Western australian wildlife management program no. 21 Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Esperance District



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PART FOUR:  THE PLAN FOR
MANAGEMENT ............................................... 447
1. Determining Priorities.................................... 447
2. Management and Research Actions ............... 447
(i)
Small declining populations................ 447
(ii)
Accidental destruction during road/
rail/public utility maintenance............. 447
(iii)
Invasive weeds.................................... 448
(iv)
Grazing ............................................... 448
(v)
Mining activities ................................. 449
(vi)
Phytophthora dieback......................... 449
(vii)
Land clearing and associated
agricultural activities........................... 449
(viii) Liaison with landholders..................... 449
(ix)
Land acquisition.................................. 450
(x)
Survey taxa ......................................... 450
(xi)
Resurvey and mapping of known
populations.......................................... 450
(xii)
Monitoring of populations .................. 451
(xiii) Research in particular fire and
disturbance ecology ............................ 451
(xiv) Seed collection, storage and 
propagation ......................................... 452
(xv)
Re-establishment in suitable 
habitats in the wild .............................. 452
3. Priority Flora in the Esperance District .......... 452
4. Assistance from Volunteers and 
Information Systems ................................. 452
(i)
Rare flora volunteers ........................... 452
(ii)
District recording systems ................... 453
(iii)
Herbarium specimens.......................... 453
5. Conservation and Management of 
Special Areas ............................................ 453
6. Implementation and Term of the 
Management Program............................... 453
REFERENCES................................................... 464
GLOSSARY........................................................ 471
TABLES
1. CALM Managed Public Lands in the
Esperance District............................................... 6
2. Esperance District Declared Rare Flora
Scored (1-3) According to the Degree of Threat or
Urgency for Management and Research
Action ............................................................. 454
3. Esperance District Declared Rare Flora
Ranked in Priority Order for Protection and
Management Action ....................................... 456
4. Priority One, Two and Three Species Lists
with Recommended Status Indicated.............. 457
5  Declared rare and Poorly Known Flora in the
Esperance District as at 1992. Conservation Status
updated to December 1999............................. 461
FIGURES
1. Location of the Esperance District in
relation to other CALM Management
Regions of the State............................................ 2
2. The Esperance District covered by this
Program .............................................................. 4

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PART ONE:  INTRODUCTION
1.
The Need for Management
Western Australia has a unique flora, world renowned for its diversity and high level of endemism.  WACENSUS, the
database of plant names for the State, lists 12 442 current taxa (species, subspecies, varieties and phrase names) (July
1997) with the total likely to exceed 13 000 once botanists have completed surveying, searching and describing the
flora.  A significant proportion of the Western Australian total is concentrated in the south-west of the State, where there
is also a large number of endemics due to a long history of isolation and climatic and geological stability (Hopper 1979).
According to Briggs and Leigh (1996) the State has 45.9 percent of the Australian total of threatened, rare or poorly
known plant taxa, with 79 percent of these restricted to the south-west.  Nearly 2 000 Western Australian taxa are
currently listed as threatened or have been placed on the Department of Conservation and Land Management’s (CALM)
Flora Priority List because they are rare or poorly known (K. Atkins, personal communication).
Although some plants are rare because of their requirement for a specific restricted habitat, the majority have become
rare or threatened because of the activities of humans.  Extensive land clearing and modification of the environment
have resulted in the extinction of some species and threaten the survival of many others.  Continued land clearing, plant
diseases (particularly due to 
Phytophthora  species),  exotic weeds and pests, road works, urbanisation, grazing by
domestic stock and increasing salinity continue to threaten the flora.
The State Conservation Strategy, 
Wildlife Conservation Act 1950, and Conservation and Land Management Act 1984
provide the guidelines and legislative basis for the conservation of the State's indigenous plant and animal species.
CALM is responsible for the administration of the Wildlife Conservation Act, and hence, is responsible for the
protection and conservation of flora and fauna on all lands and waters throughout the State.  Section 23F of the Act
gives the Minister responsible for the Act statutory responsibility for the protection of those plant taxa declared to be
rare (i.e. threatened taxa).
