PART FOUR: THE PLAN FOR MANAGEMENT 1. Determining Priorities This section assesses the conservation status of each species of Declared Rare Flora (DRF) within the Esperance District
and makes recommendations for protection, research and management. On the basis of these recommendations, each
species was ranked on a scale of 1 to 3 under 15 categories (Table 2) recognised as potential threats or management
requirements. Species with a low degree of threat or urgency for management and research action were given a score of
1. Those with a high degree of threat were allocated a score of 3. Species neither threatened nor in need of action were
marked with a dash. The scores were summed for each of the 23 species and for each threat/requirement category.
Table 2 summarises the perceived threats, and management and research requirements for each species of extant DRF in
the Esperance District.
Table 3 lists the 23 species of extant DRF in priority order according to the urgency of their requirement for
management action. Species with a high ranking score are most threatened and/or most in need of action. It is intended
that all requirements for each species, as outlined in the previous species treatments, will be implemented. Work will be
conducted, programmed or deferred according to priority, available funds and existing resources and workloads.
Attention is directed to Table 2 to determine which taxa should have priority for management actions. This will enable
resources and staff within the Esperance District to be allocated where they are most urgently required.
Species most in need of attention for a particular management or research requirement can be determined from Table 2.
Ranking the categories illustrates which are the most critical threats/management requirements in the District.
2. Management and Research Actions The following details the threats/management requirements given in Table 2.
Small declining populations
Species were ranked according to the known numbers of plants:
No. of Plants
<250 or unknown
250 - 1 000
A number of species of DRF have very small population sizes making them particularly vulnerable to localised
disturbance. Species at risk in some or all of their known populations are:
Adenanthos eyrei Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor Caladenia exstans ms
Daviesia microcarpa Eucalyptus insularis Eucalyptus merrickiae Lambertia echinata Myoporum turbinatum Rhizanthella gardneri (ii)
Accidental destruction during road/rail/public utility maintenance
A number of populations of DRF and Priority taxa in the Esperance District occur on, or partly on, road and to a lesser
extent rail reserves. Except for the areas of recent land release, most road/rail reserves are only one or two chains (20 or
40 m) wide, which includes the road itself and one or more public utilities. The narrow reserves are affected, both
directly and indirectly, by the use and nature of adjoining lands (predominantly agriculture). Threats include weed
invasion, periodic grazing (road reserves are sometimes used as stock routes), drift of chemical sprays and fertilisers,
fenceline maintenance and periodic burning. Being access routes, the vegetation on road reserves can also be affected
by rubbish dumping, uncontrolled vehicle access, wildflower picking and camping. The location of populations of Rare
Flora in more secure larger patches of remnant vegetation should always be a high priority.
The majority of road reserves are managed by local authorities or Main Roads W.A., and rail reserves by Westrail.
DRF can be accidentally damaged during road works such as maintenance operations (grading, weed control), drainage
works, minor and major road/rail upgrading, metal dumps and gravel/sand extraction. These authorities all use contract
personnel and equipment as well as permanent staff for these operations. Management and field personnel within Shires
and the two government agencies need to know where the populations of DRF and Priority Flora occur to avoid
accidental destruction of plants. This is carried out currently by notification letters from CALM and the use of linear
markers in the field.
Above- and below-ground utilities such as power lines, water pipelines and telecommunication lines generally follow
road and rail reserves. As many threatened or Priority Flora populations occur on these narrow linear reserves, any
maintenance, upgrading or management of these utilities close to known populations can damage plants. This will
generally be in the form of mechanical damage to plants by machinery and equipment. However, some agencies control
weeds around poles or along pipelines with residual chemicals, which can kill or damage native plants. Such chemicals
should not be used adjacent to DRF populations.
