Western australian wildlife management program no. 28 Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District



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Research Requirements 

-  Survey for new populations particularly within the National Park in areas of suitable habitat.

-  Investigate the fire response of the species and its susceptibility to dieback.

References

Lesueur National Park and Coomallo Nature Reserve. Draft Management Plan (1994), McGillivray (1993),

Olde (1986).


89

Grevillea calliantha R.O.Makinson & P.Olde

PROTEACEAE

Foote's Grevillea

A spreading, flat-topped shrub to 1 m tall and 1 m across, with a conifer-like appearance.  The branches are

spreading, ridged and tomentose.  The leaves are rigid, greyish yellow-green, to 7.5 cm long, divided into

stiff linear lobes, up to 7 per leaf.  Flower heads are mainly confined to the edges and lower sides of the

branches.  Each flower head has 15-30 flowers, which are pouched, hairy on the outside, ca. 8 mm long,

greenish-yellow on the outside, ageing to apricot-orange.  The style is 30-40 mm long, maroon to blackish

in colour.  The fruit is 13-18 mm long, 8-9 mm wide, with a densely hairy surface and persistent style.

An Interim Recovery Plan has been written for this species by CALM and is currently being implemented.



Flowering Period:  April, August-September

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

Known from six populations over a geographic range of five km to the W of Dandaragan.  The species

occurs in grey or yellow sand over laterite or in sandy clay, sometimes on slopes in shallow gullies between

lateritic ridges.  Grows in low heath and dwarf scrub under open low woodland of



 Eucalyptus todtiana and

E. calophylla with associated species including Calothamnus quadrifidus, Hakea trifurcata, H. prostrata,

Allocasuarina humilis and Gastrolobium spinosum.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

1.

S of Mt Misery



D

Water Reserve

20.8.1993

6 adult,


16 seedlings

Regenerating well after

autumn fire

2.

S of Minyulo Brook



D

Shire Road

Reserve 

13.8.1991

8

7 young plants in a



disturbed area 

3.

Walyering Road



D

Shire Road

Reserve 

27.8.1992

12

Weed infestation on W



side, some plants partly

dead


4a. N of Minyulo Road

D

Private



20.8.1993

4

Regenerating well



from rootstocks after

rolling


4b. N of Minyulo Road

D

Private



20.8.1993

100+


Healthy

5.

Minyulo Road



D

Shire Road

Reserve 

5.8.1992


4

Healthy, but on very

narrow road verge,

weed infestation

6.

Moora-Caro Road



D

Shire Road

Reserve 

5.8.1992


14

Undisturbed



Response to Disturbance

Young plants have been noted in a disturbed area and the species has been observed to regenerate from



90

both rootstocks and seed recruitment following an April fire.  Plants were observed to be partly dead in an

area of dense weed infestation, while nearby plants that were free from weeds remained healthy.

Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Presumed susceptible



Management Requirements

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  All populations on road verges require weed control.

-  Population 4 on cleared private land has been fenced but needs rehabilitation of associated vegetation

and weed control.

-  Population 4b on uncleared private land requires fencing. 

-  Population on water reserve and all road verge populations require weed control.

-  Monitor all populations annually.

-  Maintain liaison with private land owners and the local government authority.

-  Acquisition of the water reserve as a nature reserve will improve the conservation status of the species.

-  Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until research has been conducted on the fire response of the

species.


Research Requirements 

-  Further survey is required in suitable habitat.

-  The species has been in cultivation for several years but requires seed and cutting collection according

to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the Western Australian Herbarium to maintain

genetic diversity.

-  Research is required into the susceptibility of the species to dieback.

-  Continue to monitor the fire response of the species at population 1.

References 

Makinson and Olde (1991).



91

Grevillea christineae McGill.

PROTEACEAE

Christine’s Grevillea

A rounded shrub to 1 m tall, with flexuose, wiry branches, and narrow-obovate to linear leaves, which are

up to 6 cm x 0.6 cm, with margins loosely rolled back and with a pointed tip.  The flowers are in short

clusters, either terminal or in the axils of the leaves and ca. 1.5 cm long.  The flowers are creamy-white in

colour, the perianth hairy on the outside, ca. 3 mm long.  The style is reddish, ca. 0.7 cm long, hairless

except for the apex, where it is strongly curved.  The ovary is hairless.  The fruit is oblong, ca. 1.5 cm long,

with faint longitudinal ribs.