This Wildlife Management Program collates the available biological and management information on the Declared Rare
Flora, and Priority One, Two and Three (poorly known) taxa of CALM's Esperance District, as at October 1992.  In
1992, 271 extant taxa were listed as Declared Rare Flora and a further 43 taxa were listed on the Schedule as presumed
extinct. In addition to those taxa declared to be rare, some 1 408 taxa were listed on CALM's Priority Flora List as at
October 1992.  The majority of these taxa require further detailed survey to accurately assess their conservation status.
Brown 
et al. (1998) provide illustrations of declared rare (threatened) flora as at 1998.
This District has been relatively poorly surveyed botanically, particularly for rare and threatened taxa.  Figure 1 shows
the location of the Esperance District in relation to the CALM management regions of the State.
2.
Objective of the Program
The objective of this Program for the Esperance District is:
To ensure and enhance, by appropriate management, the continued survival in the wild of populations of Declared Rare
Flora and other plants in need of special protection. 
It aims to achieve this by:
*
providing a useful reference for CALM staff and other land managers for the day-to-day management and
protection of Declared Rare Flora populations and populations of other taxa which are poorly known and may be
at risk;
*
directing Departmental resources within the Region to those taxa most urgently in need of attention;
*
assisting in the identification of Declared Rare taxa and other taxa potentially at risk, and their likely habitats; 
*
fostering an appreciation and increased awareness of the importance of protecting and conserving Declared Rare
Flora and other taxa potentially at risk or in need of special protection.

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Figure 1.
Location of the Esperance District in relation to other CALM Management Regions of the State
(map not available)

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3.
Rare Flora Legislation and Guidelines for Gazettal
The 
Wildlife Conservation Act  1950 protects all classes of indigenous flora throughout the State.  Protected flora
includes:
Spermatophyta - flowering plants, conifers and cycads
Pteridophyta - ferns and fern allies
Bryophyta - mosses and liverworts
Thallophyta - algae, fungi and lichens
Section 23F of the Act provides special protection to those taxa (species, subspecies, varieties, hybrids) considered by
the Minister to be:
*
In danger of extinction - the taxon is in serious risk of disappearing from the wild state within one or two decades
if present land use and other causal factors continue to operate;
*
Rare - less than a few thousand adult plants of the taxon existing in the wild;
*
Deemed to be threatened and in need of special protection - the taxon is not presently in danger of extinction but
is at risk over a longer period through continued depletion, or occurs largely on sites likely to experience changes
in land use which could threaten its survival in the wild;
or
*
Presumed Extinct - taxa which have not been collected, or otherwise verified over the past 50 years despite
thorough searching, or of which all known wild populations have been destroyed more recently.
In addition hybrids or suspected hybrids which satisfy the above criteria also must be:
*
a distinct entity, that is, the progeny are consistent with the agreed taxonomic limits for that taxon group;
*
capable of being self perpetuating, that is, not reliant on the parental taxa for replacement; and
*
the product of a natural event, that is, both parents are naturally occurring and cross fertilisation was by natural
means. 
Protection under section 23F is achieved by declaring them to be 'rare' by notice published in the 
Government Gazette.
CALM's Policy Statement No. 9 discusses the legislation relating to Declared Rare Flora and outlines the criteria for
gazettal.
Under the provisions of Section 23F, the 'taking' of Declared Rare Flora by any person on any category of land
throughout the State is prohibited without the written consent of the Minister.  A breach of the Act is liable to a penalty
of up to $10,000.  The legislation refers only to wild growing populations and applies equally to government officers
and private citizens on Crown and private land.
To 'take' in relation to flora includes 'to gather, pluck, cut, pull up, destroy, dig up, remove or injure the flora or to cause
or permit the same to be done by any means'.  This includes not only direct destruction or injury by human hand or
machine but also such activities as allowing grazing by stock, introducing pathogens, altering water tables so as to
inundate or deprive the flora of adequate soil moisture, allowing air pollutants to harm foliage, and burning.
The Schedule published in the 
Government Gazette is revised annually to accommodate additions and deletions to the
list of Declared Rare Flora.
