Western australian wildlife management program no. 28 Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District



Yüklə 2,5 Mb.
Pdf görüntüsü
səhifə5/44
tarix24.08.2017
ölçüsü2,5 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   44

GLOSSARY

abaxial

the side away from the axis (compare 



adaxial)

achene

a small, dry indehiscent fruit with a single locule and a single seed (ovule), and

with the seed attached to the ovary wall at a single point

acuminate

tapering gradually to a protracted point



acute

terminating in a distinct but not protracted point, the converging edges

separated by an angle less than 90 degrees

adaxial

the side toward the axis (compare 



abaxial)

adnate

fusion of unlike parts, as the stamens to the corolla (compare 



connate)

alternate

of leaves or other lateral organs, borne singly at different heights on the axis;

of floral parts, on a different radius, e.g. describing the position of stamens

with respect to petals. cf. 



opposite

annual

a plant whose life span ends within one year after germination



annular

in the form of a ring



anther

the expanded, apical, pollen bearing portion of the stamen



anthesis

the flowering period, when the flower is fully expanded and functioning



apiculate

terminating in a short, sharp, flexible point



appendage

a structure arising from the surface or extending beyond the tip of another

structure

appressed

pressed closely against but not united with



aril

an appendage growing at or near the hilum of the seed; fleshy thickening of the

seed coat

article

a segment of a jointed stem or of a fruit with constrictions between the seeds



ascending

growing erect after an oblique or semi-horizontal beginning



attenuate

tapering gradually



auricle

a small ear-shaped appendage



awl-shaped

short, narrowly triangular, and sharply pointed like an awl



awn

a bristle-like appendage, e.g. on the tip or back of the lemma of a grass floret



axil

the angle between a leaf or bract and the axis bearing it. adj. 



axillary

axis

a stem, (commonly used for the main stem of a whole plant or of an

inflorescence)

beak

a prominent terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit



bifurcate

two-forked; divided into two branches



xx

bract

a leaf-like structure, different in form from the foliage leaves and without an

axillary bud, associated with an inflorescence or flower

bracteole

a small bract-like structure borne singly or in pairs on the pedicel or calyx of a

flower

branchlet

a small branch



bulb

an underground bud with thickened fleshy scales, as in the onion



calli

small outgrowths in the throat of the corolla



callosity

a hardened or thickened area



calyx

the sepals of one flower collectively



calyx-tube

a tube formed by fusion or cohesion of sepals. cf. 



hypanthium

campanulate

bell-shaped



capitate

head-like, or in a head-shaped cluster



capitulum

a racemose inflorescence with sessile flowers compacted on a flattened and



expanded, or rounded apex of a peduncle

capsule

a dry fruit formed from two or more united carpels and dehiscing at maturity to

release the seeds

carpel

a simple pistil formed from one modified leaf, or that part of a compound pistil

formed from one modified leaf

cheiridium

the joined bracts beneath the flower in 



Calytrix,  which form a sleeve-like

structure



cilia

in unicellular plants, gametes, spores etc., minute hair-like protoplasmic

protrusions whose movement confers motility on the cell; 



in higher plants,

hairs more or less confined to the margins of an organ. sing. 



cilium; adj. ciliate

clavate

club-shaped



claw

a narrow, stalk-like basal portion of a petal, sepal or bract



clone

a group of individuals originating from a single parent plant by vegetative

reproduction

column

a structure extending above the ovary and incorporating stigma, style and

stamens

compressed

flattened in one plane, either dorsally (bringing the front and back closer

together) or laterally (bringing the sides closer together)

cone

(loosely) 



