Western australian wildlife management program no. 28 Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District


Populations Known in the Moora District (Cont'd)



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Populations Known in the Moora District (Cont'd)

3.  N of Watheroo

Mo

Railway Reserve



29.6.1994

1 (100+ in 1992,

1196 in 1982 &

1000+ in 1989)

Plant unhealthy,

area badly disturbed

Population

Shire 


Land Status

Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

4.  N of Watheroo

Mo

Railway Reserve



30.6.1994

6 (222 in 1982)

Plants healthy but

area disturbed

5.  SE of Gunyidi

Co

Shire Road Reserve,



Private

19.11.1982

7

Two plants in poor



condition, the

remainder good

6.  SW of Coorow

Ca

Shire Road Reserve  15.11.1990



1

Undisturbed

1.* Cockleshell Gully

D

?National Park



8.10.1978

-

Lateritic soil



Response to Disturbance

Seedlings appear to compete poorly with mid-dense or dense native vegetation and are found mainly on

disturbed or cleared sand.

Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Unknown


Management Requirements

-  Maintain liaison with land owners and land managers.

-  Monitor populations annually.

-  Ensure that markers are present at all road verge and rail reserve populations.

-  Investigate the possibility of land acquisition at population 2.

-  Monitor all populations for weed invasion and control if necessary.

-  Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until research has been conducted on the fire response of the

species.


-  Fence population 2 on private land to protect from grazing.

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Collect seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the Western

Australian Herbarium.



Research Requirements 

-  Further survey for new populations in conservation reserves throughout the range, and resurvey

populations 4 and 5 and obtain Global Positioning System readings.

-  Conduct research on the population biology of the species and its fire response.

-  Investigate the possibility of establishment in a conservation reserve.

-  Taxonomic research is required for the herbarium specimens for populations 6 and 7.



100

-  Conduct research on the susceptibility of this species to Phytophthora species.



References 

Blackall and Grieve (1981), Burgman (1983), B. Conn (personal communication), Leigh 



et al. (1981),

Marchant and Keighery (1979), Rye (1980), Sargent (1927).



101

Hemiandra sp. Watheroo (S.Hancocks 4)

LAMIACEAE

(now 

H. hancocksiana ms)

Colourful Snakebush

In 1983 a species of 

Hemiandra was collected from several populations in the Watheroo area.  These had

come to the attention of the horticulturalist B. Jack and the species was thought to be 



H. rutilans.  However,

B. Conn during his revisionary taxonomic study of the genus 



Hemiandra has more recently found that this

is an undescribed species. 

It is an erect shrub to 0.5 m, with leaves, calyx and stems having small curved hairs, which may be dense,

giving the plant a grey appearance.  The leaves are ovate to linear, with a pungent point and raised veins on

the lower surface.  They are 9-17 mm long.  The calyx is two-lipped, the upper lobe entire, the lower being

divided into two lobes.  The flower colour is variable, ranging though red, pink, mauve, and yellow, the

colour being consistent in individual plants, but may vary within a population.  The anthers are almost

equal.


An Interim Recovery Plan has been written for this species by CALM and is currently being implemented.

Flowering Period:  October-January

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

Has been recorded in the Moora District over a geographical range of ca. 35 km to the west of Coorow.

Grows in disturbed areas in white-grey sand on flat ground, the slopes of ridges or low hills in open low

woodland with open scrub beneath.  Associated species include 



Eucalyptus todtiana, Banksia attenuata, B.

prionotes, Hakea obliqua, Xylomelum angustifolium and Eremaea sp.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire  Land Status

Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

1.  Brand Mudge Road

Ca

Private



15.11.1990

0 (50 est. in 1983) Disturbed

2.  Carnamah-Eneabba

Road


Ca

MRWA Road

Reserve, Private

15.11.1990

0 (12 in 1983)

-

3.  Brand Mudge Road



Ca

Reserve for the

use and benefit

of aborigines

7.1.1992

0 (1 in 1990),

(50+ in 1983)

Reserve grazed by

sheep

4.  Brand Mudge Road



S of Hughes Road

Ca

Shire Road



Reserve, Private

15.11.1990

0 (1 in 1983)