*
the taxon (species, subspecies, variety) is well-defined, readily identified and represented by a voucher specimen
in a State or National Herbarium.  It need not be necessarily be formally described under conventions in the
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, but such a description is preferred and should be undertaken as
soon as possible after listing on the Schedule;

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Figure 2.
The Esperance District covered by this Program
(Map not available)

xiv
*
the taxon must have been thoroughly searched for in most likely habitats in the wild by competent botanists
during the past five years;
*
the searches have established that the plant in the wild is either rare, endangered or deemed to be threatened and
in need of special protection, or it is presumed extinct.
Plants may be deleted from the Rare Flora Schedule where:
*
recent botanical survey has shown that the taxon is no longer rare, endangered or in need of special protection;
*
the taxon is shown to be a hybrid that does not comply with the inclusion criteria;
 or
*
the taxon is no longer in danger of extinction because it has been adequately protected by reservation of land on
which it occurs or because population numbers have increased beyond the danger point.
4.
CALM's Priority Flora List
CALM maintains a Priority Flora List to determine priorities for survey of plants of uncertain conservation status. The
list comprised 1 398 taxa (at October 1992) that were poorly known and in need of further survey or are adequately
surveyed but in need of monitoring. The poorly known taxa are possibly at risk but do not meet the survey requirements
for gazettal as Declared Rare Flora (DRF), as outlined in Policy Statement No. 9.  Only those plants considered to be
threatened on the basis of thorough survey or presumed extinct can be included on the DRF Schedule.
The Priority Flora List is divided into the following categories according to the number of known populations and the
degree of perceived threat.
1:
Priority One - Poorly known Taxa
Taxa which are known from one or a few (generally <5) populations which are under threat, either due
to small population size, or being on lands under immediate threat, e.g. road verges, urban areas, farmland,
active mineral leases, etc., or the plants are under threat, e.g. from disease, grazing by feral animals, etc.  May
include taxa with threatened populations on protected lands.  Such taxa are under consideration for declaration
as 'rare flora', but are in urgent need of further survey.
2:
Priority Two - Poorly Known Taxa
Taxa which are known from one or a few (generally <5) populations, at least some of which are not
believed to be under immediate threat (i.e. not currently endangered).  Such taxa are under consideration
for declaration as 'rare flora', but are in urgent need of further survey.
3:
Priority Three - Poorly Known Taxa
Taxa which are known from several populations, and the taxa are not believed to be under immediate
threat (i.e. not currently endangered), either due to the number of known populations (generally >5), or
known populations being large, and either widespread or protected.  Such taxa are under consideration for
declaration as 'rare flora' but are in need of further survey.
4:
Priority Four - Rare Taxa
Taxa which are considered to have been adequately surveyed and which, whilst being rare (in
Australia), are not currently threatened by any identifiable factors.  These taxa require monitoring every
5-10 years.

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5.
Responsibilities within the Department
*
Reviewing Departmental policy on Declared Rare Flora is the responsibility of the CALM Corporate Executive;
*
Identification of Declared Rare Flora is the initial responsibility of Herbarium staff, but should, with appropriate
training, become a Regional responsibility also;
*
Locating Declared Rare Flora is the initial responsibility of Bioconservation Group (CALMScience) staff,
Wildlife Branch and the Western Australian Threatened Species and Communities Unit (WATSCU) (Nature
Conservation Division) and Regional Services Division staff.
*
Determination of land status and preparation of material for notification to landowners is the responsibility of
Wildlife Branch;
*
Hand-delivered notification to landowners of Declared Rare Flora populations is the responsibility of Regional
staff and Wildlife Branch;
*
Maintenance of Declared Rare Flora information and database, and dissemination of these data are the
responsibility of Wildlife Branch;
*
Advice on management prescriptions is the responsibility of staff of Bioconservation Group (CALMScience),
Regional Ecologists (Regional Services Division), Wildlife Branch and WATSCU staff;
*
Coordination of Recovery Plans and Interim Recovery Plans for threatened taxa is the responsibility of
WATSCU;
*
Management, protection and regular inspection of Declared Rare Flora populations is the responsibility of staff
of the Esperance District;
*
Enforcement matters relating to the provisions of the Wildlife Conservation Act are the responsibility of Wildlife
Officers in the South Coast Region;
*
Implementation and revision of the management program is the responsibility of the South Coast Region
Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team.
