Western australian wildlife management program no. 21 Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Esperance District



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Flowering PeriodSeptember - October
Distribution and Habitat
A. profusa ms is distributed over an area of about 180 km, between Frank Hann National Park and Mt Ridley, and
northward to Kumarl.  It grows in clay or sandy loam on flats in open shrub mallee, open dwarf scrub or low heath.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 2
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Mt Ridley 
Esp
Esp
VCL
23.5.93
2 000+
Good
2
Kumarl Esp
Esp
-
10.34
-
-
3
Salmon Gums 
Esp
Esp
MRWA Rd Res.
17.11.92
20+
-
4
Salmon Gums,W 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
17.11.92
20+
-
5a
Grass Patch,N 
Esp
Esp
?MRWA Rd Res. 23.10.69
-
-
5b
Grass Patch,N
Esp
Esp
MRWA Rd Res.
20.11.92
2
Average
6a
Grass Patch,W 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
24.9.92
100+
Good
6b
Grass Patch,W
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
24.9.92
500+
Good
7
Grass Patch,S 
Esp
Esp
-
1.9.47
-
-
23.9.92
Not found
-
8
?Frank Hann 
Esp
Rav
NP
11.10.65
-
-
9
Frank Hann 
Esp
Rav
NP
2.8.80
-
-
10a
Rollond Rd 
Esp
Esp
?VCL
28.9.84
-
-
10b* Rollond Rd
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
20.9.93
200+
Good
11
Rollond Rd 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
12.9.92
10-20
Vulnerable
12*
Rollond Rd 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
12.9.92
36
Vulnerable
13*
Williams Rd 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
20.9.93
20+
Good
14*
Starcevich Rd 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
23.9.92
10
Disturbed
* = new population / sub-population
Response to Disturbance
Unknown

224
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed not susceptible.
Summary and Recommendations
A. profusa ms is a widespread species which has been poorly collected.  It should remain secure in the Frank Hann
National Park.  The majority of known populations are on narrow road reserves in the Salmon Gums-Grass Patch area;
these are vulnerable in the long term. 
In 1992, surveys for the collections of 
A. profusa ms referred to by Gardner in 1934 as "near Kumarl" and by Willis in
1947 as "S of Grass Patch...." failed to relocate these populations.  

225
Acacia tetraptera Maslin ms
MIMOSACEAE
A spreading shrub, 0.2-0.7 m tall, with slender branches.  Young branches are covered in soft, felty hairs.  Phyllodes
('leaves') are hairless, squarish (2.5-4 x 2-4 mm), with raised nerves that give the appearance of 4 small wings; the tip is
a sharp spine.  The bright golden flower heads are globular (4-5 mm), 20-30 flowered and borne on stalks (4-8 mm) with
2 per node.  Legumes are almost cylindrical (to 20 x 2 mm) and strongly arched, leathery in texture, hairless and black.
Seeds (2 mm) are arranged lengthwise in the legume and are mottled grey and black with a conical, yellow appendage
(aril).
This species does not have any close relatives.
Flowering PeriodAugust - September
Distribution and Habitat
Acacia tetraptera ms is distributed over more than 200 km, occurring from near Hyden and Mt Holland south-east to
near Grass Patch.  It grows in loam or sand over clayey loam.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 2
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Fields Rd 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
13.9.92
50-100
Disturbed
2
Peak Eleanora,W 
Esp
Esp
NP
7.9.83
-
-
3a
Peak Charles,NE 
Esp
Esp
VCL
17.9.93
1 000+
Good
3b
Peak Charles,NE
Esp
Esp
VCL
6.9.76
-
-
4
Peak Charles,NW 
Esp
Esp
VCL
17.9.93
50+
Post-fire
5
Grass Patch,E 
Esp
Esp
-
2.7.76
Occasional
-
23.9.92
Not found
-
6a
Frank Hann 
Esp
Rav
NP
9.8.78
-
-
6b
Frank Hann
Esp
Rav
NP
10.12.71
-
-
7a
Grass Patch,ENE 
Esp
Esp
Water Res.
23.9.92
15+
Good
7b
Grass Patch,ENE
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
1.10.83
-
-
8
Northover Soak 
Esp
Rav
VCL
6.9.83
-
Post-fire
9
Mt Day,S 
Esp
Dund
VCL
28.12.83
-
-
10
Mt Holland,S 
Mer
Yil
VCL
5.2.87
-
-
11
Bounty Mine,W 
Mer
Yil
VCL
29.2.92
-
-
12
The Pimple 
Nar
Kulin
NR
18.6.84
-
-
Response to Disturbance
Unknown
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed not susceptible.