in Casuarina, a woody multiple fruit incorporating the bracts and

bracteoles associated with the flowers



connate

fused to another organ (or other organs) of the same kind



connective

the part of an anther that connects the lobes



conspecific

of the same species



xxi

convolute

of the arrangement of corolla lobes in a bud, a form of imbricate aestivation in

which each segment has one edge overlapping the adjacent segment, like a

furled umbrella

cordate

of a leaf blade, broad and notched at the base; heart-shaped

corm

a fleshy, swollen stem base, usually underground, in which food reserves are

stored between growing seasons

corolla

the petals of a flower collectively



corymb

a racemose inflorescence in which the pedicels of the lower flowers are longer

than those of the flowers above, bringing all flowers to about the same level

crisped

curled


crown

the part of a tree or shrub above the level of the lowest branch



cuneate

wedge-shaped



cuspidate

tapering into a sharp, rigid point



cyme

an inflorescence in which each flower, in turn, is formed at the tip of a growing

axis and further flowers are formed on branches arising below it

decumbent

spreading horizontally but then growing upwards



decurrent

extending downwards beyond the point of insertion, e.g. of a lamina extending

downwards to form a flange along the petiole

decussate

in pairs, with successive pairs borne at right angles to each other



dehiscent

breaking open at maturity to release the contents



deltoid

triangular, with the sides of about equal length



dentate

toothed


denticulate

finely toothed



dichotomous

forking into two equal branches resulting from the division of the growing

point

disc

a plate or rim of tissue, derived from the receptacle of a flower, occurring

between whorls of floral parts

distal

remote from the point of origin or attachment. cf. 



proximal

divaricate

widely spreading



dorsal

relating to the back or outward surface of an organ in relation to the axis, as in

the lower surface of a leaf

dorsiventral

having structurally different upper and lower surfaces



double-conic

relating to the shape of eucalypt buds, when the hypanthium and operculum are

of the same size and cone shape


xxii

drupe

a succulent fruit formed from one carpel, having the seed(s) enclosed in an

inner stony layer of the fruit wall. adj. 

drupaceous (which is often used to

mean drupe-like but not strictly a drupe)



ellipsoid

a solid body elliptic in long section and circular in cross section



elliptic

oval in outline, widest at the centre



endemic

having a natural distribution confined to a particular geographical region



entire

having a smooth margin, not dissected or toothed



ephemeral

short-lived



epidermis

the outermost cellular layer of a non-woody plant or organ



exserted

protruding, e.g. of stamens with respect to a corolla tube



falcate

sickle-shaped



family

a group of one to many genera believed to be related phylogenetically, usually

clearly separable from other such groups

filament

the stalk of a stamen; a thread one or more cells thick; 



in blue-green Algae, a

trichome enclosed in a mucilaginous sheath. cf. 



anther

filiform

thread-like



flexuose

with curves or bends; sinuous; somewhat zigzagged



floral

belonging  to or associated with a flower



floret

a grass flower, together with the lemma and palea that enclose it (often applied

to flowers in Cyperaceae and Asteraceae)

follicle

a dry, dehiscent fruit formed from one carpel and dehiscing along the line of

fusion of its edges

free

not fused or united (with other organs)



fruit

the seed-bearing structure in angiosperms formed from the ovary after

flowering

fusiform

spindle-shaped, broadest near the middle and tapering toward both ends



genus

a group of species believed to be related phylogenetically and usually clearly

separable from other such groups, or a single species without close relatives.

pl. 


genera

glabrescent

becoming glabrous



glabrous

without hairs



gland

a structure, without or on the surface of a plant, with a secretory function



glandular

bearing glands; functioning as a gland



glaucous

blue-green in colour, with a whitish bloom (as in the juvenile leaves of many

eucalypts)


xxiii

glume

one of the paired bracts at the base of a grass spikelet; a chaffy bract in the

grasses or sedges

habit

the growth form of a plant, comprising its size, shape, texture and orientation



habitat

the environment in which a plant lives



halophyte

a plant adapted to living in highly saline habitats; a plant that accumulates high

concentrations of salt in its tissues

hastate

arrowhead-shaped but with the basal lobes turned outward rather than

downward

herb

any vascular plant that never produces a woody stem. cf. 