6.
The Esperance District
The Esperance District lies along the eastern south coast of Western Australia, extending eastwards from the Vermin
Proof Fence to the South Australian border and south of the 31°30' parallel.  The District measures about 850 km in
east-west dimension and 170 km on average in north-south dimensions.  It includes the Shires of Esperance, Dundas and
part of Ravensthorpe (Figure 2).  District administration is based in Esperance.
Esperance is one of the two Districts which make up CALM's South Coast Region.  The Esperance District contains six
National Parks and about 70 Nature Reserves; fourteen of these conservation reserves each cover an area greater than
5 000 ha.  The Dundas Nature Reserve (780 000 ha), Nuytsland Nature Reserve (625 000 ha) and Cape Arid National
Park (280 000 ha) are major reserves within the District.  The Esperance District has a total area of 14.5 million ha, with
nearly 2 million ha being managed by CALM (Table 1).
TABLE 1:   CALM Managed Public Lands in the Esperance District  (CALM 1991)
Land Tenure
Area (ha)
National Park
425 460
Nature Reserve
1 508 040
Timber Reserve
3 720
Misc. Reserves
3 800
TOTAL
1 941 020

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Agriculture is principally restricted to coastal areas west of Cape Arid, extending for 60 to 80 km inland, except for the
Salmon Gums area which is about 140 km north of Esperance at the northern limit (Figure 2).  There is about 1.5 million
ha of agricultural land in the Esperance District.  The main activities are cropping and grazing of sheep and cattle.
Inland, mining is a major activity, especially in the Norseman area.  Hatter Hill and Mt Day, located in the north-western
sector of the District, are other areas which attract mining interests.  Pastoral leases cover much of the area east of
Balladonia.
Climate
The south coast experiences a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters.  Rainfall decreases
northwards and eastwards across the District, from 674 mm per annum at Esperance to 274 mm at Norseman and 263
mm at Eucla.  Along the coast the maximum rainfall is received between May and October, while inland the rain tends
towards non-seasonality with quantities of rain falling due to summer thunderstorms.
Temperatures are strongly influenced by distance from the coast, with inland parts experiencing a far greater range in
mean temperatures than those of Esperance (25
° in summer and 7° in winter).  In summer, temperatures over 38°C are
common, but strong sea breezes generally provide a cooling effect close to the coast.
Geology
There are three distinct geological units within the Esperance District.  The rocks of all three units have been deeply
weathered and are overlain in part by weathered profiles and relatively recent soils.
The Yilgarn Block, formed 2 600 to 3 100 million years ago, lies in the western sector of the District.  It consists of a
layered succession of metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks which are intruded by granites.  Some of these
rocks include the economically important "greenstones" which contain gold and nickel; these are mainly seen around
Norseman.
The Albany-Fraser Province divides the District in a north-south direction and includes the Fraser Range and the area
from Esperance to Cape Arid.  Sediments, derived from the erosion of granites and greenstones, were deposited along
the margin of the Yilgarn Block 1 200 to 1 400 million years ago.  These were then deformed and intruded by bodies of
molten granite to form various peaks and ranges.
The Bremer and Eucla Sedimentary Basins were formed when the sea encroached over the land in the south coast region
about 135 million years ago.  A broad gulf, referred to as the Bremer Basin, formed in the area of the Nullarbor Plain
and sediments dominated by limestone (calcium carbonate) were deposited.  To the east of Esperance, spongolite beds
formed from the skeletons of sponges (spicules) which developed in the Bremer Basin.
Physiography and Soils
In the western sector of the Esperance District, apart from the isolated granite hills and low sand dunes, the land surface
is very flat and rises from sea level to a height of about 150 m.  Near the coast, river drainages are well developed,
forming steep gorges and river terraces.  A small coastal plain is developed in Esperance Bay and is backed by a low
escarpment (about 45 m).
The coast is indented by numerous rock headlands, with Cape Le Grand and Cape Arid rising to about 350 m above sea
level.  Offshore, numerous small, steep, rocky islands and reefs, form the Archipelago of the Recherche, and extend for
60 km to the edge of the continental shelf (Morgan and Peers 1973).