226
Summary and Recommendations
A. tetraptera ms appears to be widespread through Vacant Crown Land, with the southern limit of its distribution (Fields
Rd) abutting agricultural land.  Most of the area is undisturbed and largely inaccessible.  
A. tetraptera ms occurs in two National Parks and one Nature Reserve.  It readily regenerates after fire (pop. nos. 3a and
8). 

227
Acrotriche patula R.Br.
EPACRIDACEAE
A rigid, stout, widely branching shrub, 0.4-1.2 m tall and 0.5-0.6 m wide.  Young stems are slightly hairy.  Leaves are
bluish-green, lanceolate (6-12 x 2-5 mm) and have a stiff, sharp, spiny tip; the upper surface is shiny.  Clusters of 6-12
flowers are borne in axils of the leaves.  The green corolla tube (3-4 mm) has a white streak extending from the throat to
halfway down the tube along the lines of fusion; corolla lobes (1.5-2.5 mm) have reflexed hairs at their apex which tend
to form a line, linking the hairs at the throat.  The ovary is hairless, the style short and the stigma flat.  The pink fruit is
shiny, globular (2-3 mm) and wrinkled.
Acrotriche patula was first described from South Australian collections.  The Western Australian variant has larger
flowers which are darker green than the eastern states variety.
Flowering Period:  May, September - October
Distribution and Habitat
A. patula occurs between Marvel Loch and Hatter Hill, distributed over about 160 km.  It grows in red-brown sandy clay
on stony, breakaway slopes (quartz and ironstone) or on undulating plain in mallee, scrub or open scrub.
Along the eastern south coast, 
A. patula grows between Madura and Eucla.  In South Australia, it occurs on the Eyre
Peninsula, Mt Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island.  Along the southern coast it grows in calcareous sandy soil associated
with outcropping limestone.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 2
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Parker Range Tank 
Mer
Yil
VCL & ?NR
31.8.90
626
Healthy
2
Parker Range,S 
Mer
Yil
NR
18.10.90
20
Healthy
3
Cockatoo Tank 
Mer
Yil
?Water Res.
19.10.90
1
Healthy
4
Lake Cronin,SW 
Nar
Kon
VCL
3.10.79
-
-
5a
Hatter Hill 
Esp
Rav
VCL (Mining Lease)
27.10.92
50+
Good
5b
Hatter Hill,S
Esp
Rav
VCL
4.9.70
-
-
6a
Eucla,N Esp
Dund
Pastoral 
Lease
30.8.74
-
-
6b
Eucla
Esp
Dund
?MRWA Rd Res.
2.8.79
Occasional
-
7
Madura Esp
Dund
Pastoral 
Lease
5.9.63
Uncommon -
Response to Disturbance
Unknown
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Unknown
Summary and Recommendations
A. patula appears to be reasonably secure in the Marvel Loch-Hatter Hill region, although populations in the mining
lease at Hatter Hill need to be monitored (Mollemans 
et al. 1993).

228
Summary and Recommendations (cont’d)
Little is known of the populations along the eastern south coast, although the species is relatively common in South
Australia where it extends across the Great Australian Bight on limestone areas (J. Powell, personal communication).
Further taxonomic work is required to determine whether there are two distinct taxa (inland and coastal) of 
A. patula.
References
Blackall and Grieve (1981), Mollemans 
et al. (1993), Paterson (1960).

229
Andersonia macranthera F.Muell.
EPACRIDACEAE
An erect, moderately open shrub, 10-30 cm tall, with the main stems frequently bare of leaves, giving the plant a slender
appearance.  Leaves (2-6 x 1-2 mm) are stem-clasping, closely overlapping, wide at the base and narrowing to the tip.
Leaf tips are triangular or near cylindrical, erect or incurved, not twisted, and have a small, sharp spine at the apex.  The
pink flowers are single and terminal; sepals (7 mm) are either hairless or slightly hairy; the corolla is shorter than the
calyx and is bearded inside below the middle.  Staminal filaments are rather stout, thickened and bear lateral tufts of
long hairs below the anthers; filaments are about the same length as the anthers, which are attached at their base.  The
style lacks hairs and is somewhat thickened below the middle, tapering towards the base; the stigma is club-shaped.
Flowering PeriodMay - August
D
istribution and Habitat
Andersonia macranthera is distributed over 270 km, from near the Young River to Israelite Bay.  It grows in deep white
sand on sandplain in tall shrubland to low mixed heath communities.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 2
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Eld Rd 
Esp
Esp
NR
29.3.83
50+
Good
2
Coolingup Rd 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
10.10.92
100+
Good
3
Styles Rd 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
2.7.84
-
-
4
Gibson,N Esp
Esp
-
10.8.51
-
-
5
West Point Rd 
Esp
Rav
Shire Rd Res.
Pre 9.92
-
Burnt
6
Balladonia Rd 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res. & VCL
25.4.93
20+
Good
7*
Fisheries Rd 
Esp
Esp
NP
19.4.93
120+
Good
8*
Daringdella Lake 
Esp
Esp
NR
20.4.93
50+
Good
9*
Mt Baring,N 
Esp
Esp
NP
25.4.93
2 000+
Good
10*
Boolenup Walk 
Esp
Esp
NP
26.4.93
20+
Good
* = new population
Response to Disturbance
Unknown
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
May be susceptible.
Summary and Recommendations
A. macranthera has been poorly collected.  Recent surveys have found this species to be a common component of
heathlands between Mt Baring and Israelite Bay in the Cape Arid National Park and Nuytsland Nature Reserve.
A. macranthera is secure in at least one National Park and two Nature Reserves.
References
Blackall and Grieve (1981), Watson (1962).