forb

herbaceous

not woody; soft in texture



hilum

a scar on the seed indicating its point of attachment



hyaline

translucent, almost like clear glass



hybrid

an offspring of genetically different parents (in a Flora, usually applied where

the parents are of different species)

hypanthium

a cup or tube bearing floral parts above the base, and often above the top, of

the ovary of a flower

imbricate

of perianth parts, having the edges overlapping in the bud. Fig. 25



incurved

bent or curved inwards or upwards; 



of leaf margins, curved towards the adaxial

surface


indumentum

the epidermal coverings of a plants, collectively.



indusium

tissue covering the sorus of a fern; the pollen cup of Goodeniaceae.



inferior

of an ovary, at least partly below the level of attachment of the other flora

parts. cf. 



superior

inflexed

bent sharply upwards or forwards



inflorescence

the group or arrangement in which flowers are borne on a plant



internode

the portion of a stem between the level of insertion of two successive leaves or

leaf pairs (or branches of an inflorescence)

involucre

a whorl of bracts subtending a flower or flower cluster



juvenile

of leaves, formed on a young plant and different in form from the adult leaves

keel

a ridge like the keel of a boat; in particular, a boat-shaped structure formed by

fusion of the two anterior petals of a flower in Fabaceae

keeled

of leaves or bracts, folded and ridged along the midrib

labellum

a lip; 


in Orchidaceae, the distinctive median petal that serves as an alighting

platform for pollinating insects



lamina

the blade of a leaf



xxiv

lanceolate

of a leaf, about four times as long as it is broad, broadest in the lower half and

tapering towards the tip



leaflet

one of the ultimate segments of a compound leaf



legume

a fruit characteristic of the families Mimosaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and

Papilionaceae formed from one carpel and either dehiscent along both sides, or

indehiscent



lignotuber

a woody swelling below or just above the ground, containing adventitious buds

from which new shoots develop if the top of the plant is cut or burnt (common

in the shrubby eucalypts and in many other fire-tolerant Australian shrubs)



ligule

a tongue-shaped or strap-shaped organ; the flattened part of the ray corolla in

the Asteraceae; the membranous appendage arising from the inner surface of

the leaf at the junction with the leaf sheath in many grasses and some sedges



limb

the upper free, spreading portion of a corolla or perianth that is connate at the

base

linear

very narrow in relation to the length, and with the sides parallel



lunate

crescent-shaped



mallee

a growth habit in which several woody stems arise separately from a lignotuber

(usually applied to shrubby eucalypts); a plant having the above growth habit

marginal

occurring at or very close to the margin



mericarp

a section of a schizocarp; one of the two halves of the fruit in the Apiaceae



midrib

the central, and usually the most prominent, vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ



mucro

a sharp, abrupt terminal point. adj. 



mucronate

nerve

a vein


node

the level (transverse plane) of a stem at which one or more leaves arise



obconical

cone-shaped but attached at the narrower end



obcordate

of a leaf blade, broad and notched at the tip; heart-shaped but attached at the

pointed end



oblanceolate

similar in shape to 



lanceolate but attached at the narrower end

oblique

of a leaf or leaflet, larger on one side of the midrib than on the other, i.e.

asymmetrical. Fig. 23



oblong

having the length greater than the width but no many times greater, and the

sides parallel. Fig. 23

obovate

similar in shape to 



ovate but attached at the narrower end. Fig. 23

obtuse

blunt or rounded at the apex, the converging edges separated by an angle

greater than 90 degrees

operculum

a lid or cover becoming detached at maturity by abscission; 



in Eucalyptus (for

example), a cap covering the bud and formed by fusion or cohesion of perianth

parts


xxv

opposite

of leaves, borne at the same level but on opposite sides of the stem; of floral

parts, on the same radius. cf. alternate

orbicular

circular or nearly so



ovate

shaped like a section through the long axis of an egg, and attached by the wider

end. Fig. 23

ovoid

egg-shaped (in three dimensions)



ovule

an immature seed



panicle

a compound raceme; an indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are

borne on branches of the main axis or on further branches of these

paniculate

indeterminate and much branched



papilla

a small, elongated protuberance on the surface of an organ, usually an

extension of one epidermal cell. adj. 