Inland on the laterised plateau, chains of small, interconnected salt lakes have formed from internal drainage. In the
south, the clay pans are static, rounded, and give rise to semi-permanent, freshwater swamps.  Surrounding areas are
dominated by yellow duplex soils.  Northwards, clay pans have developed which are saline, elongated and show a north-
north-westerly migration (Morgan and Peers 1973).
The Lake Hope-Lake Johnston area, in the north-west sector of the District, is gently undulating with the higher ground
separated by ill-defined water courses subject to sheet flooding.  The broad valleys containing the lakes are products of
rivers that originally flowed into the Eucla Basin.  The lakes are shaped by the prevailing westerly winds; the eastern

xvii
margins have dunes and small salt lakes, while the western side is actively eroded producing rock outcrops.  There is
substantial variation in the soil types including red earths, red duplex soils, yellow sands and red and yellow duplex
soils.  The only areas of significant relief are the Bremer Range (max. 100 m) and Fitzgerald Peaks, which include Peak
Charles (654 m) and Peak Eleanora (503 m) (Gower and Bunting 1976).  
In the northern sector vast plains are interspersed with low rugged ranges and hills, particularly in the vicinity of
Norseman and in the Fraser Range (over 300 m).  Yellow sands occur on the laterite residuals.  Generally the country is
gently undulating, with internal drainage towards broad valleys of red earth which contain salt lakes.  The elongated salt
lake beds are surrounded by loamy calcareous soils.  
To the east lies the Bunda Plateau which slopes gently southwards from about 150 m above sea level to about 90 m.
The flatness is largely inherited from the flatness of the Tertiary sea floor and has been perpetuated by uniform erosion.
Projecting above the plains are inliers of Proterozoic rocks, for example Mt Ragged which is composed of quartzite.
The surface of the limestone plateau is characterised by low stony ridges separated by clay flats.  Soils are dominated by
shallow calcareous loams.  A scarp, known as the Hampton Range, has formed at the southern margin of the plateau.
South of the scarp is a low-lying coastal plain which has chains of elongated lagoons and modern coastal sand dunes
along the fringe (Doepel and Lowry 1970, Lowry 1971, Lowry and Doepel 1974).
Vegetation
Parts of the South-West Botanical Province, the Eremaean Botanical Province, and the South Western Interzone lie
within the Esperance District.  
The South-West Botanical Province occupies the south-west of the State, extending from Shark Bay to near Israelite
Bay.  Characteristic vegetation includes heath, thicket, mallee, woodland and forest.  The Eyre Botanical District
occupies a narrow strip along the south coast with scrub and mallee-heath communities dominating.  To the north lies
the Roe Botanical District which typically has mallee, scrub-heath and 
Allocasuarina thickets. 
The Eremaean Botanical Province dominates Western Australia, comprising the arid central portion which is
characterised by hummock grassland, scrub and low woodland.  The Eucla Botanical District occupies the south-east
corner of the State, extending eastwards from about Caiguna.  Low trees of 
Acacia papryocarpa, A. aneura and
Allocasuarina cristata grow near the coast with a bluebush steppe of Maireana sedifolia and annual grasses and herbs
grading to a treeless centre.
The South Western Interzone lies between the above two Provinces and encompasses the Coolgardie Botanical District.
Norseman and Eyre are included in this District which is dominated by eucalypt woodlands.  On calcareous soils the
woodlands become more open and a saltbush-bluebush understorey appears.  Sandplains are characterised by scrub-
heath and 
Allocasuarina thickets.
7.
Botanical History of the Esperance District
The Frenchman, Labillardiere, was the naturalist of the d'Entrecasteaux expedition who visited the south coast with the
corvettes 
La Recherche and L'Esperance.  In December 1792, they were compelled by bad weather to lay anchor for a
week near Esperance Bay.  Plant collections were made from a small island within the Bay, as well as the mainland.
