Western australian wildlife management program no. 21 Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Esperance District


PART TWO:  DECLARED RARE FLORA IN THE ESPERANCE DISTRICT



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PART TWO:  DECLARED RARE FLORA IN THE ESPERANCE DISTRICT
This Plan covers the 23 taxa of Declared Rare Flora known to be extant within the boundaries of the Esperance District
in October, 1992.
Two species listed as presumed extinct on the Schedule of Declared Rare Flora are also included.  While they have been
collected from the Esperance District in the past, no extant populations are recorded.
A brief description of the morphology, taxonomic affinities, flowering period, distribution and habitat, known
populations, summary and recommendations for management, and pertinent references for each taxon of Declared Rare
Flora are provided within this section.
Descriptions of species are, for the most part, based on original taxonomic treatments or where these are lacking, by
reference to herbarium specimens and specialist botanists.  The reader should note that some taxa have not been
formally described and these are denoted by the term 'ms' (abbreviation for 'manuscript') after the taxon.  Others have
been given a phrase name, e.g. 
Acacia sp. Esperance (M.A.Burgman 1833b), to identify the taxon.
Distribution and habitat data are compiled from herbarium records and Departmental files as appropriate.  All
populations where collections have been made or inspected are tabulated.  The table summarises the broad population
details, land status, number of plants, population conditions and the date the population was last visited.  Precise locality
data are contained within confidential Departmental records.  In a number of cases, herbarium records relate to
populations that no longer exist.  New populations found during the course of this project have been asterisked in the
table.  Detailed information on both the known and new populations surveyed during 1992 and 1993 for this project are
given in a separate confidential document lodged with the Department.
Response to disturbance is mentioned if known, and suggests two separate classes of flora, namely:  those species
favoured by disturbance and those to which disturbance is detrimental.  The former species seem to occupy a very
narrow ecological niche and are rarely collected, although disturbance will result in a profusion of growth for a period,
before the plants again disappear, sometimes for decades.  Disturbance opportunists are discussed again in Part 4.

11
Extant Taxa
Adenanthos eyrei E.C.Nelson
PROTEACEAE
Toolinna Adenanthos
An erect, open shrub, up to 1 m tall.  Branchlets are hairy, while older branches have very warty bark.  Leaves are
stalked, hairy, and varied in shape, but are mostly divided into 3 flat segments (up to 15 mm).  Flowers are deep
crimson, softly-hairy, solitary, stalked (4 mm) and occur in leaf axils or at the end of branches.  The narrow floral tubes
(25 mm) have long, exserted styles (35 mm).
Adenanthos eyrei can be distinguished from A. forrestii by lacking a lignotuber.  A. forrestii has pale red and cream
rather than deep crimson flowers. 
Flowering Period:  All year
Distribution and Habitat
A. eyrei is known only from the Toolinna area on the coast of the Great Australian Bight.  It grows in deep siliceous
sand dunes on cliffs, in low open scrub with 
Banksia media and A. forrestii.
Conservation Status
Current:  Declared Rare Flora
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population
District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Toolinna
Esp
Dund
NR
14.8.91
-
Good
Response to Disturbance
Assumed to be killed by fire and regenerate from seed.
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed susceptible.
Summary and Recommendations
A. eyrei occurs in the Nuytsland Nature Reserve and is undisturbed.  Apparently, the population is difficult to find as it
looks similar to 
A. forrestii, which is very common in the area (G. Keighery, personal communication).  The lack of a
lignotuber is not normally used as a character to distinguish a separate taxon; consequently, the status of 
A. eyrei is
questionable.
References
Hopper 
et al. (1990), Nelson (1978), Rye and Hopper (1981).