This species is similar to 



Grevillea costata, which has strongly ribbed fruit, leaves hairy on the lower

surface and larger white flowers.  Research on the population biology of this species is being undertaken as

part of the work for a Ph.D. thesis.

Flowering Period:  July-early September

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

Known from six populations in the Moora District in the Watheroo area over a range of ca. 12 km.  The

species also occurs in the Merredin District where it is known from one population (population 1) ca. 140

km further to the south-west, near Goomalling.  It grows in open low woodland of 



Eucalyptus loxophleba

and


 E. wandoo over open tall shrubs including Allocasuarina campestris, Melaleuca radula, Acacia

acuminata and with species of Drosera  and  Tribonanthes in grey or red-brown sandy clay loams with

granite or laterite, usually in moist areas, near drainage lines or outcropping granite.



Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire Land Status

Last Survey No. of Plants

Condition

2.  NW of Watheroo

Mo

MRWA Road Reserve 28.8.1992



100+

Healthy, but weed

infestation in part of

population

3.  SE of Watheroo

Mo

Shire Road Reserve 



22.8.1991

11 & 10


Narrow verge, weed

infested and disturbed

4.  NE of Watheroo

Mo

Shire Road Reserve 



17.8.1993

1

Dense weed infestation



5.  NE of Watheroo

Mo

Private



17.8.1993

23 & 100+

Healthy, population

fenced


Response to Disturbance

Plants at population 3 have survived on narrow, weed infested road verges and are almost the only

surviving representatives of natural vegetation.

Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Presumed susceptible



92

Management Requirements

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Ensure that road markers are in place at populations 2, 3 and 4.

-  Weed control is required at populations 2, 3 and 4.

-  Monitor populations regularly, particularly those on road verges.

-  Maintain liaison with landowners and managers.

-  Investigate possibility of land acquisition or change in vesting of reserve at population 1 (Merredin

District).

-  Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until fire response has been investigated.

-  Collect seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Fora Seed Centre at the Western

Australian Herbarium.

Research Requirements 

-  Further survey is required, particularly on reserves with suitable habitat throughout the known range of

the species, and in remnant vegetation in the northern part of the range.

-  Investigate the fire response of the species.



References 

McGillivray (1993), Olde (1986).



93

Grevillea pythara P.Olde & N.Marriott

PROTEACEAE

Pythara Grevillea

A low, upright shrub to 30 cm tall, producing plants from root suckers.  The leaves are simple, villous,

linear to narrow-elliptic, with recurved margins and a pointed apex.  They are grey-green in colour, 7-16

mm long, 1.5-4 mm wide, crowded and sessile.  The flower heads are erect, terminal and sessile, with 4-8

flowers.  Each flower has a pedicel 4-8 mm long, and the perianth is about 10 mm long, 5 mm wide, red in

colour with black bordering the dilated section of the dorsal tepals below the limb.  It is sparsely hairy on

the outside and bearded within.  The anthers are yellow.  The style is 20-22 mm long, sparsely hairy,

curved and red in colour.  The fruits have not been seen.

This species appears to have no close relatives although it is thought that there is possibility of a

relationship with species related to



 Grevillea saccata.  It is thought that the populations are reproducing by

suckers from a single parent rootstock, as no fruits have been seen since the population was first observed

and an examination of misshapen anthers found no pollen and no pollen was found on the pollen

presenters.

Due to its critically threatened status, an Interim Recovery Plan has been written for this species by CALM.