Matthew Flinders sailed along the south coast of Western Australia on the 
Investigator with the botanist, Robert Brown,
artist, Ferdinand Bauer, and gardener and conservator, Peter Good, aboard.  They collected plants from King George
Sound during December 1801, and the next month headed east, landing at Lucky Bay and the Archipelago of the
Recherche between 10 and 18 January 1802.  Brown travelled west as far as Cape Le Grand, and also visited Mondrain
Island and Middle Island where he collected 29 species.  Many of the localities in Brown's diaries have had to be
interpreted as Flinders did not name many of the islands and capes until after the voyage.  The diaries are on very poor
paper and written in bad quality ink or pencil.  Most entries are mere notes on plants and carelessly written (Mabberley
1985).  This has implications for the current List of Priority Flora as a few of the taxa on the List have not been
rediscovered since Robert Brown collected them. 

xviii
Excursions to Lucky Bay and Cape Arid were made by W. Baxter who collected for Henchman between 1823 and 1825,
and in 1829.
John Septimus Roe, Surveyor-General,  travelled from Avon to the South Coast in 1848-49 and collected plants on the
journey.  He reached the Pallinup River in October 1848, then headed eastwards where he named the Bremer Range and
Fitzgerald Peaks (includes Peak Charles) after the then Governor, Charles Fitzgerald.  Roe continued eastwards via Mt
Ridley and Mt Ney (named after a horse) until he reached the Russell Range, then returned along the coastline reaching
King George Sound in January 1849. 
James Drummond was curator of the Botanic Gardens in Cork, Ireland, before emigrating to the Swan River Colony.  In
1848, he and Maxwell explored the country between Bremer Bay and Mid Mt Barren, the eastern limit of Drummond's
excursions.  Maxwell later collected on his own, with some of his travels extending "towards the Great Bight".
The overland expedition of Sir John Forrest from Western Australia to Adelaide via Eucla provided some species in
1870.  At a later date important collections were sent by Dempster from between his stations at Esperance and Fraser's
Range.  Sarah Therese Brooks, who lived at Israelite Bay and later at Balbinia (about 40 km north of Mt Ragged), also
contributed many plants.  It is believed that she sent hundreds if not thousands of specimens to Dr Ferdinand von
Mueller in Victoria.  Dr Mueller was collaborating with George Bentham who, in 1861, had started to write the seven
volumes of 
Flora Australiensis.  In naming species of Hakea and Scaevola after Miss Brooks, Mueller misspelt her
name and gave it in the form 
brookeanus (Hamersley, in Carr and Carr 1981).
In October-November 1901, Ludwig Diels travelled from Coolgardie along the direct road to Esperance Bay, partly
through still unexplored country.  Cecil R.P. Andrews, an education administrator, collected along the same road in
1904, as well as along the road from the Stirling Range to Esperance.  The prospector, Frank Hann, travelled from
Coujinup Hill northwards then east to the Bremer Range in 1901, naming the Johnston Lakes after the Surveyor-
General, H.F. Johnston.  Nine years later, Hewby and May travelled a more southern route via Coujinup Hill, south of
Lake Tay to Peak Charles.  A number of the Rare and Priority Flora are located along these old, now largely overgrown
routes.
The Government botanists, Charles A. Gardner (1929-1961) and R.D. Royce (1962-1975), collected widely through the
area.  The Australian Geographical Society, on their expedition to the Archipelago of the Recherche, was accompanied
by J.H. Willis who wrote accounts of the islands and their flora (Willis 1953, 1959).   During the 1960s, John S. Beard
surveyed the eastern south coast region to prepare his vegetation maps and explanatory memoirs which are largely
interpreted from aerial photographs (Beard 1969, 1973a, 1973b).  A party from the University of Adelaide worked from
Israelite Bay to Esperance in the spring of 1968 and is understood to have made large collections (Beard 1973a).
The proposed release of land for agriculture in the 1980s prompted a number of botanical surveys to be carried out.
Mark Burgman and Ken Newbey extensively surveyed land north of the existing farmland, extending east of the Vermin
Proof Fence to near the west boundary of Cape Arid National Park (Burgman 1985a, 1985b, Newbey 1983, Burgman
and Newbey 1990).  The Mt Beaumont area was also surveyed by Eleanor Bennett (1983).  Burgman and Newbey
(1990) found that of the 1 351 vascular plants identified in their survey area, 20 per cent were undescribed taxa and 11
per cent were considered to be rare, geographically restricted or very poorly known.  Subsequently, many of the taxa on
the Declared Rare and Priority Flora Lists have been included because of these studies.