12
Adenanthos ileticos E.C.Nelson
PROTEACEAE
Club-leaf Adenanthos
A low-spreading or erect, mid-dense, woody shrub up to 2.5 m tall and 2.5 m broad, with a lignotuber. The branches are
hairy at first but soon become hairless.  The stalked, dull, light greenish-grey leaves are broadly triangular (10 x 5 mm)
with 3 lobes at the end.  Flowers are solitary, terminal, very shortly stalked, with the hairless style exserted nearly 10
mm beyond the floral tube (25 mm).  Flower colour varies from dull pale pink, yellow-pink, yellow or cream.  Fruits (3
mm) are slightly hairy.
The only other 
Adenanthos species that possibly overlaps the geographical range of A. ileticos is A. cuneatus which has
larger, fan-like leaves (15-25 x 10-15 mm). 
Flowering Period:  March, July - October, December
Distribution and Habitat
A. ileticos grows from near Salmon Gums to north-west of Mt Heywood (a range of about 70 km) with an outlying
population towards Balladonia.  It is found in well-drained yellow sand, white clayey sand or red-brown loamy sand, in
mallee or open woodland, associated with various species of 
Eucalyptus (E. salmonophloia, E. leptocalyx, E. uncinata,
E. incrassata, E. transcontinentalis), and shrubs of Hakea, Melaleuca or Acacia
Conservation Status
#
Current:  Declared Rare Flora
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population
District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1a
Salmon Gums,ENE
Esp
Esp
-
3.80
-
-
1b*
Salmon Gums,ENE
Esp
Esp
?Water Res.
18.11.93
200+
Good
2
Salmon Gums,ENE
Esp
Esp
?VCL
3.80
-
-
3
Salmon Gums,SE
Esp
Esp
-
3.80
-
-
4
Salmon Gums,S
Esp
Esp
MRWA Rd Res.
17.11.92
28
Average
5a
Salmon Gums,S
Esp
Esp
Water Res.
258
-
5b
Salmon Gums,S
Esp
Esp
Rd Res.  }
17.11.92
215+
Good
5c
Salmon Gums,S
Esp
Esp
Rail Res.}
43
Seedlings
6
Dingo Rock,SW
Esp
Esp
VCL }
-
-
7a
Dingo Rock,S
Esp
Esp
VCL }
22.5.93
4 000+
Good
7b-e
Dingo Rock,S
Esp
Esp
VCL }
1 500+
Seedlings
8
Dingo Rock,ESE
Esp
Esp
VCL }
-
-
9
Dingo Rock,NE
Esp
Esp
VCL }
-
-
10a*
Mt Heywood,NW
Esp
Esp
VCL
22.5.93
1 000+
Good
10b-e*
Mt Heywood,NW
Esp
Esp
VCL
22.5.93
200+
Good
11
Clyde Hill,NW
Esp
Esp
VCL
20.5.93
Not found -
12a*
Mt Ridley,N
Esp
Esp
VCL
22.5.93
5+
Good
12b*
Mt Ridley,N
Esp
Esp
VCL
22.5.93
1
Good
13a
Salmon Gums,E
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
10.12.83
-
-
13b
Salmon Gums,ENE
Esp
Esp
NR
-
-
-
13c*
Salmon Gums,E
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
19.11.93
10
Average
13d*
Salmon Gums,E
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.
19.11.93
30
Average
14a
Ridley Rd
Esp
Esp
Private
-
-
-
14b
Ridley Rd,E
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.}
540
Good
                                                          