230
Angasomyrtus salina Trudgen & Keighery
MYRTACEAE
A low, widely spreading shrub, to 40 cm tall and 2 m diameter.  Young branches, very young leaves and flowers are
finely and sparsely covered in short, soft hairs.  Leaves are clustered at the ends of branches, narrow (4-6 x 1-1.5 mm),
thick, concave, yellow-green and dotted with glands.  Flowers are small (4-6 mm across petals), and solitary in the axils
of leaf-like bracts.  The very pale pink or white petals are about twice the length of the calyx lobes.  There are 16-19
stamens arranged in 2 whorls, the outer whorl being longer (0.4-0.6 mm) than the inner whorl.  The fruit is a capsule.
Flowering Period:  December - February
Distribution and Habitat
Angasomyrtus salina is distributed over about 80 km, between Truslove and Mt Heywood.  It is restricted to the low
marginal sand dunes immediately above high water of salt lakes.  Associated genera include 
Melaleuca and
Leucopogon.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 2
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Truslove Esp
Esp
?NR
8.2.77
-
-
2*
Truslove Esp
Esp
NR
22.9.92
20+
Good
3
Gibson,N 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
20.11.92
20
Good
4a
Dempster Rd 
Esp
Esp
NR
25.9.92
1 000+
Good
4b*
Dempster Rd
Esp
Esp
VCL
25.9.92
100+
Good
5
Mt Heywood,NE 
Esp
Esp
VCL
21.5.93
1 000+
Unburnt
21.5.93
1 000+ Seedl.
Post-fire
6*
Mt Ridley,N 
Esp
Esp
VCL
22.5.93
1 000+
Good
* = new population / sub-population
Response to Disturbance
Regenerates from seed after fire.  Thousands of post-fire seedlings were observed in population 5, 28 months after the
burn.
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Unknown
Summary and Recommendations
Although 
A. salina has a very restricted habitat, it is rarely cleared for agricultural purposes.  Indirect effects from
clearing of land, such as increased salinity and waterlogging of salt lakes and watercourses, may have an adverse effect
on this species.  Monitoring of populations occurring in agricultural areas is recommended.
This species is secure in two Nature Reserves, and is probably common around the margins of the many salt lakes in
unvested Crown Land north of Mt Ridley and westwards to Mt Heywood.
References
Burgman (1985b), Newbey (1983), Trudgen and Keighery (1983).

231
Astroloma sp. Fitzgerald (G.J.Keighery 8376)
EPACRIDACEAE
A low, multistemmed shrub, 5-25 cm tall.  Leaves are erect, grey-green, lanceolate (8 x 1.2 mm), flat or slightly
incurved, with a very fine, sharp yellow point at the tip.  The red flowers (10 mm) are solitary in leaf axils occurring
midway along the branches.  The corolla tube is narrowly tapered towards the apex, white hairy at the throat and smooth
below; calyx lobes (4 mm) are acute.
Flowering Period:  May
Distribution and Habitat
Astroloma sp. Fitzgerald is distributed over 320 km, between the Fitzgerald River and Clyde Hill.  It grows in white or
red sandy clay, or stony sand in mallee heath communities.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 2
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Clyde Hill,SSW 
Esp
Esp
-
3.5.83
-
-
2
Condingup,SE Esp
Esp
Private
12.4.65
-
Vulnerable
3
Mt Drummond,W 
Alb
Rav
NP
24.4.66
-
-
4
Thumb Peak 
Alb
Rav
NP
11.5.86
Common
-
Response to Disturbance
Appears to be a disturbance opportunity.  Two of the collections have been made after disturbance, being common near
Thumb Peak after fire, and near Condingup, it "grows well after first ploughing".
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Unknown
Summary and Recommendations
Further survey is required.
References
Robinson and Coates (1995).