Main Roads W.A. has developed a permanent, but discrete field marking system for demarcation of environmentally
significant areas on road reserves. CALM has adopted this system to mark DRF and Priority Flora populations
occurring along linear routes both on CALM land and other areas. Local Shires have also been encouraged to adopt
such a system. However, there can be problems with roadside markers, as many people now recognise them and smaller
plants can be trampled by 'tourists' and removed by unscrupulous plant collectors. Populations most urgently in need of
linear marking on road reserves, CALM and other lands are:
Boronia revoluta Conostylis lepidospermoides Daviesia microcarpa Eucalyptus cerasiformis Eucalyptus merrickiae Eucalyptus platydisca ms
Myoporum turbinatum (iii)
Invasive weeds pose a significant threat to a some populations particularly those on the narrow road reserves managed
by local authorities. In many cases, effective weed control strategies involving herbicide treatments or mechanical
removal have yet to be developed for most threatened flora populations because of the large number of invasive weed
species and differences in weed composition between sites. Taxa which should be monitored for invasive weeds are:
Conostylis lepidospermoides Myoporum turbinatum (iv)
DRF populations on private property in the District are generally on farmland where they require protection from
grazing by domestic stock. In many situations landholders themselves have excluded stock, and in others CALM has
provided fencing as part of formal agreements. Rabbits are a widespread and often overlooked problem, particularly on
sandy soils and granite outcrop areas. Both of these habitats contain many DRF species. Other feral animals (e.g. goats)
have been detected in more remote areas. Monitoring of the following taxa is required:
Myriophyllum petraeum Rhizanthella gardneri (v)
The mining industry is centred around Norseman, along with pockets of activity in the north-west sector (including
Hatter Hill and Mt Day) of the Esperance District. Numerous DRF and Priority taxa occur in these areas and are
generally poorly surveyed. Mining activities which may affect DRF include exploration (clearing of survey lines,
drilling and costean operations), actual mine site establishment, provision of services (road making, power) and
increased recreation activity by mine workers. Close liaison between companies, CALM, the Department of Minerals
and Energy, Department of Environmental Protection and the Environmental Protection Authority is essential. Species
most at risk are:
Boronia revoluta Eucalyptus cerasiformis (vi)
Insufficient data are currently available to accurately assess the impact of the soil-borne pathogens,
Phytophthora species, on DRF in the Esperance District. In at least some cases plants not destroyed by direct infection may be
severely affected by resultant structural and ecological changes in ecological communities which have the disease.
Disturbances such as road construction are known to promote the spread of the disease, particularly in moist, relatively
low-lying sites unless carried out under strictly controlled hygiene conditions. Any operations in localities likely to
support the pathogen should be conducted under strict hygiene conditions.
Phytophthora poses a very significant threat
to the three remaining plants of
Lambertia echinata. (vii)
Land clearing and associated agricultural activities
Many threatened taxa within the Esperance District lie within the agricultural zone. Populations may be endangered by
clearing of land, installation of firebreaks, spray drift, changes in drainage and/or water tables, and increased nutrients.
Other associated threats such as grazing and invasive weeds are discussed above. Species at risk are:
Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor Caladenia exstans ms
Caladenia voigtii ms
Conostylis lepidospermoides Eucalyptus merrickiae Myoporum turbinatum Myriophyllum petraeum Prostanthera carrickiana Rhizanthella gardneri (viii) Liaison with landholders
Close association and cooperation with private landholders, local authorities, land managers, mining companies and
government agencies (e.g. DEP, Ministry for Planning, DOLA, Western Power and Main Roads W.A.) is essential to
ensure the continued survival of the majority of DRF in the Esperance District. Survival of some taxa currently relies on
the goodwill of local Shires and private landowners. Departmental staff are required to provide advice and assistance,
regarding conservation and management, to landholders and other agencies with Rare Flora populations on land under
their control. Landowners are requested to arrange their operations so that the area of Rare Flora will not be destroyed
or damaged in any way. Priority species for staff liaison with landowners or managers are:
Boronia revoluta Caladenia voigtii ms
Conostylis lepidospermoides Daviesia microcarpa Eucalyptus cerasiformis Eucalyptus merrickiae Myoporum turbinatum (ix)
Acquisition of land by the Department, by donation, exchange or purchase, is required for those species not well
represented on conservation reserves. DRF occurring on land reserved for nature conservation are generally considered