#
 now Priority 4 (updated at December 1999)

13
Known Populations (cont’d)
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population
District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
14c
Ridley Rd,W
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.}
23.9.92
27
Seedlings
14d
Kent Rd 
Esp
Esp
Shire Rd Res.}
-
-
15
Dundas
Esp
Dund
NR
13.8.91
{40
Good
{+2
Seedlings
* = new population
Response to Disturbance
Unknown
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed susceptible but it usually occurs in an area where 
Phytophthora dieback is not considered a problem.
Summary and Recommendations
A. ileticos is common to the north of Mt Ridley on Vacant Crown Land which is not currently threatened.  In areas
which have been cleared for agriculture, a number of remnant populations exist along road verges.  Many of the road
reserves are degenerating in the Salmon Gums-Grass Patch area as a result of weed invasion from adjoining farms,
clearing for firebreaks, and from road maintenance encroaching into these narrow remnants of native vegetation.
A. ileticos occurs in two Nature Reserves.  The population in the Dundas Nature Reserve is undisturbed, and occurs in
an area seldom visited by the public.  This population is, however, small, and the size of the other Nature Reserve
population is unknown.
A reassessment of the status 
A. ileticos is warranted.
References_Hopper_(1987a,_1993),_Hopper__et_al_._(1990).__15__Billardiera_mollis'>References
Blackall and Grieve (1988), Elliot and Jones (1986), Leigh 
et al. (1984), Nelson (1978), Rye and Hopper (1981).

14
Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor (Benth.) Hopper 
HAEMODORACEA
Little Kangaroo Paw
This dwarf plant usually has several scapes 5-20 cm tall which bear solitary flowers.  Both the stem and flowers are
hairy.  Flowers are two-coloured with a green perianth above a red ovary.  The perianth (30-45 mm) is strongly
constricted above the middle, being only 3-5 mm wide at the narrowest point.  The anthers are about equal in length to
the filaments which are 4-6 mm long.  There are 2-4 ovules per locule.  Leaves are flattened and 5-10 cm long.
Anigozanthos bicolor subsp. minor can be distinguished from A. gabrielae by its larger flowers and curved, not straight,
perianth (greater than 30 mm).
Flowering Period:  August - November
Distribution and Habitat
A. bicolor subsp. minor occurs in small, disjunct populations between Lake King and Condingup.  It grows in moist
sand and has been found near granite outcrops in heath communities.
Conservation Status
Current:  Declared Rare Flora
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population
District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Condingup Peak
Esp
Esp
Shire Res.
9.10.92
1
Not found
2
Northover Soak
Esp
Rav
VCL
1983
5 000+
Post-fire
3
Dalyup
Esp
Esp
NR
29.8.88
-
Not found
4
Wittenoom Hill
Esp
Esp
Private
1987
36+
Post-fire
5
West River
Alb
Rav
-
1967
-
-
6
Twertup
Alb
Jer
NP
ca. 1967
-
Post-fire
?7
?Jerdacuttup
Esp
?Rav
-
-
-
-
8
Pallarup Rocks
Kat
LG
NR
1935
-
-
9
Gibson,E
Esp
Esp
-
1963
-
-
Response to Disturbance
Responds well to fire.
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed not susceptible.
Summary and Recommendations
A. bicolor subsp. minor is most commonly seen after dry-season fire.  Populations re-establish from the soil seed bank
but rapidly senesce a few years after fire and become very difficult to find.  Re-survey and monitoring of known
populations is required, especially post-fire.
References
Hopper (1987a, 1993), Hopper 
et al. (1990). 