-

5.  Hughes Road



Ca

Private


15.11.1990

0 (1 in 1983)

Little native

vegetation, heavy

weed infestation

6.  Hughes Road

Ca

Shire Road



Reserve, Private

15.11.1990

0 (8 in 1983) 

-


102

7.  Alexander Morrison

Co

National Park



20.11.1992

2 (27 in 1987)

Plants at edge of

firebreak

1.* SW corner of Watheroo

National Park

D

National Park



5.10.1971

-

-



Response to Disturbance

Most populations occurred on the disturbed soil of firebreaks or cleared areas and have declined since

discovery; most previously recorded locations no longer have plants present.  The species is likely to be

short-lived with populations persisting for long periods as seed stored in the soil.



Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Unknown


Management Requirements

-  Monitor populations regularly, particularly after fire or soil disturbance.

-  Maintain liaison with land owners and managers.

-  Ensure that markers are present at all road verge populations.

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until research has been conducted on the fire response of the

species.

-  Collect seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the Western

Australian Herbarium.

-  Conduct research on the susceptibility of this species to Phytophthora species.



Research Requirements 

-  Determine when the area of the most westerly population was last burnt.

-  Set up monitoring quadrats on the sites of the larger populations and conduct trials into the effect of

disturbance and fire.

-  Conduct further survey in suitable habitats particularly in Alexander Morrison National Park and make

efforts to refind population 8 in Watheroo National Park. 

-  Conduct taxonomic study on the herbarium specimen on which population 8 is based, which was

originally identified as 



H. rutilans, to determine its identity.  Also re-identify material collected by E.A.

Griffin from between Moora and Dandaragan, originally identified as 



H. rutilans, to determine whether

it is this taxon.



References

B. Conn (personal communication).



103

Hensmania chapmanii Keighery

ANTHERICACEAE

Chapman's Hensmania

A tufted perennial plant, with rhizomes.  The leaves are 3 mm or more in diameter, terete with brown or

transparent sheathing bases, and are 24-38 cm long.  The inflorescence is a terminal umbel, 35-50 mm long,

ca. 8 mm wide, on a stalk which is shorter than the leaves, and which is covered with sharply pointed, pale

brown bracts.  The flower head is surrounded by fawn pointed bracts, which hide the insignificant flowers.

In this species the bracts are all sharply pointed including the inner ones, and the bracteoles are not divided

into fine hairs.  The cream perianth of the flower is united in a tube in the lower third, and divided into six

equal segments in the upper part.



Hensmania chapmanii is similar in appearance to other species of Hensmania, but is distinguished from

them by the large leaves, the shape of the inner bracts on the flower head, which are not sharply pointed

and by the entire bracteoles surrounding the flowers, which have fringed margins but are not divided into

fine hairs.



Flowering Period:  December-January

Fruiting Period:  February-March

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

This species is known from three localities to the south-west of Three Springs and Carnamah over a range

of 30 km.  It grows in open low woodland of

 Eucalyptus todtiana and Banksia species with scrub and heath

beneath, or in tall shrubland on low ridges or hill slopes in yellow sand.  Associated species include 



B.

prionotes, Xylomelum angustifolium, Actinostrobus arenarius and Verticordia species.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants Condition

1.  SW of Carnamah

Co

Private



8.1.1992

3000+


Undisturbed,

some plants dead,

? senescence

2.  Dookanooka

TS

Shire Road Reserve,



Reserve for the use and

benefit of Aborigines 

18.8.1993

250+


Undisturbed,

plants on the north

verge in poor

condition

1.* SW of Carnamah

Ca

Road Reserve



30.10.1982

-

-



1.  SW of Three Springs

TS

Shire Road Reserve 



27.1.1994

20+


Some plants in

disturbed areas



Response to Disturbance

104

Unknown


Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Unknown


Management Requirements

-  Maintain liaison with landowners and managers.

-  Ensure that markers are in place at population 2.

-  Establish liaison with the landowners on which population 1 is located, to ensure the future

conservation of the population.

-  Monitor populations regularly.

-  Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until research has been conducted on the fire response of the

species.


-  Investigate the possibility of land acquisition to conserve the species.

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Collect seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the Western

Australian Herbarium.



Research Requirements 

-  Further survey is required, particularly to refind population 3 and the full extent southwards of

population 2.

-  Carry out research of the fire response and population biology of the species.

-  Conduct research on the susceptibility of this species to Phytophthora species.

References

Dixon and Keighery (1992), Keighery (1987).



105

Leucopogon obtectus Benth.

EPACRIDACEAE

Hidden Beard-heath

This species was recollected in 1978 for the first time since its original collection by James Drummond last

century.

Leucopogon obtectus is an erect, open shrub to ca. 1.5 m tall.  The leaves are stalkless, and are broad,

almost heart-shaped and overlapping, concealing the stem.  They are rigid and concave with a short point,

and finely lined, to ca. 1 cm long and 1 cm wide, pale blue-green in colour.  There are 2-3 creamy-yellow

flowers on very short stalks in each leaf axil, just visible above the top of the leaf.  Each flower has five

petals, united to form a tube towards the base, and with five lobes spreading outwards to show the dense

hairs on the inner surface.  The five stamens alternate with the petals and are without sterile tips.  The fruit

is green, smooth, ovoid in shape and single seeded.

Flowering Period:  October-March

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

Occurs to the north-west and south-east of Eneabba over a range of ca. 25 km.  There is also a report of the

species from ca. 30 km further to the south-east, where two plants were found in 1987.  These were not

refound during the present survey.  



L. obtectus grows mainly on the crests and upper slopes of sand dunes,

or in interdunal swales, in open heath or low, open heath, where it occurs in open, scattered populations, the

plants growing emergent from the heath.  The soil is grey-white or pale yellow sand.  A survey of this

species in 1981 found 25 populations with a total of 108 plants (Lewis 1981).  However, two of the

populations accounted for nearly half the total and many populations were of only one plant.  Much of the

habitat of this species has been used for mineral sand mining.  A joint project between Kings Park and

Botanic Garden and sandmining companies investigated methods of propagation of the species for re-

introduction into rehabilitation sites.  In 1989 a reserve to the north-west of Eneabba was gazetted for the

purpose of conservation of flora and fauna, within which eleven populations of the species are protected.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire 

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

1.

NNW of Eneabba



Ca

Nature Reserve,

VCL (Mining Lease)

30.4.1992

9

Undisturbed



2.

NNW of Eneabba

Ca

MRWA Road Reserve 15.7.1981



2

Not refound

2.7.1992

3.

N of Eneabba



Ca

Nature Reserve

4.6.1981

1

Healthy



4.

N of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve



28.8.1982

4

In regenerating



vegetation

5.

N of Eneabba



Ca

Nature Reserve 

4.6.1981

2

Healthy



6.

NNW of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve



4.6.1981

5

Healthy



7

NNW of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve



3.6.1981

1

Healthy



8.

NNW of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve 



12.5.1981

11

Healthy



9.

NNW of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve



12.5.1981

5

Healthy



106

10. NNW of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve 



3.6.1981

2

Healthy



11. NNW of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve 



3.6.1981

3

Healthy



12. NNW of Eneabba

Ca

VCL



3.6.1981

5

Healthy



13. NNW of Eneabba

Ca

VCL



3.6.1981

3

Healthy



107

Populations Known in the Moora District (Cont'd)

Population

Shire 

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

14. NNW of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve, VCL



3.6.1981

2

Healthy



15. NW of Eneabba

Ca

VCL (Mining Lease)



20.6.1981

1

Poor



16. WNW of Eneabba

Ca

VCL (Mining Lease)



20.6.1981

2

Healthy



17. S of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve,



VCL (Mining Lease)

8.1988


1 (5 in 1981)

4 dead


18. S of Eneabba

Ca

VCL (Mining Lease)



10.1982

15

-



19. S of Eneabba

Ca

VCL (Mining Lease)