to be less threatened than those on land designated for other purposes. It should be noted, however, that their presence
on a reserve contributes to, but does not guarantee, population survival. Reserves, like other areas, are subject to
disturbances such as weed invasion, fire, altered drainage and water tables, grazing, disease, and where approved,
Species were ranked according to the known number of conservation reserves in which the populations grow:
No. Populations in
The following are Priority species for land acquisition:
Billardiera mollis Boronia revoluta Caladenia voigtii ms
Daviesia microcarpa Eremophila denticulata subsp. trisulcata Eucalyptus cerasiformis Eucalyptus platydisca (x)
Species were ranked according to their known distributional range:
Further survey of suitable habitats in the wild to locate other populations is a requirement for almost all of the DRF in
the Esperance District. Two taxa (
Adenanthos eyrei and Drummondita hassellii var. longifolia) were found to be very
geographically restricted, but were considered reasonably 'safe' in a conservation reserve. Taxa that are most urgently in
need of intensive field surveys are:
Billardiera mollis Daviesia microcarpa Eremophila denticulata subsp. trisulcata Eucalyptus platydisca Lambertia echinata Myoporum turbinatum Prostanthera carrickiana (xi)
Resurvey and mapping of known populations
For most populations early records and location plans have been very poor, with many only known from herbarium
specimens or vague locations. Although Rare Flora Report Forms and detailed site plans are available for many
populations there are a number which still require this base-line survey information.
After initial detailed assessment each population in the District should be resurveyed at least once every five years to
observe fluctuations in population numbers and to monitor changes. Species were ranked according to the proportion of
populations visited since 1990:
Populations surveyed (since 1990)
The following species are in urgent need of mapping and resurvey of known populations:
Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor Billardiera mollis Caladenia exstans ms
Eucalyptus cerasiformis Rhizanthella gardneri (xii)
Monitoring of populations
Surveys to provide information on population dynamics, plant longevity and regeneration, as well monitoring changes in
habitat which may threaten survival are required for all DRF. The following groups of species have highest priority for
the establishment of permanent monitoring plots and for more intense monitoring at regular intervals:
- Species which require specialised annual/biannual monitoring to assess population dynamics:
Drummondita hassellii var. longifolia Myriophyllum petraeum Rhizanthella gardneri - Short-lived disturbance species which are not generally found in the wild without some disturbance event, and
require special monitoring to determine their longevity:
Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor Billardiera mollis Eremophila denticulata subsp. denticulata Eremophila denticulata subsp. trisulcata Myoporum turbinatum - Species with small population numbers which require at least annual monitoring as any damage or loss of plants may
result in local extinction:
Boronia revoluta Daviesia microcarpa Lambertia echinata (xiii) Research in particular fire and disturbance ecology
Few of the DRF in the District have been the subject of detailed studies. Research into their taxonomy, genetic systems,
population biology and ecology is needed to determine the best means of protecting and managing populations.
Response to different fire regimes, drought tolerance, and the impact of bees on native pollinators (particularly of
members of the Orchidaceae) require attention. The following species are in most urgent need of research:
Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor Daviesia microcarpa Lambertia echinata Myoporum turbinatum Rhizanthella gardneri More specifically a number of taxa, particularly those known from only one or a few localities, require urgent research
on their fire ecology and should where possible be excluded or protected from fire until appropriate fire regimes have
been developed by both research and regional staff. Taxa which may require protection/exclusion from fire until
specific fire regimes have been developed are:
Boronia revoluta Drummondita hassellii var. longifolia Lambertia echinata Myoporum turbinatum Rhizanthella gardneri Ricinocarpus trichophorus (xiv) Seed collection, storage and propagation
Collection and long-term storage of germ-plasm (seed or tissues) from wild populations of DRF provides a source of
propagation material for future re-establishment. Priority for collection of this material will depend upon the degree of
threat to the species. CALM is undertaking work in this area through its Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the
Although conservation of DRF in the wild is the highest priority, all species should ideally be established in a
germplasm storage program. This would ensure safety against extinction, particularly for those species known in the
wild from only a few individuals. Kings Park and Botanic Garden have an active propagation research program and
currently hold living collections of a number of DRF.