15
Billardiera mollis E.M.Benn.
PITTOSPORACEAE
Hairy-Fruited Billardiera
Billardiera mollis is a low spreading, mid-dense shrub which grows to 50 cm tall.  The reddish-brown stems have white
hairs which rub off with age.  The leaves are ovate to lanceolate-ovate (10-20 mm) with a sharp, pointed tip.  Leaves are
flat, covered on both surfaces with long white hairs when young, but become hairless with age except along the margins
and midvein where the hairs remain semi-persistent.  The deep blue flowers are solitary in leaf axils and are borne on
slender stalks (15-25 mm).  Sepals are free, narrow-lanceolate, dark blue and hairy.  The recurved, blue petals have 3 or
4 distinct purple lines on the outer surface while the throat is pale blue or nearly white; anthers are white.  Fruit capsules
are covered with long white hairs and enclose seeds which are dark brown, smooth and shiny.  The localised nature of
the populations of 
B. mollis suggests that seed dispersal may be limited.  It appears to be insect pollinated.
B. mollis closely resembles B. villosa, which is more compact, has flowers with blue anthers and leaf margins that curve
backwards.
Flowering Period:  August - November (to January)
Distribution and Habitat
B. mollis is geographically restricted to the Ravensthorpe Range and adjacent areas, with a range of less than 30 km.  It
grows near Kundip and Mt Desmond in gravelly sands over laterite or ironstone, and east along the Vermin Proof Fence
in sand over laterite.  It occurs in low open to low dense mallee with numerous species of 
Eucalyptus with an
understorey comprising of a low open heath or more commonly a dense scrub containing 
Hakea laurina, Melaleuca
elliptica, Gastrolobium sp. or Banksia lemanniana.
Conservation Status
Current:  Declared Rare Flora
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No. Population
District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1a,b,c VPF
Esp
Rav
Unvested 
Res.
9.12.88
700+
Good
1d VPF
Esp
Rav
VCL
26.11.81
3
-
1e VPF
Esp
Rav
VCL
26.11.81
20+
-
1f VPF
Esp
Rav
VCL
26.11.81
20+
-
2a 
Mt Desmond,N
Alb
Rav
{Unvested Res.  }
1.1.82
50+
-
2b 
Mt Desmond,S
Alb
Rav
{(Mining Lease) }
25.10.87
Rare
-
3a 
Kundip
Alb
Rav
VCL (Mining Lease)
14.1.82
150+
-
3b Kundip
Alb
Rav
Unvested 
Res.
14.1.82
10+
-
4a Rav 
Range
Alb
Rav
VCL
9.80
Common
-
4b Rav 
Range
Alb
Rav
VCL
16.9.79
-
-
Response to Disturbance
Appears to be a disturbance opportunist along the edge of tracks.
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Unknown
Summary and Recommendations

16
B. mollis occurs in Vacant Crown Land which could be released for farming, in areas claimed for mining and in one area
where mining occurs sporadically.  It is not known to occur in any conservation reserve, although discussions between
the Shire, CALM and DEP to determine vesting of the Ravensthorpe Range (which would include the Mt Desmond
population) are taking place.
The majority of known plants (approximately 80%) occur east of the Vermin Proof Fence.  Early in the 1980s, areas
close to this population were recommended for release for farmland.  A small reserve (about 1 000 ha.) to include these
populations would conserve a large number of plants of this species, belonging to relatively young populations which
appear to be expanding in size and plant numbers.
Regular monitoring is required, particularly along the Vermin Proof Fence.
References
Bennett (1983), Hopper 
et al. (1990), Lewis (1982).

17
Boronia revoluta Paul G.Wilson
RUTACEAE
A shrub, up to 80 cm tall, with sparsely hairy branches.  The leaves are divided into three leaflets which are almost
cylindrical, 4-8 mm long and the margins are strongly rolled backwards towards the midrib.  Leaflets are hairless on the
upper surface, but hairy below.  Flowers are pale to dark pink and are borne singly in the leaf axils on hairless red stalks.
The 4 ovate petals (7 mm) have pointed tips, prominent midribs, and are loosely hairy on the outside but hairless inside
except for near the tip.  The sepals are red, ovate with pointed tips and about 3 mm long.  Fruits consist of a capsule
containing four 1-seeded carpels.  Seeds are kidney-shaped (3-4 mm).
Boronia revoluta has shortly stalked leaves, which distinguishes it from the similar species B. ericifolia where leaves
lack stalks.  The latter species is found much further north between Moora and Wongan Hills.
Flowering Period:  July - October
Distribution and Habitat
B. revoluta appears to be confined to ironstone outcrops in the vicinity of Forrestania and Hatter Hill, with a range of
about 40 km.  It prefers well drained sandy loam and laterite on the tops of ridges and small hills, where it grows in low
eucalypt woodland, semi-arid mallee scrub, or heath with occasional emergent 
Eucalyptus species.  Associated genera
include 
Banksia, Allocasuarina, Calothamnus, Drummondita, Gastrolobium and Dryandra.
Conservation Status
Current:  Declared Rare Flora
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population
District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Hatter Hill
Esp
Rav
VCL (Mining Lease)
15.7.90
64
Good
2
South Ironcap
Nar
Kon
VCL (Mining Lease)
22.10.91
200+
Good
3
Middle Ironcap
Nar
Kon
VCL (Mining Lease)
1976
-
-
Response to Disturbance
Unknown
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed not susceptible and it occurs well outside the range of known 
Phytophthora species.
Summary and Recommendations
B. revoluta has only been collected from three localities.  Until September 1989, the species was thought to be extinct at
Hatter Hill, however, it has since been collected there in small numbers.  The species has not been relocated at Middle
Ironcap since it was collected there in 1976 (F. Mollemans, personal communication; R. Thomas, personal
communication).
All known localities are threatened by mineral exploration activities.  At South Ironcap, 
B. revoluta has been disturbed
by grid lines; although many plants are undisturbed at present, further mineral exploration may endanger the population.
Liaison with mineral exploration and mining companies is essential.
Summary and Recommendations (cont'd)

18
Further intensive surveys of ironstone hills and ridges in the vicinity of the Ironcaps is required.  Surveys (late October
1992, and by Cochrane and Brown in December 1993) for the known populations in the Hatter Hill area failed to locate
any plants.  Surveying during the flowering season appears to be critical, otherwise plants are extremely difficult to find.
Protection of populations from frequent fires would seem appropriate.  Research into the pollination biology, fire
ecology and population genetics of 
B. revoluta is needed.
References
Hopper
 et al. (1990), Leigh et al. (1984), Wilson (1971).

19
Caladenia exstans Hopper & A.P.Brown ms
ORCHIDACEAE
Pointing Spider Orchid
An erect, tuberous herb, 20-45 cm tall, with 1 or 2 flowers.  Flowers have upswept sepals that are green with a central
red stripe; the green labellum is distinctive as it has prominently pointed lobes and juts forward rather than curling under
at the dark purple tip; the calli are purple-red.  Leaves are up to 20 cm long and 4-6 mm wide.
Caladenia exstans ms is closely related to the larger-flowered C. integra which occurs some 400 km to the west.
Flowering Period:  September - November
Distribution and Habitat
C. exstans ms occurs in small scattered populations, over a range of about 70 km, between Cape Le Grand and Cape
Arid.  It grows in moist soil pockets on coastal granite outcrops and in deeper soil around the margins of Yate flats.
Associated species include 
Borya constricta, Banksia speciosa, Nuytsia floribunda, Eucalyptus occidentalis and
E. tetragona.
Conservation Status
Current:  Declared Rare Flora
#
Known Populations
Pop.
Land
Last
No. of
No.
Population District
Shire
Status
Survey
Plants
Condition
1
Cheetup Hill
Esp
Esp
NP
8.10.85
100+
Post-fire
23.9.87
10
Good
2
Thomas River
Esp
Esp
NP
6.11.89
20
Good
3
Cape Arid 
Esp
Esp
NP
-
-
-
4
Shao Lu 
Esp
Esp
Private
20.9.77
-
-
5
Alexander Bay 
Esp
Esp
?Shire Res.
-
-
-
Response to Disturbance
Flowering is stimulated by summer fire although an appropriate interfire period needs to be determined.
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback
Presumed not susceptible.
Summary and Recommendations
C. exstans ms occurs in both the Cape Le Grand and Cape Arid National Parks where it should remain secure.  This
species appears to respond to fire with over 100 plants observed flowering at Cheetup Hill approximately 10 months
after the area had been burnt; only 10 were located more than 2.5 years after the fire. 
Surveys to relocate 
C. exstans ms at Alexander Bay and Shao Lu are needed to ensure that the populations are
conserved.  Monitoring of known populations is required.

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