232
Astroloma sp. Grass Patch (A.J.G.Wilson 110)
EPACRIDACEAE
A multistemmed, domed shrub, about 40 cm tall.  Young branches are covered in long white hairs which disappear with
age.  Leaves are narrow-linear (10-15 x 1 mm), numerous, margins are curled backwards (revolute) and the apex has a
long sharp spine; the upper surface is green and sparsely covered in short hairs, while the lower surface is pale green
with dense, short matted hairs.  Flowers are borne in the axils of leaves, usually in near opposite pairs; the calyx is dull
pinkish-red, erect (about 10 x 3 mm) and swollen towards the base, the outer surface is sparsely covered with short white
hairs, the inner surface lacks hairs; the corolla is dark red and covered with long silky hairs on the outside and bearded
inside.  The anthers are completely enclosed in the corolla tube. 
Flowering Period:  June
Distribution and Habitat
Astroloma sp. Grass Patch is known from near Coolbidge Creek to the east of Grass Patch, a range of about 30 km.  It
grows in grey-white fine sand over clay on the margins of salt lakes, associated with myrtaceous shrubs and halophytes.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 2
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1a
Ridley Rd,N 
Esp
Esp
Private
20.9.88
30
Healthy
1b
Kents Rd,S
Esp
Esp
Private }
2
Kents Rd,S 
Esp
Esp
NR
}
20.9.88
200+
Healthy
3
Ridley Rd,S 
Esp
Esp
Private }
4
Coolbidge Creek 
Esp
Esp
Private
22.6.90
-
-
Response to Disturbance
Unknown
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Unknown
Summary and Recommendations
On present knowledge, 
A. sp. Grass Patch appears to have both specific habitat requirements and a very restricted range.
Annette Wilson (personal communication) made a comprehensive survey of salt lakes in the Scaddan-Grass Patch
region in 1988, and she states that "the sandy lake shores on which this species has been found are rare in the area and it
is likely that the populations discovered represent much of the range".  
Recent land clearing for agriculture may adversely affect the habitat of this species by increasing the salinity and
occurrence of waterlogging in the salt lakes where 
A. sp. Grass Patch grows.  Although one population exists in a Nature
Reserve, it must be considered vulnerable.
The owners of the property to the south of Ridley Rd were going to fence population 3 in 1988-89.  This has not been
confirmed.

233
Banksia epica A.S.George
PROTEACEAE
A much-branched and spreading bushy shrub to 3.5 m tall.  Leaves are wedge-shaped (15-50 x 6-15 mm) being flattened
at the apex and narrowing to the base of the leaf; margins are shortly serrated.  The upper surface of leaves are covered
with short, matted, rust-coloured hairs when young, becoming scaly with age; the lower surface is woolly.  Flower heads
are cylindrical (9-17 x 6-6.5 cm).  Flowers are pale yellow; the style cream, and the apex of the pollen presenter purple.
Each head may have up to 50 follicles (13-20 x 6-9 mm) which are largely covered by old flowers for several years.
The seed (22-24 mm) has a notched wing and the body is covered with scattered small ridges.
Banksia epica is closely related to B. praemorsa and B. media.  B. media has longer leaves (110-120 mm) and a fruiting
cone where the persistent old flower parts are straight and point downwards, whereas with 
B. epica they are curled and
point upwards.  
B. praemorsa is restricted to the Albany region.
Pollinators of 
B. epica include the New Holland Honey Eater and the Yellow Rumped Thornbill.
Flowering Period:  April - June
Distribution and Habitat
B. epica is known from only two localities on the western coast of the Great Australian Bight.  It grows in deep white
sand, atop the coastal limestone cliffs or in secondary sand dunes, in heath.  Associated species may include 
B. media, B.
speciosa, Melaleuca uncinata, Calothamnus sp., Adenanthos sp. and Eucalyptus mallee.
Conservation Status
Current:  Priority 2
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Toolinna Cove 
Esp
Dund
NR
14.8.91
350
Healthy
2
Point Culver,W 
Esp
Dund
NR
15.6.89
2 000+
Healthy
Response to Disturbance
George (1987) suggests that 
B. epica is probably killed by fire and regenerates from seed.
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed susceptible.
Summary and Recommendations
Both known populations are undisturbed and secure within the Nuytsland Nature Reserve.  Due to the remote location,
and the probability that more populations may occur in the largely inaccessible area where 
B. epica grows, this species is
unlikely to be at risk.
References
George (1987).

234
Bentleya diminuta Crisp & J.M.Taylor
PITTOSPORACEAE
A small colony of rosettes of 6-20 leaves or short leafy stems, up to 5 cm tall and 3-4 cm broad, with horizontal
rhizomes at a depth of 3-10 cm.  The grey-green leaves are broader towards the apex (obovate, 5-20 x 2-7 mm), and are
covered in soft hairs when younger which largely disappear with age.  Flowers are solitary, erect, tubular, greenish with
long stamens (15-27 mm) exserted beyond the petals (8-12 mm); the ovary (5-6 mm) is densely covered with long,
spreading white hairs.  The maturing flower bends towards the ground as the fruit develops.

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