Flowering Period:  July-October

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

G. pythara is a recently discovered species which occurs just outside the eastern boundary of the Moora

District.  It is known from one population occurring in three discrete groups of plants over less than 1 km of

narrow, weed infested road verge to the south-west of Dalwallinu with a total of less than 300 plants.  The

species is endangered by weed infestation of its habitat, and by low numbers.  It is possible that other

populations could occur in suitable habitat to the west in the Moora District, but as the area is heavily

cleared for agriculture, and as the species has not been collected until the recent discovery of this

population, this is unlikely.  It grows in brown loamy sand with gravel on a west facing slope, in relict open

scrub over introduced weed species.  Associated species include 



Grevillea sp., Actinostrobus arenarius,

Conospermum stoechadis, Dampiera sp. and Keraudrenia integrifolia.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire 

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

1.  SW of Dalwallinu

Da

Shire Road Reserve  15.9.1994



69 & 200+ or

possibly 2 clones

Some plants

grazed, population

weed infested

Response to Disturbance

Unknown, but the population occurs in a severely degraded area and is heavily weed infested.



Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Presumed susceptible



94

Management Requirements

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at the population.

-  It occurs within the Merredin District and management actions will be carried out by that District.

-  The population requires weed control.

-  The population requires rehabilitation of associated vegetation.

-  Part of the population requires fencing to prevent further grazing during stock movement.

-  It would be desirable to purchase an area of private land adjacent to the known populations to increase

the size of the extremely narrow road side area.

-  Maintain liaison with landowners and land managers.

-  Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until research has been conducted on the fire response of the

species.

-  Monitor the population frequently.

-  Collect germplasm material according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the

Western Australian Herbarium for long term storage.



Research Requirements 

-  Research is required into the population biology of the species.  The plants are probably reproducing by

suckers and further research is required to determine whether the plants are sterile.

-  Further survey is required in suitable habitat to find further populations.

-  Re-establish plants in suitable habitat in a conservation reserve.

-  Conduct research on the fire response of the species.



References 

Olde and Marriott (1993).



95

Hakea megalosperma Meisn.

PROTEACEAE

Lesueur Hakea

James Drummond first collected this species in about 1850 from the Lesueur area.  It was described by

Meissner in 1855.  The specific name refers to the large fruits.  

Hakea megalosperma is an erect to

spreading, multistemmed shrub to 1.3 m high and 2 m across.  The leaves are thick, flat, obovate-oblong in

shape, with blunt tips and tapering to the short stalks, 4-10 cm long, and up to 4 cm broad.  They are a

distinctive pale green in colour, with faint veins.  The flowers are whitish-pink, darkening to deep red with

age, hairless and grouped in small, axillary clusters of 5-10 flowers, which have a sweet perfume.  Each

flower is ca. 0.5 cm long, on a long stalk.  The style has a disc-shaped pollen presenter.  The fruit are large,

5-7 cm long and 3-4 cm broad, each valve with an apical beak.  The seed is surrounded by a broad, papery

wing.


This species may be confused with 

H. incrassata, which has more pointed leaves and smaller, more

rounded fruits.



Flowering Period:  April-June

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

H. megalosperma occurs in the Lesueur area, and eastwards for ca. 35 km with an occurrence ca. 65 km

further south to the west of Dandaragan.  An isolated small population is reported from south-east of

Eneabba.

Grows in low heath in grey sand and lateritic gravel or laterite boulders on hilltops and ridges, or

occasionally with emergent 

Eucalyptus todtiana in white or yellow grey sand.  Associated species include

Banksia  candolleana, B. micrantha, Lambertia multiflora, Hakea obliqua, Adenanthos cygnorum,

Allocasuarina humilis, Stirlingia sp. and Dryandra species.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

1.  Coomallo

D

Nature Reserve 



13.3.1993

200+


Undisturbed

2.  N of Warradarge

Co

Nature Reserve 



9.12.1992

37 & 17


Partly disturbed

3.  Alexander Morrison

Co

National Park



6.8.1992

2 & 40,1, 21,

10+, 2, 2, 6,

(100+


E.A.Griffin)

3a, 3e, 3g, 3f,

3h undisturbed,

3b, 3c, 3d not

found in 1991

4.  Mt Lesueur

D

National Park



1.1989

100+


-

5.  Coomallo

Co

MRWA Road Reserve 27.9.1985



18

Good


6.  W of Dandaragan

D

Shire Road Reserve,



Private

6a  30.4.1991

6b  20.7.1986

29 & 6


Partly disturbed

& healthy

7.  E of Mt Lesueur

National Park



9.10.1991

200 est.