papillose

pappus

a tuft (or ring) of hairs or scales borne above the ovary and outside the corolla

in Asteraceae and possibly representing the calyx; a tuft of hairs on a fruit

pedicel

the stalk of a flower. adj. 



pedicellate

peduncle

the stalk of an inflorescence; 



in ferns, the stalk of a sporocarp. adj.

pedunculate

peltate

of a leaf, having the stalk attached to the lower surface of the blade, not the

margin (also applied in the same sense to other stalked structures)



penicillate

pencil-shaped; tufted like an artist's brush



perennial

a plant whose life span extends over more than two growing seasons



perianth

the calyx and corolla of a flower, especially where the two are similar



petal

a member of the inner whorl of non-fertile parts surrounding the fertile organs

of a flower, usually soft and coloured conspicuously

petiole

the stalk portion of a leaf



phyllode

a leaf whose blade is much reduced or absent, and whose petiole and rachis

have assumed the functions of the whole leaf. cf. 

cladode

phylloclade

a very leaf-like, photosynthetic stem of a plant whose true leaves are much

reduced. cf. 

cladophyll

pinna

one of the primary divisions or leaflets of a pinnate leaf



pinnule

a leaflet of a bipinnate leaf



pilose

hairy, the hairs soft and clearly separated but not sparse



pinnate

divided into pinnae; once-compound. cf. 



bipinnate

pinnatifid

cut deeply into lobes that are spaced out along the axis (of the leaf). cf.



palmatifid

xxvi

pinnatisect

dissected down to the midrib but having the segments confluent with it



pistil

a free carpel or a group of fused carpels



placenta

a region, within an ovary, to which ovules are attached



plumose

like a feather; with fine hairs branching from a central axis



pod

a leguminous fruit



pollen presenter

the modified style end in 



Banksia

pollination

the transfer of pollen from the male organ, where it is formed, to the receptive

region of a female organ, e.g. from anther to stigma

procumbent

trailing or spreading along the ground but not rooting at the nodes



prostrate

lying flat on the ground



pruinose

having a whitish, waxy, powdery bloom on the surface



puberulous

covered with minute, soft, erect hairs



pubescent

covered with short, soft, erect hairs



pulvinus

a swelling at the base of the stalk of a leaf or leaflet, often glandular or

responsive to touch

punctate

marked with dots



pungent

ending in a stiff, sharp point; having an acrid taste or smell



raceme

an indeterminate inflorescence in which a main axis produced a series of

flowers on lateral stalks, the oldest at the base and the youngest at the top. adj.

racemose

rachis

the axis of an inflorescence or a pinnate leaf; pl. 



rachises. secondary rachis:

the axis of a pinna in a bipinnate leaf



receptacle

the axis of a flower (= 



torus); in ferns, an axis on which sporangia arise

recurved

curved or curled downwards or backwards



reflexed

bent sharply downwards or backwards



reticulate

forming a network



retrorse

directed backwards or downwards. cf. 



antrorse

revolute

rolled downwards or backwards



rhizome

a horizontal underground stem



rhomboid

quadrangular, with the lateral angles obtuse



scabrid (= scabrous)

rough to the touch



scale

a reduced or rudimentary leaf



scape

the stem-like, flowering stalk of a plant with radical leaves



xxvii

scarious

dry and membranous



sclerophyllous

with leaves stiffened by sclerenchyma



sepal

a member of the (usually green) outer whorl of non-fertile parts surrounding

the fertile organs of a flower

serrate

toothed, with asymmetrical teeth pointing forward. Fig. 24



sessile

without a stalk (when applied to a stigma, indicates that the style is absent, the

stigma being 'sessile' on the ovary)

seta

a bristle or stiff hair



shrub

a woody plant less than 5 metres high, either without a distinct main axis, or

with branches persisting on the main axis almost to its base



Yüklə 2,5 Mb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   44




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2020
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə