in shallow pools and seasonal swamps.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 1
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Hamersley River 
Alb
Esp
NP
1901
-
-
2
Cape Arid 
Esp
Esp
NP
2.11.89
-
-
Response to Disturbance
Unknown
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed not susceptible.
Summary and Recommendations
H. australis is a minute aquatic plant which is very poorly known and poorly collected.  Little is known of the range and
environmental requirements of this species.  Further survey is required.
H. australis is known in the Cape Arid National Park.
References
Cooke (1987), Diels and Pritzel (1905).

112
Hydrocotyle hispidula Bunge
APIACEAE
A slender, annual herb, 3-15 cm tall.  Leaves are few and small along robust stems, rather deeply divided into 5 broad
lobes which are also toothed or lobed, and have short, stiff hairs on both sides.  The stipules are fringed or jagged.
Flowers are white and exceedingly small, with 6 to 12 in a head.  Fruits are broader than long and formed of two similar
fruitlets.  Two clearly defined intermediate and two dorsal ribs are visible from each side of the fruits.  As well, fruits are
hairless and have a granular-warty surface.
Flowering Period:  October - November
Distribution and Habitat
Hydrocotyle hispidula is widely distributed through the south-west of the State, from Perth to near Esperance, and on
Middle Island in the Recherche Archipelago.  It grows in sandy soil on limestone ledges, along creeklines, and near the
base of a granite outcrop.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 1
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1a
Middle Is.,SE 
Esp
Esp
NR
11.11.74
Common
-
1b
Middle Is.,NE
Esp
Esp
NR
15.11.73
-
-
2
Mt Ridley 
Esp
Esp
VCL
1.11.75
-
-
3
Mosman Park 
Perth
Metro
-
9.02
-
-
4
Garden Is.
Perth
Metro
Reserve
20.10.78
-
-
5
Pinjarra,S Dwel
Mur
-
4.10.62
-
-
6
Mt Chudalup 
Wal
Manj
-
12.11.86
-
-
Response to Disturbance
Unknown
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Unknown
Summary and Recommendations
H. hispidula is an inconspicuous annual which has been poorly collected and is possibly rare.  It should remain secure
on Middle Island.  Further survey is required.
References
Blackall and Grieve (1980).

113
Hydrocotyle sp. Truslove (M.A.Burgman 4419)
APIACEAE
An inconspicuous herb, less than 5 cm tall.  Flowers are in simple clusters (umbels).  Stipules at the base of the leaves
are thin and dry.  Leaves are flat and divided into segments. 
Flowering Period:  October
Distribution and Habitat
Hydrocotyle  sp. Truslove is distributed over at least 60 km, between Salmon Gums and Scaddan, where it is very
common around salt lakes and winter-wet flats.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 1
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last No. 
of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Truslove Esp
Esp
NR
11.9.88

000s
-
2a
Salmon Gums 
Esp
Esp
NR
}
2b
Salmon Gums
Esp
Esp
NR
11.9.88}
1 000s
-
2c
Salmon Gums
Esp
Esp
NR
}
3
Grass Patch,E 
Esp
Esp
NR
11.9.88
1 000s
-
4
Grass Patch,SE 
Esp
Esp
NR
11.9.88
1 000s
-
5
Styles Rd 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
11.9.88
-
-
6
Scaddan East Rd 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
11.9.88
-
-
7
Swan Lagoon Rd 
Esp
Esp
?VCL
11.9.88
-
-
Response to Disturbance
Unknown
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Unknown
Summary and Recommendations
Burgman (1985b) considered the status of this taxon to be uncertain.  The specimen he collected was flowering which
makes taxonomic verification difficult as species of 
Hydrocotyle are usually characterised by their fruits.  Surveys by
Wilson (personal communication) located millions of plants she considered to be the same taxon, in a relatively
restricted area (about 60 km).  She recorded it as being very common in four Nature Reserves. 
References
Burgman (1985b).

114
Leucopogon blepharolepis F.Muell.
EPACRIDACEAE
An erect shrub which grows up to 1.2 m tall.  Leaves are densely arranged on short branches and are light, bluish-green
on both sides, oblong-elliptic (8-10 x 2 mm), more or less sessile, have a short, sharp tip and margins that are
translucent.  Flowers are small, have a white corolla (4 mm) and minute, yellow sepals (1 mm) and are borne in several-
flowered inflorescences which are hidden amongst the leaves in the leaf axils.  Fruits have a flat top.
Flowering Period:  August - September
Distribution and Habitat
Leucopogon blepharolepis is widely distributed along the southern region of Western Australia, from near Cranbrook to
"towards the Great (Australian) Bight", a distance of over 500 km.  It grows in sandy soil in woodland, scrub or scrub-
heath.  Associated genera include 
Banksia, Lysinema, Monotoca, Leucopogon and myrtaceous species.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 1
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Fanny Cove 
Esp 
Esp
NP
21.4.67
Abundant
-
2*
Skippy Rock,N 
Esp
Esp
NP
9.9.93
1 000s
Good
3
Great Aust. Bight 
Esp
?Esp
NR
1800s
-
-
4
Mt Maxwell 
Alb
Jer
?NP
2.8.86
Occasional
-
5
Geekabee Hill 
Kat
Cbk
-
4.8.86
Frequent
-
6
Mundaring Mdg
Mdg
State 
Forest
4.2.89
Occasional
-
* = new population
Response to Disturbance
Probably a disturbance opportunist.
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed susceptible.
Summary and Recommendations
Despite the widespread distribution of 
L. blepharolepis, it remains poorly known.  The population on the east side of
Stokes Inlet (pop. no. 1) was burnt in January 1993; monitoring is required to determine the reproductive biology of this
species following fire.  The population (no. 2) in the western sector of Stokes National Park was largely burnt in 1982;
13 years later it was abundant in the dense heath regrowth.
Research is required to determine the response of 
L. blepharolepis to Phytophthora spp. and other plant pathogens.
References
Blackall and Grieve (1981), Mueller (1867).

115
Leucopogon florulentus Benth.
EPACRIDACEAE
An erect shrub, 40-50 cm tall with a robust, woody base.  Branches are numerous and young branches are reddish.
Leaves are thick, flat, sometimes slightly fringed with hairs, ovate to oblong, about 2 mm long, shortly stalked and have
a concave apex with effectively no tip.  Inflorescences are terminal (spike), many-flowered, short and compact.  Flowers
are white and without stalks.  The ovary is 2-celled and the style short.
Flowering Period:  November - February
Distribution and Habitat
Leucopogon florulentus is known only from a single collection (the type which is held at Kew, England) from an
unknown locality between Perth and King George Sound.
An undescribed taxon which has close affinity to 
L. florulentus (J. Powell, personal communication) is very common in
heath communities east of Esperance. 
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 1
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Perth-Albany
-
-
-
1800s
-
-
Response to Disturbance
Unknown
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed susceptible.
Summary and Recommendations
Taxonomic revision of 
Leucopogon in Western Australia is urgently required.  Classification of the many undescribed
species and sorting of the Western Australian Herbarium folders would remedy many of the problems encountered in
searching for the poorly known 
Leucopogon species.
Further survey of 
L. florulentus is required, although it is not likely to occur in the Esperance District.
References
Bentham (1869), Blackall and Grieve (1981).

116
Leucopogon sp. Bonnie Hill (K.R.Newbey 9831)
EPACRIDACEAE
An upright-spreading, mid-dense shrub, 30-35 cm tall x 20-25 cm broad, which divides into 4-5 branches just above
ground level.
Old wood is rough, dark grey and black, while newer wood is densely covered in short, stiff hairs.  The alternate leaves
are crowded and held close to the branchlets.  Leaves are bright green, narrow-obovate (5-7 x 1.5 mm), have a
distinctive long, spiny tip (to 2 mm), margins with short, fine hairs, and an under surface which is conspicuously nerved.
Inflorescences are 2-4 flowered, without stalks and occur in the axils at the ends of most branches.  The 2 bracteoles,
bracts and outer surface of the white corolla tube are hairy.  The bracts are acuminate with long points.  The corolla tube
(4.5 mm) has a bearded inner surface; corolla lobes have a long point at the tip.  Sepals are white with light mauve, long-
pointed tips.
Flowering Period:  May - June
Distribution and Habitat
Leucopogon sp. Bonnie Hill is known from south-east of Peak Eleanora and over 160 km to the east near Bonnie Hill.
It grows on flat or undulating plain in well-drained sandy loams, in open mallee and low heath.  Associated species
include 
E. leptocalyx, E. tetragona, E. uncinata, E. incrassata, Banksia media, Grevillea pectinata, Astartea ambigua
and 
Gahnia ancistrophylla.

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