(1000+ in 1989)

Undisturbed

8.  N of Mt Lesueur

D

National Park



1.1989

30 est.


-

9.  Mt Michaud

D

National Park



1.1989

10 est.


-

96

10.  E of Mt Michaud

D

National Park



28.2.1991

100+


Undisturbed

11.* SE of Eneabba

Ca

Govt. Requirements



Reserve

1992


12 est.

-

1.  NW of Coomaloo



-

Private


-

20-30


File reference,

not confirmed

2.  Coomallo

D

Nature Reserve 



3.6.1988

15

Healthy



97

Response to Disturbance

Regeneration has been reported to occur by resprouting following fire, and from underground lignotubers

following damage.

Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Presumed susceptible



Management Requirements

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Maintain liaison with private landowners and land managers of land on which the populations occur.

-  Monitor populations at regular intervals.

-  Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until research has been conducted on the fire response of the

species.


-  Collect seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the Western

Australian Herbarium. 



Research Requirements 

-  Resurvey populations 1, 3b-d, 11, 12 and 13, collect voucher specimens for the Western Australian

Herbarium collections, and obtain Global Positioning System readings for the locations.

-  Conduct research on the susceptibility of the species to dieback (Phytophthora species) and fire

response.

References

Bentham (1870), Blackall and Grieve (1988), Rye and Hopper (1981).



98

Hemiandra gardneri O.H.Sarg.

LAMIACEAE

Red Snakebush

Hemiandra gardneri was collected by C.A. Gardner from near Watheroo in 1926 and described from those

specimens by O. Sargent in 1927.

It is a prostrate, perennial shrub forming a mat to 10 cm high, which may reach a diameter of 2 m.  The

primary stems are usually up to 40 cm long.  It has grey-green leaves, which are almost obovate with

pungent points and three raised veins on the lower surface.  The leaves and calyx are covered with short

hairs which give the leaves a grey appearance, although a few plants in some populations may have green

leaves.  The leaves are up to 20 x 5 mm, linear to linear oblanceolate with a pungent point.  The calyx is

bell-shaped and two-lipped, 5 mm long, the upper lip with small lateral lobes, and all the lobes are acute.

The flowers are dark red to orange-red in colour, the corolla tube is 14 mm long, with the equal stamens

inserted in the tube and the anthers protruding a short way from the mouth of the corolla.  This species was

at first thought to be a variety of 

H. pungens, but is distinguished by the velvety indumentum, shortly

exserted anthers and characters of the corolla.

An Interim Recovery Plan has been written for the species by CALM and is currently being implemented.

Flowering Period:  September-January

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

Known from five populations between Watheroo and Gunyidi, with a sixth ca. 10 km further east and

another ca. 35 km to the north-west.  The species has also been collected in 1959 from Wubin, which is 30

km further east in the Merredin District.  A specimen identified as this species has also been collected from

the Lesueur area, but grew on lateritic soils and requires further study.  

H. gardneri grows in deep yellow to

yellow-white sand on sandplains and hills in the more open areas of open low woodland over low scrub,

low heath or dwarf scrub with 

Banksia prionotes, B. attenuata, Xylomelum angustifolium, Conospermum

stoechadis, Grevillea integrifolia, G. amplexans,  Leptospermum erubescens, Jacksonia eremodendron,

Actinostrobus pyramidalis and Verticordia species.  In 1983 when a survey for the species was

commenced, it was known from two sites, south of Gunyidi and north of Watheroo, and was classified as

endangered (Leigh 

et al. 1981), having a range of over 100 km, occurring in small populations restricted to

highly specific habitats.  Elsewhere it was classified as occurring in localities less than 100 km apart

(Marchant and Keighery 1979, Rye 1980).  As a result of the survey, 

H. gardneri was found to occur to the

north and north-east of Watheroo, in six populations, with a total of 2,206 plants, mainly on a railway

reserve, some on private land and a few on road verges.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire 

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

1.  N of Watheroo

Mo

Road Verge &



Rail Reserve

29.6.1994

1 (8 in 1982)

Area disturbed and

degraded

1   ...   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   ...   44




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