Re-establishment in suitable habitats in the wild
Taxa poorly represented on conservation reserves and considered critically endangered should be propagated and re-
established in suitable, less vulnerable habitats on land designated for nature conservation. Species requiring re-
establishment into the wild by CALM staff under approved management programs are:
Daviesia microcarpa Lambertia echinata 3. Priority Flora in the Esperance District The conservation status of the Priority Flora in the Esperance District was assessed in Part 3. Recommended status,
based on recent surveys, is listed in Table 4. The priority for conservation action in the Esperance District is:
Poorly known taxa in need of further survey
- Priority One
- Priority Two
- Priority Three
Taxa requiring monitoring
- Priority Four
4. Assistance from Volunteers and Information Systems (i)
Rare flora volunteers
In recent years CALM has used volunteers to assist with a number of flora surveys including the Banksia Atlas, the Rare
Eucalypt Survey and the Rare Poison Plant Survey. In 1990, CALM initiated a Rare Flora Volunteer Program. The
Esperance District has a list of volunteers who are willing to work on various projects. Currently the Wildflower
Society updates and incorporates flora specimens into the herbarium at the Esperance Office.
A significant number of new populations of DRF and Priority taxa have been located by amateur botanists, either
individuals or members of groups such as the Orchid Society, Wildflower Society of Western Australia and the
Naturalist's Club. Such groups and individuals should be given every encouragement to continue their good work.
District recording systems
Confidential registers, with precise locality details of known populations, are maintained in the Esperance District office
and in the central record system at CALM's head office in Como. The register is updated as required. Information on
populations on CALM land will also be retained on individual nature reserve files.
(iiii) Herbarium specimens
The Western Australian Herbarium has requested voucher specimens from all populations of DRF and Priority species.
Specimens of DRF can only be collected with written approval from the Minister. Colour slide photographs of DRF are
requested for the 'DELTA.RED' project, aimed at capturing a computerised image of each threatened taxon.
The District aims to collect a representative specimen of each of its DRF and Priority taxa, to be lodged at the Esperance
Office with duplicate vouchers in Perth.
5. Conservation and Management of Special Areas The Esperance District is of national importance due to its diversity of endemic flora. Current records show 25 DRF
species (includes 2 presumed extinct) and 191 Priority taxa.
A number of areas have been proposed as conservation reserves. River corridors have been surveyed in 1991 for the
Young River and Lort River to ascertain their potential to act as functional corridors for wildlife and their value as
nature reserves in their own right. A number of Priority taxa were found to occur in these corridors, especially near the
Lort River. Management of these areas, in consultation with local landowners, local authorities and government
agencies, is required.
Jimberlana Hill and the surrounding area, north-east of Norseman, supports some threatened species. Ongoing liaison
with mining companies, Dundas Shire and Main Roads W.A., to ensure the conservation of this area is needed.
6. Implementation and Term of the Management Program A recovery team will be appointed which will oversee and report annually to the Corporate Executive on the
implementation of this Management Program.
This Program will run for a period of 10 years, unless subsequent research or changes to the Schedule of Declared Rare
Flora cause it to be superseded earlier. During this period, the Department of CALM may institute any changes to the
provisions outlined in this program as are found, through further research, to be necessary for conservation of the
Declared Rare Flora and Priority taxa in the Esperance District.
Declared Rare Flora - Extant Taxa
Taxa which have been adequately searched for and are deemed to be in the wild either rare, in danger of
extinction, or otherwise in need of special protection
, and have been gazetted as such.
Declared Rare Flora - Presumed Extinct Taxa
Priority One - Poorly known Taxa
Taxa which are known from one or a few (generally <5) populations which are under threat
Priority Two - Poorly Known Taxa
Taxa which are known from one or a few (generally <5) populations, at least some of which are not believed to
be under immediate threat
Priority Three - Poorly Known Taxa
Taxa which are known from several populations, and the taxa are not believed to be under immediate threat
Priority Four - Rare Taxa
Taxa which are considered to have been adequately surveyed and which, whilst being rare (in Australia), are not
currently threatened by any identifiable factors.
delete species recommended to be taken off the Priority Flora list