21.6.1981

32

Healthy



20. S of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve



21.6.1981

6

Healthy



21. S of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve



21.6.1981

1

Healthy



22. S of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve



21.6.1981

3

Healthy



23. Alexander Morrison Co

National Park

1987

1

Not refound 1991



24. S of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve



4.7.1981

0

Plants not



relocated

25. S of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve



4.7.1981

1

Healthy



26. Alexander Morrison Co

National Park

1987

1

Not refound 1991



27. NW of Eneabba

Ca

VCL



8.1.1992

1

Healthy



28. NW of Eneabba

Ca

VCL



8.1.1992

14

Healthy



29. NW of Eneabba

Ca

VCL



8.1.1992

4

Healthy



30. NW of Eneabba

Ca

VCL



8.1.1992

3

Healthy



31. SSE of Eneabba

Ca

VCL (Mining Lease)



7.1.1992

24

Good, in



rehabilitation area

32. S of Skipper Road

Ca

MRWA Road Reserve 19.8.1993



2

Undisturbed

33. NNW of Eneabba

Ca

Nature Reserve



10.3.1995

12

Undisturbed



34. NW of Eneabba

Ca

VCL



27.2.1995

1

Seedling,



undisturbed

Response to Disturbance

The plants are thought to be short-lived, being killed by fire, regenerating from seed.



Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Presumed susceptible



Management Requirements

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Maintain liaison with managers of land on which the populations occur.

-  Monitor populations regularly.

-  Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until research has been conducted on the fire response of the

species.


-  Collect seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the Western

Australian Herbarium.

-  Conduct research on the fire response of the species.


108

Research Requirements 

-  All populations should be revisited and plotted accurately.

-  Monitor population densities after any fires to determine response to fire.

References

Bentham (1869), Blackall and Grieve (1981), Lewis (1981), Rye and Hopper (1981).



109

Paracaleana dixonii Hopper & A.P.Brown ms

ORCHIDACEAE

Sandplain Duck Orchid

Paracaleana dixonii ms is a rare species that flowers much later than other associated orchids, often on a

withered leaf that has dried up due to hot early summer soil temperatures.  



P. dixonii ms has the longest

labellum and one of the tallest scapes of the Western Australian members of the genus.  It differs from its

nearest relative, 

P. triens, in its longer narrower linear leaf (20-30 mm by 4-6 mm), its thicker scape 13-18

cm tall, its longer labellum lamina (12-14 mm), and its paler colouration.



Flowering Period:  October-January.  P. triens flowers well into December.

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

Known from 10 populations in the Moora District from north-east of Eneabba to the Jurien Bay area.  Only

one population (no. 2) is known outside the Moora District in the Perth District.  The species can be found

in either deep sand in open areas beneath dense tall shrubs with scattered emergent banksias, or in

heathland in shallow sand over laterite.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire 

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

1a & 1b.  E of Lake

 Indoon

Ca

Nature Reserve 



21.10.1992

0 (14 found in

1987)

Not refound in 1992



3.

N of Eneabba

TS

VCL or ?Private



30.11.1993

6

Healthy, area burnt



summer 1993

4.

N of Eneabba



TS

VCL


30.11.1993

3

Healthy, area burnt



summer 1993

5.

N of Eneabba



TS

VCL


30.11.1993

6

Healthy, area burnt



summer 1993

6.

N of Eneabba



TS

VCL


25.11.1993

15

Healthy, area burnt



summer 1993

7.

N of Eneabba



TS

VCL


25.11.1993

10

Healthy, area burnt



summer 1993

8.

N of Eneabba



TS

VCL


25.11.1993 

29

Healthy, area burnt



summer 1993

9.

N of Eneabba



TS

VCL


25.11.1993

15

Healthy, area burnt



summer 1993

10.* NE of Nylagarda

D

Nature Reserve 



25.11.1979

-

-



11. Cockleshell Gully

D

?National Park 



6.11.1985

-

-



Response to Disturbance

Fire appears to play an important part in the flowering of this species, which flowers far more profusely

following summer fire.  However, it is thought that burning may be detrimental if it occurs during the

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