Some of the contemporary botanists and collectors who have significantly added to our knowledge on the flora in the
Esperance District include William Archer, Keith Bradby, Ian Brooker, Andrew Brown, Rhonda Bruhn, Robert
Chinnock, Ray Cranfield, Michael Crisp, Thelma Daniell, Alex George, Bernie Haberley, Stephen Hopper, Neville
Marchant, Doug Monk, Laurie Johnston, Greg Keighery, Nathan McQuoid, Bernie Norris, Ria Panhuysen, Jocelyn
Powell, Libby Sandiford, Ian Solomon, Coral Turley, Malcolm Trudgen, Arthur Weston, Paul Wilson and Don Voigt. 

xix
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GLOSSARY
achene
a small, dry, indehiscent, 1-seeded fruit
acute
terminating in a distinct but not protracted point, the converging edges separated by an 
angle of less than 90o
aeolian
wind blown
alternate
of leaves or other lateral organs, borne singly at different heights on the axils
annual
a plant whose life span ends within one year after germination
anther
that part of the stamen which contains the pollen
aril
a fleshy appendage of the seed, growing near the seed stalk
awn
a bristle-like appendage
axil
the angle between a leaf or bract and the axis bearing it. adj. 
axillary
beak
a prominent terminal projection
bract
a leaf-like structure, different in form from foliage leaves and without an axillary bud, 
associated with an inflorescence or flower
bracteoles
a small bract-like structure borne singly or in pairs on the stalk or calyx of a flower
calyx
the sepals of one flower collectively
callus
a hard thickened part, e.g. on the labellum of some orchids; adj. 
callous
capsule
a dry fruit formed from two or more united carpels and dehiscing at maturity to release 
seeds
cilia
in higher plants, hairs more or less confined to the margins of an organ; adj. 
ciliate
claw
a narrow, stalk-like basal portion of a petal, sepal or bract
concave
curved like the inside of a sphere or circle
corolla
the petals of a flower collectively
corymb
an inflorescence in which the lowest flower stalks continue to grow until they reach
approximately the same level as the terminal one, so that all the flowers are brought to the
same level; the oldest flowers are at the edges
culm
the stem of grasses, usually hollow except at the nodes
cyme
an inflorescence in which each flower, in turn, is formed at the tip of a growing axis 
and further flowers are formed on branches arising below it; oldest flowers are in the 
centre not on the edges
deciduous
falling seasonally
decussate
in pairs, with successive pairs borne at right angles to each other
dehiscent
breaking open at maturity to release the contents

xxvii
disc 
a plate or rim of tissue, derived from the receptacle of a flower, occurring between 
whorls of floral parts
elliptic
oval in outline, widest at the centre
ephemeral
a short-lived plant
exserted
protruding
filament
the stalk of a stamen
floret
a grass flower, together with the lemma and palea that enclose it (often applied to 
flowers in Cyperaceae and Asteraceae)
free
not fused or united (with other organs)
fruit
the seed-bearing structure in angiosperms formed from the ovary after flowering
genus
a group of species believed to be related phylogenetically and usually clearly separable 
from other such groups, or a single species without close relatives; pl. 
genera
gland
a structure, without or on the surface of the plant, with a secretory function
glandular
bearing glands; functioning as a gland
glaucous
blue-green in colour, with a whitish bloom
glume
a dry, scaly bract
habit
the growth form of a plant, comprising its size, shape, texture and orientation
habitat
the environment in which the plant lives 
herb
any vascular plant that never produces a woody stem
herbaceous
not woody; soft in texture
hybrid
an offspring of genetically different parents
indusium
a cup enclosing the stigma
inflorescence
the group or arrangement in which flowers are borne on a plant
internode
the portion of a stem between the level of insertion of two successive leaves or leaf 
pairs (or branches of an inflorescence)
involucre
a whorl of bracts surrounding the head of a flower and rising from its base
keel
applied to the two front-united petals of a flower in Papilionaceae
keeled
of leaves or bracts, folded and ridged along the midrib; ridged like the keel of a boat
labellum
a lip; in Orchidaceae, the distinctive median petal that serves as an alighting platform  for
pollinating insects
lanceolate
of a leaf, about four times as long as broad, broadest at the lower half and tapering 
towards the tip
leaflet
one of the ultimate segments of a compound leaf

xxviii
legume
a fruit characteristic of the families Mimosaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae, 
formed from one carpel and either dehiscing along both sides, or indehiscent
lignotuber
a woody swelling below or just above the ground, containing adventitious buds from 
which new shoots develop if the top of the plant is cut or burnt
ligule
the apical part of a petal in the flowers of Sterculiaceae; the strap-shaped petal-like corolla
of the outer florets in the heads of Asteraceae; a membranous of ciliate projection from the
junction of the leaf-sheath and the blade in a grass
linear
very narrow in relation to the length, and with the sides parallel
mallee
a growth habit in which several woody stems arise separately from a lignotuber 
(usually applied to shrubby eucalypts)
midrib
the central, and usually the most prominent, vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ
nerve
a vein
node
the level (transverse plane) of a stem at which one or more leaves arise
oblanceolate
similar in shape to 
lanceolate but attached at the narrower end
oblong
having the length greater than the width but not many times greater, and the sides 
parallel
obovate
similar in shape to 
ovate but attached at the narrower end
obtuse
blunt or rounded at the apex, the converging edges separated by an angle greater than  90
degrees
orbicular
circular or nearly so
ovate
shaped like a section through a long axis of an egg, and attached by the wider end
panicle
a compound raceme; an indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are borne on 
branches of the main axis or on further branches of these
pappus 
a tuft (or ring) of hairs or scales borne above the ovary and outside the corolla in 
Asteraceae
pedicel
the stalk of a flower
peduncle
the stalk of an inflorescence
perennial
a plant whose life-span extends over more than two growing seasons
perianth
the calyx and corolla of a flower, especially where the two are similar
petal
a member of the inner whorl of non-fertile parts surrounding the fertile organs of a 
flower, usually soft and coloured conspicuously
phyllode
a leaf whose blade is much reduced or absent, and whose petiole and rachis have 
assumed the function of a whole leaf
pod
a leguminous fruit
prostrate
lying flat on the ground
raceme
an indeterminate inflorescence in which a main axis produces a series of flowers on the 
lateral stalks, the oldest at the base and the youngest at the top

xxix
recurved
curved or curled downwards or backwards
scale
a reduced or rudimentary leaf
sepal
a member or the (usually green) outer whorl of non-fertile parts surrounding the fertile 
organs of a flower
sessile
without a stalk
shrub
a woody plant less than 5 m tall, either without a distinct main axis, or with branches 
persisting on the main axis almost to its base
species
a taxon comprising individuals, or populations of individuals, capable of interbreeding  to
produce fertile offspring; the largest group of individuals between which there are no 
distinguishable, 
consistent
differences in form or reproductive mechanisms
spike
an unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are without stalks
spine
a stiff, sharp-pointed structure, formed by modification of a plant organ
spinescent
ending in a spine; modified to form a spine
stamen
the male organ of seed-forming plants, consisting of the pollen bearing anther and 
supported by the filament
staminode
a sterile stamen
standard
the posterior petal in the flower in Papilionaceae
stellate
star-shaped; consisting of star-shaped cells
stigma
the female part of the flower which receives the pollen and is supported by the style
style
the stalk joining the stigma to the ovary 
taxon
a group or category, at any level, in a system for classifying plants or animals
trifoliolate
having three leaflets
tepal
a segment or unit of a perianth that is not clearly differentiated into calyx or corolla
umbel
a racemose inflorescence in which all the individual flower stalks arise in a cluster at 
the
top of the peduncle and are of about equal length
venation
the arrangement of veins in a leaf
wing
a membranous expansion of a fruit or seed, which aids dispersal; a thin flange of tissue 
extended beyond the normal outline of a stem or petiole; a lateral petal of a flower in 
Papilionaceae
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